- Shopping in Chillán
- Consistorial Building
- Municipal theater
|Founded by||Martín Ruiz de Gamboa|
|• Alcalde||Sergio Zarzar Andonie (ILE)|
|• Total||511.2 km2 (197.4 sq mi)|
|Elevation||124 m (407 ft)|
|• Density||340/km2 (890/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||Chillanejo or Chillanense|
|Time zone||UTC−4 (CLT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−3 (CLST)|
|Area code(s)||country + city = 56 + 42|
|Website||Official website (in Spanish)|
Chillán (Spanish pronunciation: [tʃiˈʎan] ) is the capital city of the Ñuble Region in the Diguillín Province of Chile located about 400 km (249 mi) south of the country's capital, Santiago, near the geographical center of the country. It is the capital of the new Ñuble Region since 6 September 2015. Within the city are a railway station, an inter-city bus terminal, an agricultural extension of the University of Concepción, and a regimental military base. The city includes a modern-style enclosed shopping mall in addition to the multi-block open-air street market where fruits, vegetables, crafts and clothing are sold. The nearby mountains are a popular destination for skiing and hot spring bathing.
Founded by the Spanish in 1580 the city persisted despite numerous attacks by Mapuche, Pehuenches and other tribes in war with Spain. Over time Chillán became an important marketplace where Mapuches, Pehuenches, Mestizos and Criollos met. Many goods from Patagonia and the Argentine Pampas were brought into the market of Chillán across the mountain passes of the area. In the early 19th century the countryside of Chillán was ravaged by the Chilean War of Independence and a subsequent banditry epidemic.In 1939 the city was devastated by a large earthquake prompting the government to initiate an extensive reconstruction program.
The zone where Chillán was built was previously inhabited by indigenous people called Chiquillanes.
Chillán was founded in 1580 at the site of Chillán Viejo as San Bartolomé de Chillán by Martín Ruiz de Gamboa, who was campaigning against the local indigenous peoples at the time. However, this moniker did not fare well, and was replaced by the current name, which in the local Indian language means "where the Sun is sitting".
During the Mapuche uprising of 1655 the city was besieged by Mapuche warriors.The Spanish defended the city from trenches and a palisade fort. Hoping for a miracle the Spanish put an image of Mary near the trenches which Mapuches are said to have thrown arrows against. In early March, about one month after the onset of uprising, distress was such that the Spanish abandoned the city and headed north escaping the conflict zone. The Real Audiencia of Santiago declared the evacuation an act of cowardice and prohibited refugees from Chillán to go beyond Maule River north. As there was an outbreak of smallpox among the refugees this was in effect a quarantine, as trespassing north was punished with death sentences.
From its foundation, Chillán has been at the heart of Chile's rich agricultural region. It is also in a region of seismic activity, suffering from devastating earthquakes throughout its history; the 1939 Chillán earthquake left over 30,000 dead and mobilized international help.
Chile's founding father, Bernardo O'Higgins, was born in Chillán in 1778. He was the force behind Chile's Independence from Spain, being elected Supreme Director and declaring independence after the Battle of Chacabuco against the Spanish in 1817. His later victory at the Maipo battlefield cemented the country's freedom. He died in exile in Peru in 1842.
Chillán has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb). 7.9 °C (46.2 °F). Most of the precipitation falls during this time of the year with May to July being the wettest months, averaging over 200 millimetres (8 in). Summers on the other hand are dry and warm with a January average of 20.1 °C (68.2 °F) and during this time, precipitation is rare, averaging only 2–3 days per month from December to February. Temperatures can occasionally exceed 30 °C (86.0 °F) anytime from October to April. The average annual precipitation is 1,058 millimetres (42 in) but it is highly variable from year to year with 1982 being the wettest year at 1,813 millimetres (71 in) and 1998 being the driest year at only 473 millimetres (19 in).Winters are cool but mild with a July average of
|Climate data for Chillan (General Bernardo O'Higgins Airport) 1981–2010, extremes 1952–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||41.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.1|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||20.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||11.1|
|Record low °C (°F)||1.8|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||15.2|
|Average precipitation days||2||2||3||7||13||14||14||11||9||7||4||3||89|
|Average relative humidity (%)||50||53||58||68||80||85||83||78||72||67||60||54||67|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||359.6||296.6||260.4||177.0||120.9||87.0||105.4||142.6||183.0||229.4||282.0||334.8||2,578.7|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||11.6||10.5||8.4||5.9||3.9||2.9||3.4||4.6||6.1||7.4||9.4||10.8||7.1|
|Source 1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (precipitation days and humidity 1970–2000)|
|Source 2: Universidad de Chile (sunshine hours only)|
The air in Chillán is the fourth-most polluted in Chile, after Santiago, Temuco, and Concepción. "As in Temuco, the main cause of air pollution in Chillán is the use of wood-burning stoves: about 62% of all households in Chillán use firewood as their main source of heating."
According to the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute, the commune of Chillán spans an area of 511.2 km2 (197 sq mi) and has 161,953 inhabitants (77,007 men and 84,946 women). Of these, 148,015 (91.4%) lived in urban areas and 1,938 (8.6%) in rural areas. The population grew by 8.3% (12,442 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses.
The demonym for a person from Chillán, used for more than 400 years by local residents, is Chillanejo, yet this is not found in the Royal Spanish Academy Dictionary, which only recognizes Chillanense.
In addition, Chillán has offered a number of artists. A notable example is Claudio Arrau, the pianist. Additionally there is Ramón Vinay, the tenor who played Otello in the 1950s. His recording the role with Toscanini. He was a regular at the New York's Metropolitan Opera, where he sang both tenor and baritone roles. One of his last performances at this house was as the Barber of Seville's Basilio, a bass role. He retired from the stage in 1969.
Other "Chillanejos" include the writer Marta Brunet, the sculptor Marta Colvin, the painter Pacheco Altamirano and others such as Juan de Dios Aldea who, however, did not reach the international acclaim achieved by Arrau and Vinay, Finally Super Smash Bros. player Gonzalo "ZeRo" Barrios who had a record-breaking 56-tournament winning streak is also from Chillán
As a commune, Chillán is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2008-2020 alcalde is Sergio Zarzar Andonie (ILE).
Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Chillán is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Carlos Abel Jarpa (PRSD) and Rosauro Martínez (RN) as part of the 41st electoral district, (together with Coihueco, Pinto, San Ignacio, El Carmen, Pemuco, Yungay and Chillán Viejo). The commune is represented in the Senate by Victor Pérez Varela (UDI) and Felipe Harboe (PPD) as part of the 13th senatorial constituency (Biobío-Coast).
Nowadays, the city of Chillán is connected to Chile's capital Santiago by both a modern highway and a rebuilt railway system TerraSur that makes the trip in less than five hours. TerraSur, which terminates in Chillán station, and the Alameda-Temuco train both operate on the railway connecting Chillan with Rancagua and Santiago.
Concepción is a city and commune in central Chile, and the geographical and demographic core of the Greater Concepción metropolitan area, one of the three major conurbations in the country. It has a significant impact on domestic trade being part of the most heavily industrialized region in the country. It is the seat of the Concepción Province and capital of the Bío Bío Region. It sits about 500 km south of the nation's capital, Santiago.
Temuco is a city and commune, capital of the Cautín Province and of the Araucanía Region in southern Chile. The city is located 670 kilometres south of Santiago.
Ñuble Province was one of the provinces of the Chilean region of Bío Bío (VIII). It used to span an area of 13,178.5 km2 (5,088 sq mi) and it was administratively constituted by 21 communes. It has in 2017 a population of 441,604 inhabitants. Its capital was the city of Chillán. On the 6th of September of 2018, the province became the Ñuble Region.
This is a timeline of Chilean history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Chile and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Chile. See also the list of governors and presidents of Chile.
Osorno city and commune in southern Chile and capital of Osorno Province in the Los Lagos Region. It had a population of 145,475, as of the 2002 census. It is located 945 kilometres (587 mi) south of the national capital of Santiago, 105 kilometres (65 mi) north of the regional capital of Puerto Montt and 260 kilometres (160 mi) west of the Argentine city of San Carlos de Bariloche, connected via International Route 215 through the Cardenal Antonio Samoré Pass. It is a gateway for land access to the far south regions of Aysén and Magallanes, which would otherwise be accessible only by sea from the rest of the country.
Quellón is a Chilean port city and commune in southern Chiloé Island, Los Lagos Region. It is considered the southern end-station of the Panamerican Highway and the Pacific Coastal Highway. The city is a hub for aquaculture and fisheries in southern Chiloé and the Guaitecas and Chonos archipelagoes to the south. Various ferry lanes connects Quellón with the Patagonian settlements such as Melinka, Puerto Cisnes and Puerto Chacabuco.
Alonso de Ribera y Zambrano was a Spanish soldier and twice Spanish royal governor of Chile.
Nevados de Chillán is a group of stratovolcanoes located in the Andes of Ñuble Region, Central Chile, and is one of the most active volcanoes in the region. It consists of three overlapping peaks, 3,212 m (10,538 ft) Cerro Blanco at the northwest and 3,089 m (10,135 ft) Volcán Viejo at the southeast, with Volcán Nuevo in the middle. Volcán Viejo was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, and the new Volcán Nuevo lava dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945, eventually growing to exceed Viejo in height by the mid 1980s.
The Destruction of the Seven Cities is a term used in Chilean historiography to refer to the destruction or abandonment of seven major Spanish outposts in southern Chile around 1600 caused by the Mapuche and Huilliche uprising of 1598. The Destruction of the Seven Cities is in traditional historiography the defining event that marks the end of the Conquest period and the beginning of the proper colonial period.
Cuncos or Juncos is a poorly known subgroup of Huilliche people native to coastal areas of southern Chile and the nearby inland. Mostly a historic term, Cuncos are chiefly known for their long-running conflict with the Spanish during the colonial era of Chilean history.
Pehuenche are an indigenous people of South America. They live in the Andes, primarily in present-day south central Chile and adjacent Argentina. Their name derives from their dependence for food on the seeds of the pehuen or monkey-puzzle tree. In the 16th century, the Pehuenche lived in the mountainous territory from approximately 34 degrees to 40 degrees south. Later they became Araucanized and partially merged with the Mapuche peoples. In the 21st century, they still retain some of their ancestral lands.
Francisco Antonio de Acuña Cabrera y Bayona was a Spanish soldier and governor of the Captaincy General of Chile between 1650 and 1656. He was son of Antonio de Cabrera y Acuña y de Agueda de Bayona, who was a knight of the Order of Santiago and a professional military man. After serving in Flanders and France, he went to Peru as Maestre de Campo of El Callao and a general, being designated later Royal Governor of Chile. He was married to Juana de Salazar.
Chillán Viejo is a city and commune in the Diguillín Province of Chile Region of Ñuble According to the 2002 census, the population of the commune was 22,084 and it has an area of 292 km2 (113 sq mi).
Lebian (Lebiantu) was toqui from 1769 to 1774, who led the Pehuenche against the Spanish Empire in Chile following the Mapuche Uprising of 1766 during the Arauco War.
Butalmapu or Fütalmapu is the name in Mapudungun for "great land", which were one of the great confederations wherein the Mapuche people organized themselves in case of war. These confederations corresponded to the great geographic areas inhabited by the Mapuches in Chile.
The Ñuble Region, officially the Region of Ñuble, is — since 5 September 2018 – one of Chile's sixteen regions. It spans an area of 13,178.5 km2 (5,088 sq mi), making it the smallest region in Chile in terms of area, and is administratively constituted by 21 communes. It has a population of 480,609 inhabitants. Its capital is the city of Chillán.
The battle of Río Bueno was fought in 1654 between the Spanish Army of Arauco and indigenous Cuncos and Huilliches of Fütawillimapu in southern Chile. The battle took place against a background of a long-running enmity between the Cuncos and Spanish, dating back to the destruction of Osorno in 1603. More immediate causes were the killing of Spanish shipwreck survivors and looting of the cargo by Cuncos, which led to Spanish desires for a punishment, combined with the prospects of lucrative slave raiding.
The Mapuche uprising of 1655 was a series of coordinated Mapuche attacks against Spanish settlements and forts in colonial Chile. It was the worst military crisis in Chile in decades, and contemporaries even considered the possibility of a civil war among the Spanish. The uprising marks the beginning of a ten-year period of warfare between the Spanish and the Mapuche.
The Mapuche uprising of 1766 was the last major Spanish–Mapuche conflict in Araucanía.
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