Chilpancingo

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Chilpancingo de los Bravo

Chilpancingo Collage.jpg

Collage, Top:Chilpancingo Saint Mary Cathedral, Second left:A kiosko in Alameda Park (Parque la Alameda), Second right:Museo de la Avispa (Avispa Museum), Third left:Chilpancingo Francisco Assisi Church, Third upper right:Guerrero Government Palace, Third lower right:Chilpancingo City Hall, Bottoms left:Sentimientos de la Nacion en Chilpancingo (Chilpancingo Feeling the Nation Arena), Bottom right:Museo de Regional de Guerrero (Regional Museum of Guerrero)
Escudo de Chilpancingo.jpg
Seal
Nickname(s): Ciudad Bravo
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
Chilpancingo de los Bravo
Coordinates: 17°33′N99°30′W / 17.550°N 99.500°W / 17.550; -99.500 Coordinates: 17°33′N99°30′W / 17.550°N 99.500°W / 17.550; -99.500
Country Mexico
State Guerrero
Municipality Chilpancingo de los Bravo
Founded November 1, 1591
Government
  Mayor Mario Moreno Arcos
(2012-2015, PRI)
Area
  Municipality 2,338.4 km2 (902.86 sq mi)
Elevation 1,253 m (4,111 ft)
Population (2010)
  Total 187,251
  Municipality 214,219
   Demonym Chilpancingueño
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
  Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Postal code39000
Area code(s) 747
Website chilpancingo.gob.mx

Chilpancingo de los Bravo (commonly shortened to Chilpancingo; Spanish pronunciation:  [tʃilpanˈsiŋɡo]  ( Loudspeaker.svg   listen )) is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. In 2010 it had a population of 187,251 people. The municipality has an area of 2,338.4 km2 (902.9 sq mi) in the south-central part of the state, situated in the Sierra Madre del Sur, on the bank of the Huacapa River. [1] The city is on Mexican Federal Highway 95 which connects Acapulco to Mexico City. It is served by Chilpancingo National Airport, which is one of the five airports in the state.

Guerrero State of Mexico

Guerrero, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 81 municipalities and its capital city is Chilpancingo and its largest city is Acapulco.

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Sierra Madre del Sur mountain range

The Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from southern Michoacán east through Guerrero, to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in eastern Oaxaca.

Contents

History

In pre-Columbian times, the area was occupied by the Olmecs, who built an extensive tunnel network through the mountains, and left the cave paintings in the caverns of Juxtlahuaca. [1] The city of Chilpancingo was founded on November 1, 1591 by the Spanish conquistadores, its name meaning (“Place of Wasps”). [1] During the War of Independence, Chilpancingo was crucial to the insurgent cause as its population participated actively and decisively in their favor, and became a strategic point for military action in the south. Chilpancingo was very important to Mexican history because it was here where the National Congress met under José María Morelos y Pavón in 1813 during the Mexican War of Independence. [2]

Juxtlahuaca cave

JuxtlahuacaSpanish pronunciation: [xuʃtɬaˈwaka] is a cave and archaeological site in the Mexican state of Guerrero containing murals linked to the Olmec motifs and iconography. Along with the nearby Oxtotitlán cave, Juxtlahuaca walls contain the earliest sophisticated painted art known in Mesoamerica, and only known example of non-Maya deep cave art in Mesoamerica.

Congress of Chilpancingo

The Congress of Chilpancingo, also known as the Congress of Anáhuac, was the first, independent congress that replaced the Assembly of Zitácuaro, formally declaring itself independent from the Spanish crown. It was held in Chilpancingo, in what is the modern-day Mexican state of Guerrero, from September 1813 to November 1813. It was here where the first national constitution was ratified. It was composed of representatives of the provinces under his control and charged with considering a political and social program which he outlined in a document entitled Sentimientos de la Nación.

General Nicolás Catalán, husband of the independence war heroine Antonia Nava de Catalán, was made commander of the state of Guerrero on 24 January 1828. The family settled in Chilpancingo, where both Nicolás and Antonia later died. [3] In 1853, Chilpancingo was declared the provisional capital of the state, due to an epidemic that struck the then capital of Tixtla, and regional ecclesiastical organizational changes were made at the same time. [4] In 1870 it was again declared capital by Governor Francisco O. Arce, due to the opposition led by General Jimenez, who was in possession of the official seat of government at Tixtla. It was not until 1871, when the state legislature agreed to a change of venue, that the capital was moved again from Chilpancingo. [5]

Antonia Nava de Catalán

Antonia Nava de Catalán was a heroine of the Mexican War of Independence. She accompanied her husband, a volunteer who rose to the rank of colonel, throughout the war. Three of her sons were killed in the struggle. She is remembered for her willingness to sacrifice her family and herself to achieve independence from Spain, and came to be known as "La Generala".

Tixtla Municipal seat and city in Guerrero, Mexico

Tixtla is a town and seat of the Tixtla de Guerrero Municipality in the Mexican state of Guerrero.

Congreso de Chilpancingo.png

During the Mexican Revolution, Chilpancingo was deeply troubled, and had political and administrative importance as a strategic place for the sides in the debate. Battles took place in the vicinity in the 1910s, in which Emiliano Zapata defeated federal forces of Porfirio Diaz, Francisco I. Madero, Victoriano Huerta and Venustiano Carranza. A major defeat of Huerta's southern forces took place here in March April 1914; [6] the Zapatistas took the town until after the Constitutional Convention.

Emiliano Zapata Mexican Revolutionary

Emiliano Zapata Salazar was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.

Francisco I. Madero Mexican revolutionary leader and president

Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. He was an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

Victoriano Huerta Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico

José Victoriano Huerta Márquez was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico.

In 1960, the city entered a severe social crisis with the start of a student popular movement at the Autonomous University of Guerrero, protests which led to a general strike at the institution and later swarmed to various forces and social sectors of the city and the state. [7] The main objective was to diminish the power of the state government and seek autonomy for the college. On April 27, 2009 an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.6 was centered near Chilpancingo. [8]

Autonomous University of Guerrero

The Autonomous University of Guerrero is a public and autonomous institution of secondary education and higher education in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Its main campus is in Chilpancingo, with facilities in Acapulco, Taxco, Iguala, Tixtla, Ometepec, Tecpan de Galeana, Altamirano and other cities in the state.

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Chilpancingo (1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F) 35.0
(95)
35.0
(95)
37.0
(98.6)
38.2
(100.8)
39.0
(102.2)
37.5
(99.5)
37.0
(98.6)
35.5
(95.9)
34.0
(93.2)
34.0
(93.2)
34.0
(93.2)
32.5
(90.5)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 27.9
(82.2)
28.6
(83.5)
30.2
(86.4)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
28.9
(84)
27.9
(82.2)
28.3
(82.9)
27.6
(81.7)
28.1
(82.6)
28.3
(82.9)
27.7
(81.9)
28.8
(83.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.5
(67.1)
20.2
(68.4)
21.5
(70.7)
23.1
(73.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.2
(73.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.7
(72.9)
22.3
(72.1)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
19.8
(67.6)
21.8
(71.2)
Average low °C (°F) 11.1
(52)
11.8
(53.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.9
(58.8)
16.6
(61.9)
17.5
(63.5)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
16.9
(62.4)
16.0
(60.8)
14.0
(57.2)
11.9
(53.4)
14.8
(58.6)
Record low °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
1.5
(34.7)
9.0
(48.2)
8.5
(47.3)
10.5
(50.9)
11.0
(51.8)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50)
9.0
(48.2)
5.5
(41.9)
4.0
(39.2)
1.5
(34.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.8
(0.701)
3.1
(0.122)
2.8
(0.11)
17.2
(0.677)
63.1
(2.484)
162.4
(6.394)
191.1
(7.524)
152.7
(6.012)
165.8
(6.528)
78.1
(3.075)
16.9
(0.665)
2.8
(0.11)
873.8
(34.402)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.4 0.9 0.6 1.9 6.6 16.1 21.1 19.1 18.2 9.1 2.0 0.8 97.8
Average relative humidity (%) 75 73 70 69 73 82 84 84 87 82 78 76 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.9 211.9 232.5 195.0 176.7 147.0 164.3 170.5 135.0 179.8 198.0 201.5 2,226.1
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional [9] [10]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun and humidity 1941–1970) [11]

Economy

In 1869, the Autonomous University of Guerrero was established in Chilpancingo; it still plays a considerable role in the local economy. The city is a producer of processed foods and alcoholic beverages, and is a market for maize, sugarcane, bananas, livestock, and lumber produced in the region. [1]

Archaeology

"Pezuapan" is an archaeological site located in Chilpancingo city. [12] It sits on the eastern slope of the Chilpancingo valley. The archaeological vestiges found at the site cover the total area of 4000 m2. The dates are from 650 AD to 1150 AD.

Other archaeological sites found in this area of Guerrero are,

Twin towns – sister cities

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Chilpancingo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  2. Mills, Kenneth R.; Taylor, William B.; Graham, Sandra Lauderdale (1 January 2002). Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 397. ISBN   978-0-8420-2997-1.
  3. Acuña Cepeda, Mirtea Elizabeth (19 November 2017), "Antonia Nava de Catalán, la Generala", Ecos de la Costa (in Spanish), retrieved 2017-11-28
  4. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 1966. p. 7. ISSN   0065-9746.
  5. "Chilpancingo de los Bravo" (in Spanish). Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  6. O'Kane, Rosemary H. T. (2000). Revolution: Critical Concepts in Political Science. Taylor & Francis. p. 127. ISBN   978-0-415-20135-3.
  7. Selee, Andrew D. (2011). Decentralization, Democratization, and Informal Power in Mexico. Penn State Press. p. 83. ISBN   0-271-04843-3.
  8. "Mexico Earthquake: Felt In Mexico City, Centered Near Chilpancingo". Huffington Post. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  9. "Estado de Guerrero–Estacion: Chilpancingo (DGE)". NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951–2010 (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  10. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Chilpancingo (DGE) 1953-1991" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  11. "Klimatafel von Chilpancingo Los Bravos, Guerrero / Mexiko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  12. Reyna Beatríz SOLÍS CIRIACO, Hervé Victor MONTERROSA DESRUELLES, Malacological Material from Pezuapan's Archaeological site, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico. 2010