Chilpancingo

Last updated
Chilpancingo de los Bravo
Chilpancingo Collage.jpg
Collage, Top:Chilpancingo Saint Mary Cathedral, Second left:A kiosko in Alameda Park (Parque la Alameda), Second right:Museo de la Avispa (Avispa Museum), Third left:Chilpancingo Francisco Assisi Church, Third upper right:Guerrero Government Palace, Third lower right:Chilpancingo City Hall, Bottoms left:Sentimientos de la Nacion en Chilpancingo (Chilpancingo Feeling the Nation Arena), Bottom right:Museo de Regional de Guerrero (Regional Museum of Guerrero)
Escudo de Chilpancingo.jpg
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Ciudad Bravo
Mexico States blank map.svg
Red pog.svg
Chilpancingo de los Bravo
Coordinates: 17°33′N99°30′W / 17.550°N 99.500°W / 17.550; -99.500 Coordinates: 17°33′N99°30′W / 17.550°N 99.500°W / 17.550; -99.500
Country Mexico
State Guerrero
Municipality Chilpancingo de los Bravo
FoundedNovember 1, 1591
Government
  MayorMario Moreno Arce
(2012-2015, PRI)
Area
  Municipality2,338.4 km2 (902.86 sq mi)
Elevation
1,253 m (4,111 ft)
Population
 (2010)
  Total187,251
  Municipality
214,219
   Demonym
Chilpancingueño
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
39000
Area code(s) 747
Website chilpancingo.gob.mx

Chilpancingo de los Bravo (commonly shortened to Chilpancingo; Spanish pronunciation:  [tʃilpanˈsiŋɡo] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Nahuatl: Chilpantsinko) is the capital and second-largest city of the state of Guerrero, Mexico. In 2010 it had a population of 187,251 people. The municipality has an area of 2,338.4 km2 (902.9 sq mi) in the south-central part of the state, situated in the Sierra Madre del Sur, on the bank of the Huacapa River. [1] The city is on Mexican Federal Highway 95 which connects Acapulco to Mexico City. It is served by Chilpancingo National Airport, which is one of the five airports in the state.

Contents

History

In pre-Columbian times, the area was occupied by the Olmecs, who built an extensive tunnel network through the mountains, and left the cave paintings in the caverns of Juxtlahuaca. [1] The city of Chilpancingo was founded on November 1, 1591 by the Spanish conquistadores, its name meaning “Place of Wasps” in Nahuatl. [1] During the War of Independence, Chilpancingo was crucial to the insurgent cause as its population participated actively and decisively in their favor, and became a strategic point for military action in the south. Chilpancingo was very important to Mexican history because it was here where the National Congress met under José María Morelos y Pavón in 1813 during the Mexican War of Independence. [2]

General Nicolás Catalán, husband of the independence war heroine Antonia Nava de Catalán, was made commander of the state of Guerrero on 24 January 1828. The family settled in Chilpancingo, where both Nicolás and Antonia later died. [3] In 1853, Chilpancingo was declared the provisional capital of the state, due to an epidemic that struck the then capital of Tixtla, and regional ecclesiastical organizational changes were made at the same time. [4] In 1870 it was again declared capital by Governor Francisco O. Arce, due to the opposition led by General Jimenez, who was in possession of the official seat of government at Tixtla. It was not until 1871, when the state legislature agreed to a change of venue, that the capital was moved again from Chilpancingo. [5]

Congreso de Chilpancingo.png

During the Mexican Revolution, Chilpancingo was deeply troubled, and had political and administrative importance as a strategic place for the sides in the debate. Battles took place in the vicinity in the 1910s, in which Emiliano Zapata defeated federal forces of Porfirio Diaz, Francisco I. Madero, Victoriano Huerta and Venustiano Carranza. A major defeat of Huerta's southern forces took place here in March April 1914; [6] the Zapatistas took the town until after the Constitutional Convention.

In 1960, the city entered a severe social crisis with the start of a student popular movement at the Autonomous University of Guerrero, protests which led to a general strike at the institution and later swarmed to various forces and social sectors of the city and the state. [7] The main objective was to diminish the power of the state government and seek autonomy for the college. On April 27, 2009 an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.6 was centered near Chilpancingo. [8]

Geography

Climate

The climate of Chilpacingo is classified as a tropical savanna climate ("Aw"). There is some moderation due to high elevation, but high temperatures are still in the upper 20s °C (80s °F) for most of the year.
Climate data for Chilpancingo (1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.0
(95.0)
35.0
(95.0)
37.0
(98.6)
38.2
(100.8)
39.0
(102.2)
37.5
(99.5)
37.0
(98.6)
35.5
(95.9)
34.0
(93.2)
34.0
(93.2)
34.0
(93.2)
32.5
(90.5)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F)27.9
(82.2)
28.6
(83.5)
30.2
(86.4)
31.2
(88.2)
31.3
(88.3)
28.9
(84.0)
27.9
(82.2)
28.3
(82.9)
27.6
(81.7)
28.1
(82.6)
28.3
(82.9)
27.7
(81.9)
28.8
(83.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)19.5
(67.1)
20.2
(68.4)
21.5
(70.7)
23.1
(73.6)
24.0
(75.2)
23.2
(73.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.7
(72.9)
22.3
(72.1)
22.1
(71.8)
21.2
(70.2)
19.8
(67.6)
21.8
(71.2)
Average low °C (°F)11.1
(52.0)
11.8
(53.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.9
(58.8)
16.6
(61.9)
17.5
(63.5)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
16.9
(62.4)
16.0
(60.8)
14.0
(57.2)
11.9
(53.4)
14.8
(58.6)
Record low °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
1.5
(34.7)
9.0
(48.2)
8.5
(47.3)
10.5
(50.9)
11.0
(51.8)
12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50.0)
9.0
(48.2)
5.5
(41.9)
4.0
(39.2)
1.5
(34.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)17.8
(0.70)
3.1
(0.12)
2.8
(0.11)
17.2
(0.68)
63.1
(2.48)
162.4
(6.39)
191.1
(7.52)
152.7
(6.01)
165.8
(6.53)
78.1
(3.07)
16.9
(0.67)
2.8
(0.11)
873.8
(34.40)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.40.90.61.96.616.121.119.118.29.12.00.897.8
Average relative humidity (%)75737069738284848782787677
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.9211.9232.5195.0176.7147.0164.3170.5135.0179.8198.0201.52,226.1
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional [9] [10]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun and humidity 1941–1970) [11]

Economy

In 1869, the Autonomous University of Guerrero was established in Chilpancingo; it still plays a considerable role in the local economy. The city is a producer of processed foods and alcoholic beverages, and is a market for maize, sugarcane, bananas, livestock, and lumber produced in the region. [1]

Archaeology

"Pezuapan" is an archaeological site located in Chilpancingo city. [12] It sits on the eastern slope of the Chilpancingo valley. The archaeological vestiges found at the site cover the total area of 4000 m2. The dates are from 650 AD to 1150 AD.

Other archaeological sites found in this area of Guerrero are:

Twin towns – sister cities

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Chilpancingo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  2. Mills, Kenneth R.; Taylor, William B.; Graham, Sandra Lauderdale (1 January 2002). Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 397. ISBN   978-0-8420-2997-1.
  3. Acuña Cepeda, Mirtea Elizabeth (19 November 2017), "Antonia Nava de Catalán, la Generala", Ecos de la Costa (in Spanish), archived from the original on 1 December 2017, retrieved 2017-11-28
  4. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 1966. p. 7. ISSN   0065-9746.
  5. "Chilpancingo de los Bravo" (in Spanish). Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  6. O'Kane, Rosemary H. T. (2000). Revolution: Critical Concepts in Political Science. Taylor & Francis. p. 127. ISBN   978-0-415-20135-3.
  7. Selee, Andrew D. (2011). Decentralization, Democratization, and Informal Power in Mexico. Penn State Press. p. 83. ISBN   0-271-04843-3.
  8. "Mexico Earthquake: Felt In Mexico City, Centered Near Chilpancingo". Huffington Post. 28 May 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  9. "Estado de Guerrero–Estacion: Chilpancingo (DGE)". NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951–2010 (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  10. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Chilpancingo (DGE) 1953-1991" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  11. "Klimatafel von Chilpancingo Los Bravos, Guerrero / Mexiko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  12. Reyna Beatríz SOLÍS CIRIACO, Hervé Victor MONTERROSA DESRUELLES, Malacological Material from Pezuapan's Archaeological site, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico. 2010