China–Finland relations

Last updated

Finnish-Chinese relations
Finland China Locator.png
Flag of Finland.svg
Finland
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
China

Finnish-Chinese relations are the foreign relations between Finland and China.

Contents

History

Along with Sweden and Denmark, Finland was one of the first Western countries to recognize the People's Republic of China and form diplomatic relations with the country in 1950. [1] The embassy in Beijing was opened in April 1952, and the first resident Finnish ambassador to China, Helge von Knorring, presented his letter of credence to Mao Zedong on 9 May 1952. [1]

Later that same year, an economic department headed by Olavi J. Mattila was opened at the embassy to foster the development of trade relations. As a consequence, Finland became the first capitalistic country to sign a bilateral trade agreement with the People's Republic of China in 1953. [1]

These steps, as well as Finland's staunch support for PRC's membership in the UN, formed a solid basis to the nations' relations well into the 1980s. [1] Since the early 1990s, there has been at least one official minister-level state visit from Finland to China each year. [1]

Human rights

Hong Kong national security law

In June 2020, Finland openly opposed the Hong Kong national security law [2]

Trade

Finland and China have had an agreement on economic, industrial, scientific and technological co-operation since 1973, and the agreement was last revised in 2005. [1] The two principal trade organizations between the countries are Finland-China Trade Association and the China Council for Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT).

One of the fastest growing areas of trade between the two countries are in environmental protection and information technology. [3]

Information technology

Linux, the open source code first developed by Finnish software engineer Linus Torvalds, is playing a major role in the development of China's IT sector – and in the country's rapid industrial development as a whole. Researcher, investor and open source code promoter Mikko Puhakka believes that Linux has established a good foundation for Finnish-Chinese cooperation.

The roots of the Chinese open source code are in Finland. Professor Gong Min started using and developing Linux when he was doing his PhD research at the Helsinki University of Technology in the early 1990s. Returning to China in 1996, Professor Gong Min took Linux with him on 20 floppy disks. This is seen as the birth of Chinese open source code development and Professor Gong Min is now among the 20 most influential people in China.

The first Linux server was started in May 1997 in Changzhou. Its domain name was cLinux.ml.org. Today a local distribution of Linux, the Red Flag Linux, is a compulsory subject in 1,000 Chinese universities by 2008. The Chinese view open source code as a critical factor in the country's development.

Nokia is the largest Finnish investor in China.

Medical equipment during Coronavirus crisis

During the Coronavirus crisis, on 8 April 2020, Finland reported that 2 million surgical masks and 230,000 respirator masks it had purchased from China to fight the Coronavirus, had been found to be defective and unsafe for use. [4] [5]

Sister cities

Shanghai-Espoo

The cities of Espoo and Shanghai are sister cities since 1998. Ever since, various collaboration programs have been carried out in areas of science and technology, urban development, culture, education, health care and environmental protection. The last high-level meeting was in June 2012 when the Mayor of Espoo, Mr Jukka Mäkelä, met the Mayor of Shanghai, Mr Han Zheng, during a visit to China.[ citation needed ]

In recent years, Finland-China relations have been strengthened by various Espoo-Shanghai actions.

Aalto University signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Tongji University and thereafter Aalto Design Factory Shanghai was established to Tongji University Campus during spring 2010.[ citation needed ]

China - Finland ICT Alliance was initiated in April 2009 with workshops in Beijing and Shanghai, opened by Mr. Matti Vanhanen, Former Prime Minister of Finland and Mr. Wan Gang, Minister of Science and Technology of China. The initiative is run by TIVIT Oy - Strategic Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation in ICT.[ citation needed ]

China Finland Golden Bridge Innovation Center, an Espoo-based transparent service platform supported by both countries' governments. In March 2010, the Golden Bridge Memorandum of understanding was signed by Chinese vice Minister of Commerce Mr GAO Hucheng and Finnish Minister of Economic Affairs Mr Mauri Pekkarinen.[ citation needed ]

Rovio, Espoo based Finnish video game developer and entertainment company, creator of Angry Birds, opened first oversea office in Baoshan district Shanghai in October 2011. In July 2012, Rovio opened Angry Birds brand store in Shanghai. [ citation needed ]

Zhongguancun ZPark Software Park, China's largest science and technology park, settled in Espoo in year 2012. [ citation needed ]

Spying in Finland

China and Russia are suspected of large-scale spying of the IT networks at the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The spying focused on data traffic between Finland and the European Union, and is believed to have continued for four years. The spying was uncovered in spring 2013, and as of October 2013 the Finnish Security Intelligence Service (Supo) is investigating the breach. [6]

Related Research Articles

Foreign relations of Cambodia

The Cambodian government has diplomatic relations with most countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, as well as all of its Asian neighbors, including China, India, Vietnam, Laos, South Korea, and Thailand. The government is a member of most major international organizations, including the United Nations and its specialized agencies such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. The government is an Asian Development Bank (ADB) member, a member of ASEAN, and of the WTO. In 2005 Cambodia attended the inaugural East Asia Summit. The government is also a member of the Pacific Alliance and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

Foreign relations of Nepal Overview of relations

Though the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of Nepal, historically, it is the Office of Prime Minister (PMO) that has exercised the authority to formulate and conduct policies related to Nepal's foreign affairs. As a landlocked country wedged between two larger and far stronger powers, Nepal has tried to maintain good relations with both of its neighbors, People's Republic of China and Republic of India. However, its relationship with India, the country with greater hegemonic power over Nepal, has seen major ups and downs in recent years. The relationship between the two countries was significantly hampered during the 2015 Nepal blockade. Where the Nepal Government accused India of the blockade, India strictly denied the allegation and said the blockade were imposed by Madheshi protesters. For the most part though, Nepal has traditionally maintained a non-aligned policy and enjoys friendly relations with its neighboring countries and almost all the major countries of the world.

Espoo City and municipality in Uusimaa, Finland

Espoo is the second largest city and municipality in Finland. It is part of the Finnish Capital Region, along with the cities of Helsinki, Vantaa, and Kauniainen. Most of its population lives in the inner urban core of the Helsinki metropolitan area. Espoo shares its eastern border with Helsinki and Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen. Other bordering municipalities of Espoo are Nurmijärvi and Vihti in the north, and Kirkkonummi in the west. The city is located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, in the region of Uusimaa, and has a population of 291,439.

Foreign relations of Israel Overview of relations

Foreign relations of Israel refers to diplomatic and trade relations between Israel and other countries around the world. Israel has diplomatic ties with 164 of the other 192 UN member states as of December 2020. Israel is a member of the United Nations and a number of other international organisations. Israel maintains full diplomatic relations with two of its Arab neighbours, Egypt and Jordan, after signing peace treaties in 1979 and 1994 respectively. In 2020, Israel signed agreements establishing diplomatic relations with four Arab League countries, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Sudan and Morocco.

Tongji University University located in Shanghai, China

Tongji University is a comprehensive university located in Shanghai. Established in 1907 by the German government together with German physicians in Shanghai, Tongji is one of the oldest and most selective, most prestigious universities in China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.

Huazhong University of Science and Technology Research University in Wuhan, Hubei, China

The Huazhong University of Science and Technology is a public research university located in Guanshan Subdistrict, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As a national key university directly affiliated to the Ministry of Education of China, HUST is a Project 985 and Class A Double First Class University. HUST manages Wuhan National Laboratories for Opto-electronics (WNLO), which is one of the five national laboratories in China. HUST is also one of four Chinese universities eligible to run the national laboratory and the national major science and technology infrastructure. Huazhong University of Science and Technology was one of two Chinese universities awarded with the University Leadership Award by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), and elected as "China's Top Ten Research Institutions" by the academic journal Nature, called "The epitome of the higher education development of People's Republic of China".

Yrjö Sotamaa

Yrjö Kalervo Sotamaa is a Finnish designer and design strategist. Sotamaa is Professor Emeritus of Design Innovation in the Aalto University School of Art, Design and Architecture and President Emeritus of the University of Art and Design Helsinki (TAIK). He served as the President of TAIK from 1986 until 2008. He earned his MA in Interior Architecture and Furniture Design from TAIK, where he studied with Kaj Franck and Antti Nurmesniemi.

Wan Gang

Wan Gang is a Chinese expert on automobiles, former president of Tongji University (2002–2007) and former Minister of Science and Technology. He is the Chairman of the China Zhi Gong Party, a legally sanctioned minor political party in China, and, since 2013, also Vice Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Aalto University

Aalto University is a university located in Espoo, Finland. It was established in 2010 as a merger of three major Finnish universities: the Helsinki University of Technology, the Helsinki School of Economics, and the University of Art and Design Helsinki. The close collaboration between the scientific, business and arts communities is intended to foster multi-disciplinary education and research. The Finnish government, in 2010, set out to create a university that fosters innovation, merging the three institutions into one.

China–Serbia relations Diplomatic relations between the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia

Sino-Serbian relations are foreign relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. Relations have been maintained since SFR Yugoslavia's recognition of PR China on October 1, 1949, while diplomatic relations between the two countries were formally established by the exchange of diplomatic notes between the two Foreign Ministers on January 2, 1955. China has an embassy in Belgrade and also maintains an office in Priština based on consent of the Government of Serbia from November 2006. Serbia has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate-general in Shanghai. In 2017, Serbia and China mutually abolished the requirement of obtaining an entry visa for its citizens.

Chile–Finland relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Chile and the Republic of Finland

Chile–Finland relations are foreign relations between Chile and Finland. Chile recognised Finland's independence on June 17, 1919. Diplomatic relations between them were established in 1931 and have been continuously maintained, despite pressures at times to discontinue them. The two countries maintain resident ambassadors in both capitals.

Finland–Israel relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Finland and the State of Israel

Israel-Finland relations are diplomatic, commercial and cultural ties between Finland and Israel. Finland maintains an embassy in Tel Aviv and Israel maintains an embassy in Helsinki. Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.

China–Trinidad and Tobago relations Diplomatic relations between the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Diplomatic relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago were established on 20 June 1974. The Chinese government established an embassy in Port of Spain in April 1975, with Trinidad and Tobago establishing their own embassy in Beijing on 26 February 2014. Prime Minister Eric Williams was the first Trinidadian head of government to visit China in 1974. In 2002, the trade balance between the two countries was US$47.15 million, with China exporting all but $4.81 million of that. The current Chinese ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago is Mr. Yang Youming.

China–Poland relations Diplomatic relations between the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of Poland

Relations between the People's Republic of China and Poland officially began on October 5, 1949.

China–Spain relations Diplomatic relations between the Peoples Republic of China and the Kingdom of Spain

China–Spain relations have existed since the 16th century. Relations between Spain and the People's Republic of China were established in 1973.

United Arab Emirates–United Kingdom relations Diplomatic relations between the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

United Arab Emirates–United Kingdom relations are the relations between the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The UAE has an embassy in London while the UK maintains an embassy in Abu Dhabi and is unique in having another Embassy in Dubai, albeit with Her Britannic Majesty's Consul-General to Dubai and the Northern Emirates, as opposed to a separate British Ambassador. The UAE-UK relations have been described as a "special relationship".

Angry Birds is an action-based media franchise created by the Finnish company Rovio Entertainment. The series focuses on multi-colored birds that try to save their eggs from green-colored pigs, their enemies. Inspired by Crush the Castle, the game has been praised for its successful combination of fun gameplay, comical style, and low price. Its popularity led to many spin-offs; versions of Angry Birds created for PCs and video game consoles, a market for merchandise featuring its characters, Angry Birds Toons, a televised animated series, and two films; The Angry Birds Movie and its sequel The Angry Birds Movie 2. By January 2014, there had been over 2 billion downloads across all platforms, including both regular and special editions.

China–Tajikistan relations

China–Tajikistan relations are the bilateral relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Tajikistan, established on January 4, 1992, shortly after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Armenia–China relations Diplomatic relations between Armenia and the Peoples Republic of China

Armenian-Chinese relations are the foreign relations between Armenia and China. The first references to Armenian-Chinese contact are found in the works of 5th-century historian Moses of Chorene and 6th-century geographer and mathematician Anania Shirakatsi. The People's Republic of China officially recognized the Republic of Armenia on December 27, 1991. Diplomatic relations between Armenia and the People's Republic of China were established on April 6, 1992. The Embassy of China to Armenia was established in July 1992, while the Embassy of Armenia to China started its activities on August 10, 1996. The Armenian Ambassador to China resides in the Beijing embassy.

India–Uzbekistan relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Uzbekistan

India–Uzbekistan relations refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the Republic of Uzbekistan. India has an embassy in Tashkent; Uzbekistan has an embassy in New Delhi. Background

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Maatiedosto Kiina: Kahdenväliset suhteet". Formin.fi: Maat ja alueet (in Finnish). Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  2. Lawler, Dave (2 July 2020). "The 53 countries supporting China's crackdown on Hong Kong". Axios . Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  3. Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Liao, George (9 April 2020). "Finland joins growing list of countries receiving faulty Chinese PPE equipment". Taiwan News.
  5. "Countries are returning masks imported from China: Here's why". The Indian Express. 10 April 2020.
  6. MTV3: Large-scale network spying uncovered at MFA YLE 31.10.2013