China National Maritime Day

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China National Maritime Day, [1] officially referred to as Maritime Day of China, [2] [3] also known as China Maritime Day, [4] Maritime Day in China, [5] Chinese :中国航海日; pinyin :hanghairi, is celebrated July 11, 2005, commemorating marked Zheng He's first voyage. The date marks the 600th anniversary of the ocean voyages of Zheng He, the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) navigator, who went on seven voyages to show China's might to the rest of the world, under the command of Yongle Emperor. These voyages sought to prove to the Chinese people that the usurper Yongle was worthy of the throne and the gods accepted him with the Mandate of Heaven. The celebration's creation honors China's commitment to the International Maritime Organization, of which it is a member.

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Simplified Chinese characters standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

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Zheng He was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was originally born as Ma He in a Muslim family, and later adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Emperor Yongle. Zheng commanded expeditionary treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. His larger ships stretched 120 meters or more in length and carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks.

Yongle Emperor emperor of the Ming Dynasty

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Hongxi Emperor emperor of the Ming Dynasty

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Jianwen Emperor Second emperor of the Ming Dynasty

The Jianwen Emperor was the second emperor of the Ming dynasty in China. His personal name was Zhu Yunwen (朱允炆). The era name of his reign, Jianwen, means "establishing civility" and represented a sharp change in tone from Hongwu, the era name of the reign of his grandfather and predecessor, the Hongwu Emperor. His reign did not last long: an attempt to restrain his uncles led to the Jingnan rebellion. The Jianwen Emperor was eventually overthrown by one of his uncles, Zhu Di, who was then enthroned as the Yongle Emperor. Although the Yongle Emperor presented a charred body as Zhu Yunwen's, rumours circulated for decades that the Jianwen Emperor had disguised himself as a Buddhist monk and escaped from the palace when it was set on fire by Zhu Di's forces. Some people speculated that one of the reasons behind why the Yongle Emperor sponsored the admiral Zheng He on his treasure voyages in the early 15th century, was for Zheng He to search for the Jianwen Emperor, who was believed to have survived and fled to Southeast Asia. Some historians believe that the Jianwen Emperor had indeed survived and escaped from Nanjing, but the official histories of the Ming dynasty were modified later during the Qing dynasty to please the Manchu rulers.

Porcelain Tower of Nanjing pagoda constructed in the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty

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Chinese treasure ship large wooden vessel commanded by the Chinese admiral Zheng He

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Jiangning District District in Jiangsu, Peoples Republic of China

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Jinghai Temple

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Chen Zuyi

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Diplomacy and commerce during the Ming treasure voyages

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Xia Yuanji was a Ming dynasty government minister. He was born in Xiangyin County, Hunan Province, which was then part of Huguang Province. His ancestral home was Dexing, Jiangxi. Xia read the Classic of Poetry and became a Xiucai at the age of 23, joining the Guozijian. Early in his career, he saw service under the Hongwu Emperor and Jianwen Emperor. After the Yongle Emperor came to the throne, he was sent to inspect Suzhou Creek. Xia opposed both Zheng He's overseas voyages and the Yongle Emperor's campaigns against the Mongols.

Yongle Tongbao Chinese cash coin

The Yongle Tongbao refers to Ming dynasty era Chinese cash coin produced under the reign of the Yongle Emperor. As the Ming dynasty didn’t produce copper coinage at the time since it predominantly used silver coins and paper money as the main currency, the records vary on when the Yongle Emperor ordered its creation between 1408 and 1410, this was done as the production of traditional cash-style coinage had earlier ceased in 1393. The Yongle Tongbao cash coins were notably not manufactured for the internal Chinese market where silver coinage and paper money would continue to dominate, but were in fact produced to help stimulate international trade as Chinese cash coins were used as a common form of currency throughout South, Southeast, and East Asia.

The Battle of Palembang was a naval battle fought in 1407 between Ming China's treasure fleet commanded by Admiral Zheng He and the pirate fleet of Chen Zuyi at Palembang, Sumatra, in modern Indonesia. The battle resulted in the defeat of Chen Zuyi, who was captured and sent to China for execution.

References

  1. Zhu, Chengpei; Zhang, Xiaomin (July 13, 2009). "China celebrates Maritime Day in Dalian". China Daily . Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  2. "Maritime Day of China" (in Chinese). Retrieved June 8, 2012. (Official English name is found in the title of the homepage and the flash at the top of the homepage)
  3. "Nanjing to be Main Venue of 2012 Maritime Day of China" (Press release). Nanjing Municipal People's Government. April 29, 2012. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  4. "China Maritime Day". International Maritime Organization. July 11, 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  5. Wang, Wenbin; Liu, Xuan (July 6, 2005). "July 11, Weighing Day, designated as Maritime Day". PLA Daily. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved June 8, 2012.