Chinese Academy of Sciences

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Chinese Academy of Sciences
中国科学院
CAS logo 2.png
Agency overview
Formed1949;72 years ago (1949)
HeadquartersBeijing, China
Annual budget$15.2 billion (2020) [1]
Agency executive
Parent agency State Council of China
Website english.cas.cn
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Simplified Chinese 中国科学院
Traditional Chinese 中國科學院

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; Chinese :中国科学院) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the "Two Academies (两院)" along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing, [2] with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.

Contents

It is the world's largest research organisation, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes, [3] [4] and has been consistently ranked among the top research organisations around the world. [5] [6] [7]

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been consistently ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since the list's inception in 2016 by Nature Research. [8] It is the most productive institution publishing articles of sustainable development indexed in Web of Science from 1981 to 2018 among all universities and research institutions in the World. [9]

Organization

Chinese Academy of Sciences headquarters Chinese Academy of Sciences headquarters (20170613183619).jpg
Chinese Academy of Sciences headquarters

The Chinese Academy originated in the Academia Sinica founded, in 1928, by the Republic of China. After the Communist Party took control of mainland China in 1949, the residual of Academia Sinica was renamed Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), while others relocated to Taiwan.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences has six academic divisions:

The CAS has thirteen regional branches, in Beijing, Shenyang, Changchun, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Kunming, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Hefei and Xinjiang. It has over one hundred institutes and two universities (the University of Science and Technology of China at Hefei, Anhui, and the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing). Backed by the institutes of CAS, UCAS is headquartered in Beijing, with graduate education bases in Shanghai, Chengdu, [Wuhan, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, four Science Libraries of Chinese Academy of Sciences, three technology support centers and two news and publishing units. These CAS branches and offices are located in 20 provinces and municipalities throughout China. CAS has invested in or created over 430 science- and technology-based enterprises in eleven industries, including eight companies listed on stock exchanges.

Being granted a Fellowship of the Academy represents the highest level of national honor for Chinese scientists. The CAS membership system includes Academicians (院士), Emeritus Academicians (荣誉院士) and Foreign Academicians (外籍院士).

Research reputation and rankings

The Chinese Academy of Sciences was ranked #1 in the 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]

List of presidents

Academy members

Membership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (also known by the title Academician (CAS), Chinese :中国科学院院士) is a lifelong honor given to Chinese scientists who have made significant achievements in various fields. According to Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences adopted in 1992 and recently amended in 2014, it is the highest academic title in China. A formal CAS member must hold Chinese citizenship, although foreigners can be elected as foreign CAS members. Members older than 80 are designated as "senior members" and may no longer hold leading positions in the organization. [17] Academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences carry an obligation to advance science and technology, to advocate and uphold scientific spirit, to develop a scientific and technological workforce, to attend member meetings and receive consultation and evaluation tasks, and to promote international exchanges and cooperation. Academicians can give suggestions and influence Chinese state policy related to science and technology. [18]

Research institutes

Main entrance to Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, CAS, in Ningbo, Zhejiang Zhejiang Ningbo CAS NIMTE entrance.jpg
Main entrance to Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, CAS, in Ningbo, Zhejiang
Institute of Computing Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing BeijingInstituteOfComputingTechnologyChineseAcademyOfSciences.jpg
Institute of Computing Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing

Scientific integrity

On 26 February 2007, CAS published a Declaration of Scientific Ideology and set up a commission for scientific integrity to promote transparency, autonomy and accountability of scientific research in the country. The Ministry of Science and Technology had at the same time also initiated measures to address misconduct in state-funded programs. [22]

Publications

Awards

Since 1999 the CAS has issued the annual State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, presented by the President of China to the recipient. [25]

International cooperation

The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth is a branch of CAS. The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth was a customer of Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), which provides data transmission services from satellites for a wide range of societal functions. [26] > It was reported by Reuters on 21 September 2020 that SSC decided not to renew the contracts with China to help operate Chinese satellites from SSC's ground stations, or seek new business with China. [27]

See also

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University of Science and Technology of China University in Hefei, China

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Huazhong University of Science and Technology Research University in Wuhan, Hubei, China

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University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

The University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS) is a public university for graduate education, under the direct leadership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The predecessors of UCAS are the Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (GUCAS) and the Graduate School of the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), which was founded in 1978 as the first graduate school in China by approval of the State Council.

Nanjing University Public university in Nanjing, China

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Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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Yan Jici

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Wang Daheng was a Chinese optical physicist, engineer, and inventor widely considered the "father of optical engineering" in China. He was a founding academician of both the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. He was the founder of the Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Optical Society.

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Shi Jianlin is a Chinese chemist specializing in inorganic chemistry.

Tong Xiaolin is a traditional Chinese physician, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and professor at Peking University and Beijing University of Chinese Medicine.

Wan Weixing was a Chinese space physicist. He was a member of the Jiusan Society. He was an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

Cheng Rongshi was a Chinese physical chemist and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Zhou Yulin was a Chinese mathematician and academic of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References

Citations

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Sources