Chinese jump rope

Last updated

Gummitwist-1998Kinder1.jpg
Gummitwist-1998Kinder2.jpg
Chinese jump rope being played.
Moves or positions Chinese jump rope moves or positions.png
Moves or positions
Coiled elastic rope Coiled Chinese jump rope.jpg
Coiled elastic rope

Chinese jump rope (Chinese: 跳皮筋; pinyin: tiàopíjīn), also known as Chinese ropes, jumpsies, [1] elastics (British English: Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain), [1] yoki (Canada), [1] French skipping, [2] American ropes/Chinese ropes (in Scotland), [3] [4] (in German) gummitwist, [1] and Chinese garter in the Philippines is a children's [5] game resembling hopscotch and jump rope. [6] Various moves (creation of positions or figures) are combined to create patterns which are often accompanied by chants.

Contents

Chinese jump rope combines the skills of hopscotch with some of the patterns from the hand-and-string game cat's cradle. The game began in 7th-century China. In the 1960s, children in the Western hemisphere adapted the game. German-speaking children call Chinese jump rope gummitwist and British children call it elastics. The game is typically played in a group of at least 3 players with a rope approximately 16 feet (5 m) in length tied into a circle. Traditional Chinese jump ropes are strings of rubber bands tied together, but today many varieties of commercial rope exist. Two players face each other standing 9 feet (3 m) apart, and position the rope around their ankles so that it is taut. The third player stands between the two sides of the rope and tries to perform a designated series of moves without making an error or pausing. [7]

The game is typically played by three or more players using a string of rubber bands that has been tied into a circle, usually at least six feet long ("approximately 2 feet in diameter" [8] ), or an elastic rope. Two of the participants (the holders) face each other several feet apart, and position the string around their ankles so that it is taut. The third player (the jumper) stands between the two sides of the rope and must accomplish a series of increasingly difficult moves without making an error. The position of the string is raised as the jumper moves through the levels, [7] from ankle to waist height and higher. [9] "They are great for stretching. Often a child gets so intrigued with the shapes the rope can make that [the child] stretches much harder than [the child] would have otherwise." [8]

Moves, patterns, and chants

"Americans" pattern The names of the moves may be chanted: "right, left, right, left, in, out/open, in, on" Chinese jump rope Americans pattern.svg
"Americans" pattern The names of the moves may be chanted: "right, left, right, left, in, out/open, in, on"
"Diamonds" pattern (the letters spelling "Diamonds" are chanted) Chinese jump rope Diamonds pattern.svg
"Diamonds" pattern (the letters spelling "Diamonds" are chanted)
"Sailboats" pattern Chinese jump rope Sailboats pattern.svg
"Sailboats" pattern

In this game the two ends of the rope are tied together so that the rope forms a circle. The two end children stand inside this 'circle' and place it at ankle level, standing just far enough part so that the rope is held taut between them. The jumper must perform several tasks requiring various degrees of agility in this particular game. [3]

Instead of swinging the rope, the ends of the rope are tied together to form a loop. (Instead of using a regular jump rope, you can use a Chinese jump rope that is made of a stretchy material, sort of like a large rubber band.) The two enders stand with the rope around their ankles, forming a rectangular shape with the rope....If you get through all these steps without missing or stepping on the rope, the game gets harder. The enders move the rope up....The better you do, the higher you have to jump. [13]

The game begins with choosing the jump pattern to follow and with the holders holding the rubberband around their ankles. There are many jump patterns and most are accompanied by a song. This is sometimes called the "first level". The jumper tries to complete the chosen pattern. If the moves are completed successfully, then the rope is moved farther up and the series is repeated. When the rope gets too high for a normal person to jump over it, the player then kneels and uses his or her hands instead. Some people just stop the game at this point, as the game is much easier when using hands. If the jumper makes a mistake, players rotate their positions and the next player becomes the jumper. Once the player is finished, that person switches with one of the other people, and so on much, until everyone has been able to play.

The moves involve jumping and repositioning the feet in some manner. Some of the more common moves are jumping so that both feet land outside the rope, both are inside the rope, one is inside and one is outside, or both are on top of the rope. These moves are called "out" (it may be thought of as "straddling". [14] ), "in", "side", and "on" respectively, [13] which the two other participants chant as the player executes them. Some other, less common, moves involve manipulating the rope. A "pull" is when the jumper carries a side of the rope with one's foot or feet, generally crossing it over the other side. Crossing the ropes with one's legs in between them is "diamonds". One of these moves, called "scissors", is executed by starting with both feet outside the rope and then crossing the legs, with the ropes in tow, so that a formation resembling a pair of scissors is formed. The pattern "Chinese" features:

Chinese pattern [15]
Step #Step
name
#Name#Name#Name#Name
1, 3, 5Inside8, 10, 12R side15, 17, 19Out22, 24, 26L on/R out29Out
2, 4, 6Out9, 11, 13L side16, 18, 20On23, 25, 27R on/L out30-36On
7Inside14R side21Out28L on/R out37Out

There are many variations of the game that are played. Sometimes the rope is criss-crossed so that it makes an X, and the player must move his or her feet into different sections of the X in some pattern. Instead of simply raising the rope, some players create a procession of "levels", similar to a video game, that the player must complete before winning the game. When a player returns to jumping, they continue the game from the last uncompleted level. The player that first completes the levels (usually five to nine, up to neck height) wins the game. These levels often have specific names, such as the "roller coaster," which is a criss-crossed rope that is higher at one end than the other. There is a pattern known as "American" and one known as "the Name Game". [16]

There are many rhymes used when playing, for example:[ citation needed ]

"England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales
Inside, outside
Puppy dogs' tails"

Several counting chants are used, such as:

Old Mrs Mason broke her basin
On the way to London Station.
How much did it cost?
One, two, three, four.[..] [2]

and

Charlie Chaplin sat on a pin
How many inches did it go in?
One, two, three, four.[..] [2]

The following pattern is from the Keystone Folklore Quarterly (1966):

No rhyme; The two ends of the rope are tied together to form a circle. The two 'end' children step into this circle, hold it up above the ground at a height of about six inches, and stand as far apart as possible so that the rope is taut between them, going around the back of their ankles.
Step 1: The jumper begins by standing with her side to the oval. She puts one foot into the center, without touching either side of the rope, and touches the ground with her toe. She then removes her foot, places it under the rope closest to her and over the second side so that the first side of the rope crosses the second side. She repeats this motion five times, then changes sides and repeats the whole action.
Step 2: For the second step the rope must be raised to the jumper's knee level—or just below it. The jumper begins by standing in the center of the oval. She jumps and throws her feet outside the oval on either side of the ropes. Then she jumps and brings her feet back into the oval. This is repeated five times, facing each direction (front and back).
Step 3: In the third step, the rope must be fixed so that one side is higher than the other. The jumper faces the rope, jumps into the center (over the lower side), then across the higher side. She then repeats this action in reverse (jumping backward over the rope). This is repeated five times.
Step 4: Rope in position of Step 1—this time the action is performed with the jumper's hands, instead of her feet.
Step 5: Rope is in position of Step 2: jumper touches ground with hands as she jumps.
Step 6: Rope is in position of Step 3; jumper repeats action of Step 3, but with hands touching ground as she jumps.
Any miss in the steps requires jumper to start over! [3]

German chants

See also

Related Research Articles

Chinese checkers Abstract strategy board game

Sternhalma, commonly known as Chinese checkers or Chinese chequers, is a strategy board game of German origin which can be played by two, three, four, or six people, playing individually or with partners. The game is a modern and simplified variation of the game Halma.

Bungee jumping Activity that involves jumping from a tall structure while connected to a large elastic cord

Bungee jumping, also spelled bungy jumping, is an activity that involves a person jumping from a great height while connected to a large elastic cord. The launching pad is usually erected on a tall structure such as a building or crane, a bridge across a deep ravine, or on a natural geographic feature such as a cliff. It is also possible to jump from a type of aircraft that has the ability to hover above the ground, such as a hot-air-balloon or helicopter. The thrill comes from the free-falling and the rebound. When the person jumps, the cord stretches and the jumper flies upwards again as the cord recoils, and continues to oscillate up and down until all the kinetic energy is dissipated.

Checkers Board game

Checkers, also known as draughts, is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces. Checkers developed from alquerque. The term "checkers" derives from the checkered board which the game is played on, whereas "draughts" derives from the verb "to draw" or "to move".

Trapeze Aerial circus or gymnastics apparatus

A trapeze is a short horizontal bar hung by ropes or metal straps from a ceiling support. It is an aerial apparatus commonly found in circus performances. Trapeze acts may be static, spinning, swinging or flying, and may be performed solo, double, triple or as a group act.

Because ballet became formalized in France, a significant part of ballet terminology is in the French language.

Skipping rope Game in which one or more participants jump over a swung rope

A skipping rope or jump rope is a tool used in the sport of skipping/jump rope where one or more participants jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads. There are multiple subsets of skipping/jump rope, including single freestyle, single speed, pairs, three-person speed, and three-person freestyle

Bondage positions and methods Wikimedia list article

Bondage, in BDSM, is the activity of tying or restraining people using equipment such as chains, cuffs, or collars for mutual erotic pleasure. According to the Kinsey Institute, 12% of females and 22% of males respond erotically to BDSM.

<i>Janggi</i>

Janggi, sometimes called Korean chess, is a strategy board game popular in Korea. The game was derived from xiangqi of China and is very similar to it, including the starting position of most of the pieces, and the 9×10 gameboard, but without the xiangqi "river" dividing the board horizontally in the middle.

Aerial techniques, also known as "high-flying moves" are maneuvers in professional wrestling using the ring's posts and ropes as aids, in many cases to demonstrate the speed and agility of smaller, nimble and acrobatically inclined wrestlers preferring this style instead of throwing or locking the opponent. Due to injuries caused by these high risk moves, some promotions have banned the use of some of them. The next list of maneuvers was made under general categories whenever possible.

Strikes are offensive moves in professional wrestling, that can sometimes be used to set up an opponent for a hold or for a throw. There are a wide variety of strikes in pro wrestling, and many are known by several different names. Professional wrestlers frequently give their finishers new names. Occasionally, these names become popular and are used regardless of the wrestler performing the technique.

Dropkick Professional wrestling attack

A dropkick is an attacking maneuver in professional wrestling. It is defined as an attack where the wrestler jumps up and kicks the opponent with the soles of both feet; this sees the wrestler twist as they jump so that when the feet connect with the opponent one foot is raised higher than the other and the wrestler falls back to the mat on their side, or front. This is commonly employed by light and nimble wrestlers who can take advantage of their agility, and is often executed on a charging opponent, while charging at an opponent, or a combination of the two.

Artistic roller skating Type of sport similar to figure skating

Artistic roller skating is a sport similar to figure skating but where competitors wear roller skates instead of ice skates. Within artistic roller skating, there are several disciplines:

Basketball moves are generally individual actions used by players in basketball to pass by defenders to gain access to the basket or to get a clean pass to a teammate to score.

Leg drop

A leg drop or legdrop refers to an attack used in professional wrestling in which an attacking wrestler will jump and land his leg across a fallen opponent's chest, throat, face or head or in some cases, the groin/lower-abdominal area.

A skipping rhyme, is a rhyme chanted by children while skipping. Such rhymes have been recorded in all cultures where skipping is played. Examples of English-language rhymes have been found going back to at least the 17th century. Like most folklore, skipping rhymes tend to be found in many different variations. The article includes those chants used by English-speaking children.

Static trapeze

Static trapeze, also known as fixed trapeze, is a type of circus art performed on the trapeze. In contrast to the other forms of trapeze, on static trapeze the bars and ropes mainly stay in place.

The following is a glossary of figure skating terms, sorted alphabetically.

<i>Real World/Road Rules Challenge: The Gauntlet III</i> Season of television series

Real World/Road Rules Challenge: The Gauntlet III is the 15th season of the MTV reality game show, The Challenge.

British Ice Skating is the national governing body of ice skating within the United Kingdom. Formed in 1879, it is responsible for overseeing all disciplines of ice skating: figure skating ; synchronised skating; and speed skating.

Physical training has been present in human societies throughout history. Usually, it was performed for the purposes of preparing for physical competition or display, improving physical, emotional and mental health, and looking attractive. It took a variety of different forms but quick dynamic exercises were favoured over slow or more static ones. For example, running, jumping, wrestling, gymnastics and throwing heavy stones are mentioned frequently in historical sources and emphasised as being highly effective training methods. Notably, they are also forms of exercise which are readily achievable for most people to some extent or another.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Block, John and Block, Tina (2013). It's a Hop, Skip, and Jump for Fitness and for Fun!, p.27. WestBow Press. ISBN   9781449799861.
  2. 1 2 3 "Playground games in England". Woodlands Junior School. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  3. 1 2 3 Hawthorne, Ruth. "Classifying Jump-Rope Games", Keystone Folklore Quarterly , Vol. 11, No. 2, Summer 1966, p.113, p.125-6, and p.126, n.1. Williamsport, PA: Lycoming Printing Company and Simon Bronner.
  4. Ritchie, James T.R. (1965). Golden City: Scottish Children's Street Games & Songs , p.121. Edinburgh and London: Oliver & Boyd.
  5. Gaussot, Ludovic. "Le jeu de l'enfant et la construction sociale de la réalité", Le Carnet PSY, 2/2001 (n° 62), p. 22-29. Accessed 4 December 2017.
  6. "Summer School: How To Make a Jumpsie Rope", Canadian Family; for the term "Chinese ropes," see Iona Archibald Opie, Peter Opie, Children's Games with Things, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 199.
  7. 1 2 Horowitz, Gayle L. (2009). International Games: Building Skills Through Multicultural Play, p.68. Human Kinetics. ISBN   9780736073943.
  8. 1 2 Kogan, Sheila (2003). Step by Step: A Complete Movement Education Curriculum, p.133. Human Kinetics. ISBN   9780736044097.
  9. ""Playground Games and Activities", Toronto District School Board, September 2000, p. 38ff" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2 June 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  10. Horowitz (2009), p.69.
  11. Horowitz (2009), p.70.
  12. Horowitz (2009), p.71.
  13. 1 2 Rau, Dana Meachen (2005). Jump Rope, p.23-5. Compass Point. ISBN   0-7565-0677-8.
  14. Rau (2005), term mentioned on p.23 and defined on p.28.
  15. Horowitz (2009), p.72-3. Step 37: "Twist/turn feet to release rope."
  16. Burk, Maggie C. (2002). Station Games: Fun and Imaginative PE Lessons, p.18. Human Kinetics. ISBN   9780736041058.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 "Patterns", GummiTwist.ch. (in German)

Further reading