Rafferty in 1943.
John William Pilbean Goffage
26 March 1909
|Died||27 May 1971 62) (aged|
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
|Resting place||Remains cast into his favourite fishing hole in Lovett Bay, Pittwater|
|Spouse(s)||Ellen Jameson (1941–1964; her death)|
Chips Rafferty MBE (26 March 1909 –27 May 1971) was an Australian actor. Called "the living symbol of the typical Australian", Rafferty's career stretched from the 1940s until his death in 1971, and during this time he performed regularly in major Australian feature films as well as appearing in British and American productions, including The Overlanders and The Sundowners. He appeared in commercials in Britain during the late 1950s, encouraging British emigration to Australia.
He was born John William Pilbean Goffage in Broken Hill, New South Wales to John Goffage, an English-born stock agent, and Australian-born Violet Maude Joyce.Gaining the nickname "Chips" as a school boy, Rafferty studied at Parramatta Commercial School before working in a variety of jobs, including opal miner, sheep shearer, drover, RAAF Officer and pearl diver.
He made his film debut in the comedy Ants in His Pants in 1938, as an extra, produced by Ken G. Hall. At that time, he was managing a wine cellar in Bond Street, Sydney.Rafferty caught the acting bug and got another unbilled role, as one of several inept firemen in Hall's Dad Rudd, M.P. (1940).
Rafferty leapt to international fame when cast as one of the three leads in Forty Thousand Horsemen (1940), a film directed by Charles Chauvel that focused on the Battle of Beersheba in 1917. Rafferty had been cast after a screen test.Chauvel described him as "a cross between Slim Summerville and James Stewart, and has a variety of droll yet natural humour." He played a laconic tall bushman, a type similar to that which had been conveyed on stage and screen by Pat Hanna.
Forty Thousand Horsemen was enormously popular and was screened throughout the world, becoming one of the most-seen Australian films made to that point. Although the film's romantic leads were Grant Taylor and Betty Bryant, Rafferty's performance received much acclaim.
Rafferty married Ellen Kathleen "Quentin" Jameson on 28 May 1941.He enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force the next day and entertained troops.
During the war, Rafferty was allowed to make films on leave. He appeared in a short featurette, South West Pacific (1943), directed by Hall. He was reunited with Chauvel and Grant Taylor in The Rats of Tobruk (1944), an attempt to repeat the success of Forty Thousand Horsemen.
Rafferty was discharged on 13 February 1945, having reached the rank of Flying Officer.
Ealing Studios were interested in making a feature film in Australia after the war, and assigned Harry Watt to find a subject. He came up with The Overlanders (1946), a story of a cattle drive during war time (based on a true story) and gave the lead role to Rafferty who Watt called an "Australian Gary Cooper."Rafferty's fee was £25 a week. Ealing Studios were so pleased they signed Rafferty to a long term contract even before the film was released. The film was a massive critical and commercial success and Rafferty was established as a film star.
Ealing Studios were associated with Rank Films, who cast Rafferty in the lead of Bush Christmas (1947), a children's movie where Rafferty played the villain. It was very popular.
Ealing Studios signed Rafferty to a long term contract. He went to England to promote The Overlanders and Ealing put him in The Loves of Joanna Godden . While promoting the film in Hollywood he met Hedda Hopper who said Rafferty "created quite a stir. They call him the Australian Gary Cooper, but if he were cut down a bit he would be more like the late Will Rogers. I don't know how they'll get him on the screen unless they do it horizontally... He is as natural as an old shoe."
Ealing and Watt wanted to make another film in Australia and decided on a spectacle, Eureka Stockade . Rafferty was cast in the lead as Peter Lalor, the head of the rebellion, despite pressures in some quarters to cast Peter Finch. The result was a box office disappointment and Rafferty's performance was much criticised.
Rafferty was meant to follow this with a comedy for Ealing co-starring Tommy Trinder. Instead, Ealing put the two actors in a drama about aboriginal land rights Bitter Springs (1950). The film was not widely popular and Ealing wound up their filmmaking operation in Australia.
Rafferty kept busy as an actor, appearing on radio in a show Chips: Story of an Outback. He was cast by 20th Century Fox in a melodrama they shot in Australia, Kangaroo (1952). The studio liked his performance enough that they flew him (and Charles Tingwell) over to Los Angeles to play Australian soldiers in The Desert Rats (1953), a war movie.
Film production in Australia had slowed to a trickle and Rafferty decided to move into movie production. He wanted to make The Green Opal, a story about immigration but could not get finance. However he then teamed up with a producer-director Lee Robinson and they decided to make movies together.
Their first movie was The Phantom Stockman (1953), directed by Robinson and starring Rafferty, and produced by them both. The film was profitable. It was followed by King of the Coral Sea , which was even more popular, and introduce Rod Taylor to cinema audiences. Rafferty and Robinson attracted the interest of the French, collaborated with them on the New Guinea adventure tale, Walk Into Paradise (1956). This was their most popular movie to date.
Rafferty also appeared as an actor only in a British-financed comedy set in Australia, Smiley (1956). It was successful and led to a sequel, Smiley Gets a Gun (1958),in which Rafferty reprised his role. In England he appeared in The Flaming Sword (1958).
He also participated in cinema advertisements that were part of an Australian Government campaign in 1957 called "Bring out a Briton". The campaign was launched in a bid to increase the number of British migrants settling in Australia.[ citation needed ]
Rafferty and Robinson raised money for three more movies with Robinson. He elected not to appear in the fourth film he produced with Robinson, Dust in the Sun (1958), their first flop together. Nor was he in The Stowaway (1959) and The Restless and the Damned (1960). All three films lost money and Rafferty found himself in financial difficulty.
Rafferty returned to being an actor only. He had a small role in The Sundowners (1960), with Robert Mitchum and Deborah Kerr and played a coastwatcher in The Wackiest Ship in the Army (1960) with Jack Lemmon and Ricky Nelson. He was in the Australian-shot TV series Whiplash (1961).
He was cast as one of the mutineers in MGM's Mutiny on the Bounty , with Marlon Brando. The filming of Bounty in Tahiti dragged longer than six months but it restored him to financial health after the failure of his production company; it enabled him to buy a block of flats which supported him for the rest of his life.Rafferty dubbed the film The Bounteous Mutiny.
In 1962, the 6 foot 5 inch actor was socialising with fellow expatriates in a London club when one, who unbeknownst to Rafferty was a wrestler, claimed he was being ignored and started an argument. Rafferty was eventually provoked into accepting a challenge to 'step outside', where he was badly beaten. In addition to deep grazes to his face that may have cost him the chance of roles in two major film productions the incident brought on a heart attack.
He was in the Australian TV series The Stranger (1964) then travelled to England and appeared in eight episodes of Emergency-Ward 10 (1964). While in England he was in The Winds of Green Monday (1965) on British TV.
He travelled to the US and guest starred in episodes of The Wackiest Ship in the Army (1965) (as a different character to the role that he played in the movie version). He played a Union soldier in The Big Valley (1966) with a noticeably Australian accent. He was also in episodes of Gunsmoke (1966) and Daktari (1966).
Back in Australia Rafferty had a good part in the Australian-shot comedy They're a Weird Mob (1966) a big local success. He returned to Hollywood to appear in episodes of The Girl from UNCLE (1967), Tarzan (1967) and The Monkees , as well as the Elvis Presley movie Double Trouble (1967) and the adventure tale Kona Coast (1968)
Returning to Australia he guest-starred in Skippy the Bush Kangaroo , Adventures of the Seaspray (1967), Rita and Wally (1968), Woobinda, Animal Doctor (1970) and Dead Men Running (1971). He continued to make films such as Skullduggery (1970).
Rafferty's final film role was in 1971's Wake in Fright , where he played an outback policeman. (The movie was filmed mainly in and around Rafferty's home town of Broken Hill.) In a review of the film, a critic praised Rafferty's performance, writing that he "exudes an unnerving intensity with a deceptively menacing and disturbing performance that ranks among the best of his career".
His final performance was in an episode of the Australian war series Spyforce (1971).
Hours before he died, Rafferty was offered a prominent role in a film The Day the Clown Cried by Jerry Lewis which was never completed or released.
On 27 May 1971, Rafferty collapsed and died of a heart attack at the age of 62, while walking down a Sydney street shortly after completing his role in Wake in Fright .His wife Quentin had predeceased him in 1964 and they had no children. His remains were cremated. His ashes were scattered into his favourite fishing hole in Lovett Bay.
In the 1971 New Years' Honours, Rafferty was made a Member of the Order of British Empire (MBE) by Queen Elizabeth II for his services to the performing arts.
Australia Post issued a stamp in 1989 that depicted Rafferty in recognition of his work in Australian cinema, and in March 2006, Broken Hill City Council announced that the town's Entertainment Centre would be named in honour of Rafferty.[ citation needed ]
The Oxford Companion to Australian Film refers to Rafferty as "Australia's most prominent and significant actor of the 1940s–60s".
Australian singer/songwriter Richard Davies wrote a song, "Chips Rafferty" for his album, There's Never Been A Crowd Like This.[ citation needed ]
He was also a talented artist, and as "Long John Goffage" was a leading light of the Black and White Artists' Club. [ citation needed ]He was a Freemason.
|1939||Come Up Smiling||Man in Crowd||Film also known as Ants in His Pants, Uncredited|
|1940||Dad Rudd, MP||Fireman|
|Forty Thousand Horsemen||Jim|
|1944||The Rats of Tobruk||Milo Trent|
|1946||The Overlanders||Dan McAlpine|
|1947||Bush Christmas||Long Bill|
|The Loves of Joanna Godden||Collard||Filmed in Britain.|
|1949||Eureka Stockade||Peter Lalor||Released as Massacre Hill in the United States.|
|1950||Bitter Springs||Wally King|
|1952||Kangaroo||Trooper 'Len' Leonard||Rafferty's first Hollywood-financed film, though shot in Australia.|
|1953||The Desert Rats||Sgt. 'Blue' Smith||Filmed in Hollywood.|
|The Phantom Stockman||The Sundowner||Rafferty also produced and helped write the script. Released in the United States as Return of the Plainsman.|
|King of the Coral Sea||Ted King||Rafferty also produced and helped write the script.|
|Walk Into Paradise||Steve MacAllister||Rafferty also produced. Released in the United States as Walk into Hell|
|1958||Smiley Gets a Gun||Sergeant Flaxman|
|The Flaming Sword||Long Tom|
|The Wackiest Ship in the Army||Patterson||A comedy, with Rafferty as an Australian Coastwatcher on a secret mission, and Jack Lemmon in charge of the ship|
|1962||Mutiny on the Bounty||Michael Byrne||Rafferty was in financial difficulty after the failure of some of his producing projects, but he got out of it with all the overtime he earned during the production of this film.|
|1966||They're a Weird Mob||Harry Kelly|
|1967||Adventures of the Seaspray|
|Double Trouble||Archie Brown||Filmed in Britain.|
|1968||Kona Coast||Charlie Lightfoot|
|1970||Skullduggery||Father 'Pop' Dillingham|
|1971||Dead Men Running|
|Wake in Fright||Jock Crawford|
|Spyforce||Leon Rielley||Episode: Reilley's Army, (final appearance)|
Rafferty tried to make the following projects but was unsuccessful:
Jedda is a 1955 Australian film written, produced and directed by Charles Chauvel. His last film, it is notable for being the first to star two Aboriginal actors, Robert Tudawali and Ngarla Kunoth, now known as Rosalie Kunoth-Monks, in the leading roles. It was also the first Australian feature film to be shot in colour.
Charles William Tingwell AM, known professionally as Bud Tingwell or Charles 'Bud' Tingwell, was an Australian film, television, theatre and radio actor. One of the veterans of Australian film, he acted in his first motion picture in 1946 and went on to appear in more than 100 films and numerous TV programs in both the United Kingdom and Australia.
Charles Edward Chauvel OBE was an Australian filmmaker, producer and screenwriter and nephew of Australian army General Sir Harry Chauvel. He is noted for making the films Forty Thousand Horsemen in 1940 and Jedda in 1955.
Grant Taylor, full name Ronald Grant Taylor, was an English-born actor best known as the abrasive General Henderson in the Gerry Anderson science fiction series UFO and for his lead role in Forty Thousand Horsemen (1940).
The Overlanders is a 1946 British film about drovers driving a large herd of cattle 1,600 miles overland from Wyndham in Western Australia through the Northern Territory outback of Australia to pastures north of Brisbane, Queensland during World War II.
In the Wake of the Bounty (1933) is an Australian film directed by Charles Chauvel about the 1789 Mutiny on the Bounty. It is notable as the screen debut of Errol Flynn, playing Fletcher Christian. The film preceded MGM's more famous Mutiny on the Bounty, starring Charles Laughton and Clark Gable, by two years.
Eureka Stockade is a 1949 British film of the story surrounding Irish-Australian rebel Peter Lalor and the gold miners' rebellion of 1854 at the Eureka Stockade in Ballarat, Victoria, in the Australian Western genre. It was produced by Ealing Studios and directed by Harry Watt.
The Rats of Tobruk is a 1944 Australian film directed by Charles Chauvel. An abridged version was released in the United States in 1951 as The Fighting Rats of Tobruk. The film follows three drover friends who enlist in the Australian Army together during World War II. Their story is based on the siege of the Libyan city of Tobruk in North Africa by Rommel's Afrika Korps. The largely Australian defenders held the city for 250 days before being relieved by British forces.
Bitter Springs is an Australian–British film directed by Ralph Smart and released in 1950. An Australian pioneer family leases a piece of land from the government in the Australian outback in 1900 and hires two inexperienced British men as drovers. Problems with local Aboriginal people arise over the possession of a waterhole. Much of the film was shot on location in the Flinders Ranges in South Australia
The Phantom Stockman is a 1953 Australian western film written and directed by Lee Robinson and starring Chips Rafferty, Victoria Shaw, Max Osbiston and Guy Doleman.
Forty Thousand Horsemen is a 1940 Australian war film directed by Charles Chauvel. The film tells the story of the Australian Light Horse which operated in the desert at the Sinai and Palestine Campaign during World War I. It follows the adventures of three rowdy heroes in fighting and romance. The film culminates at the Battle of Beersheba which is reputedly "the last successful cavalry charge in history". The film was clearly a propaganda weapon, to aid in recruitment and lift the pride of Australians at home during World War II. It was one of the most successful Australian movies of its day.
Steve Dodd was an Indigenous Australian actor, notable for playing indigenous characters across seven decades of Australian film. After beginning his working life as a stockman and rodeo rider, Dodd was given his first film roles by prominent Australian actor Chips Rafferty. His career was interrupted by six years in the Australian Army during the Korean War, and limited by typecasting.
Sons of Matthew is a 1949 Australian film directed by Charles Chauvel. The film was shot in 1947 on location in Queensland, Australia and the studio sequences in Sydney. Sons of Matthew took 18 months to complete, but it was a great success with Australian audiences when it finally opened in December 1949.
Uncivilised is a 1936 Australian film directed by Charles Chauvel. It was an attempt by Chauvel to make a more obviously commercial film, and was clearly influenced by Tarzan.
The Siege of Pinchgut is a 1959 British thriller filmed on location in Sydney, Australia and directed by Harry Watt. It was the last film produced by Ealing Studios, and was entered into the 9th Berlin International Film Festival where it was nominated for the Golden Bear Award.
Come Up Smiling is a 1939 Australian comedy starring popular US stage comedian Will Mahoney and his wife Evie Hayes. It was the only feature from Cinesound Productions not directed by Ken G. Hall.
Bush Christmas is a 1947 Australian–British comedy film directed by Ralph Smart and starring Chips Rafferty. It was one of the first movies from Children's Entertainment Films, later the Children's Film Foundation.
Dust in the Sun is a 1958 Australian mystery film adapted from the novel Justin Bayard by Jon Cleary and produced by the team of Lee Robinson and Chips Rafferty. The film stars British actress Jill Adams and an indigenous-Australian actor Robert Tudawali as Emu Foot.
Southern International Productions was an Australian film production company established in the 1950s by Lee Robinson and Chips Rafferty. For a few years it was the most prolific film production company in Australia, pioneering international co-productions with France, but a series of box office failures starting with Dust in the Sun caused it to be liquidated. Rafferty left producing but Lee Robinson later formed another company, Fauna, with actor John McCallum.
The Intimate Stranger was a proposed Australian feature film from director Roy Darling which was never completed although some scenes were shot and the cast included some of the country's finest actors. It was billed as a "psychological drama".