Chital

Last updated

Chital
Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene-Present [1]
A chital stag 1.JPG
Stag
Spotted deer (Axis axis) female.jpg
Doe
Both in Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Genus: Axis
Species:
A. axis
Binomial name
Axis axis
(Erxleben, 1777)
Chital range map.png
Distribution of chital (2011) [2]
Synonyms [3] [4]
List
  • Axis majorHodgson, 1842
  • A. minorHodgson, 1842
  • Cervus axis ceylonensis (J. B. Fischer, 1829)
  • C. a. indicus(J. B. Fischer, 1829)
  • C. a. maculatus(Kerr, 1792)
  • C. a. zeylanicus(Lydekker, 1905)
  • C. nudipalpebra(Ogilby, 1831)
  • Rusa axis zeylanicus(Lydekker, 1905)

The chital or cheetal (Axis axis; /təl/ ), also known as the spotted deer, chital deer and axis deer, is a deer species native to the Indian subcontinent. It was first described and given a binomial name by German naturalist Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777. A moderate-sized deer, male chital reach 90 cm (35 in) and females 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder. While males weigh 70–90 kg (150–200 lb), females weigh around 40–60 kg (88–132 lb). It is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. The upper parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. The abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs, ears, and tail are all white. The antlers, three-pronged, are nearly 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long.

Contents

Etymology

The vernacular name "chital" (pronounced /təl/ ) [5] comes from cītal (Hindi : चीतल), derived from the Sanskrit word citrala (चित्रल), meaning "variegated" or "spotted". [6] The name of the cheetah has a similar origin. [7] Variations of "chital" include "cheetal" and "cheetul". [8] Other common names for the chital are Indian spotted deer (or simply the spotted deer) and axis deer. [2]

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The chital was first described by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777 as Cervus axis. [9] In 1827, Charles Hamilton Smith placed the chital in its own subgenus Axis under the genus Cervus . [10] [4] Axis was elevated to generic status by Colin P. Groves and Peter Grubb in 1987. [11] The genus Hyelaphus was considered a subgenus of Axis. [3] However, a morphological analysis showed significant differences between Axis and Hyelaphus. [12] A phylogenetic study later that year showed that Hyelaphus is closer to the genus Rusa than Axis. Axis was revealed to be paraphyletic and distant from Hyelaphus in the phylogenetic tree; the chital was found to form a clade with the barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii) and the Schomburgk's deer (Rucervus schomburgki). The chital was estimated to have genetically diverged from the Rucervus lineage in the Early Pliocene about 5  million years ago. The following cladogram is based on a 2006 phylogenetic study: [13]

Cervus , fallow deer (Dama dama), Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) and Rusa

Rucervus

Barasinga

Schomburgk's deer

Axis

Chital

Indian hog deer (A. porcinus)

Muntjacs (Muntiacus)

Fossils of extinct Axis species dating to the early to Middle Pliocene were excavated from Iran in the west to Indochina in the east. [14] Remains of the chital were found in the Middle Pleistocene deposits of Thailand along with sun bear, Stegodon , gaur, wild water buffalo and other living and extinct mammals. [1]

Description

Male in velvet, Kanha National Park Spotted deer (Axis axis) male.jpg
Male in velvet, Kanha National Park

The chital is a moderately sized deer. Males reach up to 90–100 cm (35–39 in) and females 65–75 cm (26–30 in) at the shoulder; the head-and-body length is around 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in). While immature males weigh 30–75 kg (66–165 lb), the lighter females weigh 25–45 kg (55–99 lb). Mature stags can weigh up to 98–110 kg (216–243 lb). [15]

The tail, 20 cm (7.9 in) long, is marked by a dark stripe that stretches along its length. The species is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. [16]

The dorsal (upper) parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. The abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs, ears, and tail are all white. [16] A conspicuous black stripe runs along the spine (back bone). [17] The chital has well-developed preorbital glands (near the eyes) with stiff hairs. [18] It also has well-developed metatarsal glands and pedal glands located in its hind legs. The preorbital glands, larger in males than in females, are frequently opened in response to certain stimuli. [19] [20]

Each of the antlers has three lines on it. The brow tine (the first division in the antler) is roughly perpendicular to the beam (the central stalk of the antler). [16] The antlers, three-pronged, are nearly 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long. [21] Antlers, as in most other cervids, are shed annually. The antlers emerge as soft tissues (known as velvet antlers) and progressively harden into bony structures (known as hard antlers), following mineralisation and blockage of blood vessels in the tissue, from the tip to the base. [22] [23] A study of the mineral composition of the antlers of captive barasinga, chital, and hog deer showed that the antlers of the deer are very similar. The mineral content of the chital's antlers was determined to be (per kg) 6.1 mg (0.094 gr) copper, 8.04 mg (0.1241 gr) cobalt, and 32.14 mg (0.4960 gr) zinc. [24]

Hooves measure between 4.1 and 6.1 cm (1.6 and 2.4 in) in length; hooves of the fore legs are longer than those of the hind legs. The toes taper to a point. [15] The dental formula is 0.1.3.33.1.3.3, same as the elk. [16] The milk canine, nearly 1 cm (0.39 in) long, falls off before one year of age, but is not replaced by a permanent tooth as in other cervids. [18] Compared to the hog deer, the chital has a more cursorial build. The antlers and brow tines are longer than those in the hog deer. The pedicles (the bony cores from which antlers arise) are shorter, and the auditory bullae are smaller in the chital. [18] The chital may be confused with the fallow deer. Chital have several white spots, whereas fallow deer usually have white splotches. Fallow also have palmate antlers whereas chital have 3 distinct points on each side. The chital has a prominent white patch on its throat, while the throat of the fallow deer is completely white. The biggest distinction is the dark brown stripe running down the chital's back. [25] The hairs are smooth and flexible. [15]

Distribution and habitat

The chital ranges over 8–30°N in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. [4] The western limit of its range is eastern Rajasthan and Gujarat; its northern limit is throughout the Terai and northern West Bengal, Sikkim to western Assam and forested valleys in Bhutan below an elevation of 1,100 m (3,600 ft). It also occurs in the Sundarbans and some ecoparks around the Bay of Bengal, but is locally extinct in central and north-eastern Bangladesh. [2] The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Sri Lanka are the southern limits of its distribution. [26] It sporadically occur in forested areas throughout the Indian peninsula. [27]

Australia

The chital was the first species of deer introduced into Australia in the early 1800s by John Harris, surgeon to the New South Wales Corps, and he had about 400 of these animals on his property by 1813. These did not survive, and the primary range of the chital is now confined to a few cattle stations in North Queensland near Charters Towers and several feral herds on the NSW north and south[ citation needed ] coasts. While some of the stock originated from Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the Indian race likely is also represented. [28] [29]

United States

In the 1860s, chital were introduced to the island of Molokai, Hawaii, as a gift from Hong Kong to King Kamehameha V. By 2021, there were approximately 50,000 to 70,000 Axis deer on Molokai, as opposed to a human population of 7,500 people. During a drought that extended into 2021, hundreds of the deer died of starvation. [30]

Chital were introduced to Lanai, island and, soon became plentiful on both islands. Chital were introduced to Maui island in the 1950s to increase hunting opportunities. Because the chital has no natural predators on the Hawaiian islands, the population had been growing 20 to 30% each year, causing serious damage to agriculture and natural areas. [31] To help control the excess population on Maui, a company called Maui Nui was founded in 2017 to hunt the deer and sell venison. [32] In 2022, the company took 9,526 deer and sold 450,000 pounds of venison. The deer are harvested at night using infrared technology, accompanied by a USDA representative. [33]

Releasing them on the island of Hawaii was planned, but was abandoned after pressure from scientists over damage to landscapes caused by the chital on other islands. In 2012, chital were spotted on the island of Hawaii; wildlife officials think that people had flown them by helicopter and transported them by boat onto the island. In August 2012, a helicopter pilot pleaded guilty to transporting four chital from Maui to Hawaii. [34] Hawaii law now prohibits "the intentional possession or interisland transportation or release of wild or feral deer." [35]

In 1932, chital were introduced to Texas. In 1988, self-sustaining herds were present in 27 counties in Central and South Texas. [36] The chital is most populous on the Edwards Plateau. [37]

Croatia

Chital of unknown origin were introduced to the islands of Brijuni in 1911. They also live on Rab Island. The population on the islands comprised about 200 individuals as of 2010. Attempts by hunters to introduce the species to the mainland of Croatia were unsuccessful. [38]

Colombia

There have been sightings of herds of introduced chital in an interandean valley near the municipality of Puerto Triunfo in Antioquia Department. [39]

Behaviour and ecology

Male feeding in Nagarhole Axis axis (Nagarhole, 2010).jpg
Male feeding in Nagarhole
Female running in Mudumalai Spotted deer (Axis axis) female running.jpg
Female running in Mudumalai

Chital are active throughout the day. In the summer, time is spent in rest under shade, and the sun's glare is avoided if the temperature reaches 80 °F (27 °C); activity peaks as dusk approaches. As days grow cooler, foraging begins before sunrise and peaks by early morning. Activity slows down during midday, when the animals rest or loiter about slowly. Foraging recommences by late afternoon and continues till midnight. They fall asleep a few hours before sunrise, typically in the forest which is cooler than the glades. [26] These deer typically move in a single file on specific tracks, with a distance of two to three times their width between them, when on a journey, typically in search of food and water sources. [16] A study in the Gir National Park (Gujarat, India) showed that chital travel the most in summer of all seasons. [40]

When cautiously inspecting its vicinity, the chital stands motionless and listens with rapt attention, facing the potential danger, if any. This stance may be adopted by nearby individuals, as well. As an antipredator measure, chital flee in groups (unlike the hog deer that disperse on alarm); sprints are often followed by hiding in dense undergrowth. The running chital has its tail raised, exposing the white underparts. [26] The chital can leap and clear fences as high as 1.5 m (4.9 ft) but prefers to dive under them. It stays within 300 m (980 ft) of cover. [18]

A gregarious animal, the chital forms matriarchal herds comprising an adult female and her offspring of the previous and the present year, which may be associated with individuals of any age and either sex, male herds, and herds of juveniles and mothers. [21] [41] Small herds are common, though aggregations of as many as 100 individuals have been observed. [16] Groups are loose and disband frequently, save for the juvenile-mother herd. [42] Herd membership in Texas is typically up to 15; [21] herds can have five to 40 members in India. [26] [43] Studies in the Nallamala Hills (Andhra Pradesh, India) and the Western Ghats (western coast of India) showed seasonal variation in the sex ratio of herds; this was attributed to the tendency of females to isolate themselves ahead of parturition. Similarly, rutting males leave their herds during the mating season, hence altering the herd composition. [41] Large herds are most common in monsoon, observed foraging in the grasslands. [43]

Predators of chitals include Indian wolves, tigers, Asiatic lions, leopards, pythons, dholes, Indian pariah dogs, and crocodiles. Fishing cats, jungle cats, foxes, golden jackals and eagles target juveniles. Males are less vulnerable than females and juveniles. [18] [26]

A vocal animal, the chital, akin to the North American elk, gives out bellows and alarm barks. [16] Its calls are, however, not as strong as those of elk or red deer; they are mainly coarse bellows or loud growls. [18] Bellowing coincides with rutting. [26] [44] Dominant males guarding females in oestrus make high-pitched growls at less powerful males. [18] Males may moan during aggressive displays or while resting. [21] Chital, mainly females and juveniles, bark persistently when alarmed or if they encounter a predator. Fawns in search of their mother often squeal. The chital can respond to the alarm calls of several animals, such as the common myna and langurs. [18]

Marking behaviour is pronounced in males. Males have well-developed preorbital glands (near the eyes). They stand on their hind legs to reach tall branches and rub the open preorbital glands to deposit their scent there. This posture is also used while foraging. Urine marking is also observed; the smell of urine is typically stronger than that of the deposited scent. Sparring between males begins with the larger male displaying his dominance before the other; this display consists of hissing heading away from the other male with the tail facing him, the nose pointing to the ground, the ears down, the antlers upright, and the upper lip raised. The fur often bristles during the display. The male approaches the other in a slow gait. Males with velvet antlers may hunch over instead of standing erect as the males with hard antlers. The opponents then interlock their horns and push against each other, with the smaller male producing a sound at times which is louder than that produced by sambar deer, but not as much as the barasinga's. The fight terminates with the males stepping backward, or simply leaving and foraging. [18] Fights are not generally serious. [26]

Individuals may occasionally bite one another. [18] Common mynas are often attracted to the chital. [15] An interesting relationship has been observed between herds of chital and troops of the northern plains grey langurs, a widespread South Asian monkey. Chital benefit from the langurs' eyesight and ability to post a lookout from trees, while the langur benefit from the chital's strong sense of smell, both of which help keep a check on potential danger. [26] The chital also benefit from fruits dropped by langurs from trees such as Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica . [45] [46] The chital has been observed foraging with sambar deer in the Western Ghats. [41]

Diet

Chital graze when grasses are available, else they browse. Nagjirar ekla harin - Debabrata Ghosh.jpg
Chital graze when grasses are available, else they browse.

Grazers as well as browsers, the chital mainly feed on grasses throughout the year. They prefer young shoots, in the absence of which, tall and coarse grasses are nibbled off at the tips. Browse forms a major portion of the diet only in the winter-October to January-when the grasses, tall or dried up, are no longer palatable. Browse includes herbs, shrubs, foliage, fruits, and forbs; Moghania species are often preferred while browsing. Fruits eaten by chital in the Kanha National Park (Madhya Pradesh, India) include those of Ficus species from January to May, Cordia myxa from May to June, and Syzygium cumini from June to July. Individuals tend to group together and forage while moving slowly. [26] Chital are generally silent when grazing together. Males often stand on their hindlegs to reach tall branches. Water holes are visited nearly twice daily, with great caution. [18] In the Kanha National Park, mineral licks rich in calcium and phosphorus pentoxide were scraped at by the incisors. Chital also gnaw bones and fallen antlers for their minerals. Males in velvet indulge in such osteophagia to a greater extent. [47] Chital in the Sunderbans may be omnivores; remains of red crabs have been found in the rumen of individuals. [26]

Reproduction

Chital bucks sparring Chital sparring Kanha.JPG
Chital bucks sparring
Female with newborn Spotted deer (Axis axis) mother with newborn.jpg
Female with newborn

Breeding takes place throughout the year, with peaks that vary geographically. Sperm is produced year-round, though testosterone levels register a fall during the development of the antlers. Females have regular oestrus cycles, each lasting three weeks. The female can conceive again two weeks to four months after the birth. Males sporting hard antlers are dominant over those in velvet or those without antlers, irrespective of their size. Courtship is based on tending bonds. A rutting male fasts during the mating season and follows and guards a female in oestrus. The pair does several bouts of chasing and mutual licking before copulation. [18]

The newborn is hidden for a week after birth, a period much shorter than most other deer. The mother-fawn bond is not very strong, as the two get separated often, though they can reunite easily as the herds are cohesive. If the fawn dies, the mother can breed once again so as to give birth twice that year. The males continue their growth till seven to eight years. The average lifespan in captivity is nearly 22 years. The longevity in the wild, however, is merely five to ten years. [18] [26]

The chital is found in large numbers in dense deciduous or semievergreen forests and open grasslands. [26] The highest numbers of chital are found in the forests of India, where they feed upon tall grass and shrubs. Chital have been also spotted in Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary in Bhutan, which has the only remaining natural sal ( Shorea robusta ) forest in the country. They do not occur at high altitudes, where they are usually replaced by other species such as the sambar deer. They also prefer heavy forest cover for shade and avoid direct sunlight. [18]

Conservation status

The chital is listed on the IUCN Red List as least concern "because it occurs over a very wide range within which there are many large populations". [2] Currently, no range-wide threats to chitals are present, and they live in many protected areas. However, population densities are below ecological carrying capacity in many places due to hunting and competition with domestic livestock. Hunting for the deer's meat has caused substantial declines and local extinctions. [2] The axis deer is protected under Schedule III of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (1972) [27] and under the Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 of Bangladesh. [2] Two primary reasons for its good conservation status are its legal protection as a species and a network of functioning protected areas. [2]

The chital has been introduced to the Andaman Islands, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, Alabama, Point Reyes National Seashore in California, Florida, Hawaii, Mississippi, and Texas in the United States, and the Veliki Brijun Island in the Brijuni Archipelago of the Istrian Peninsula in Croatia. [2] [48] [49]

With effect from 2 August 2022, the European Union added the chital to the list of invasive alien species and banned its import into the EU. [50]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer</span> Family of mammals

A deer or true deer is a hoofed ruminant mammal of the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including muntjac, elk (wapiti), red deer, and fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, roe deer, and moose. Male deer of all species, as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this, they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antler</span> Extensions of the skull found in animals of the family Cervidae (deer)

Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the Cervidae (deer) family. Antlers are a single structure composed of bone, cartilage, fibrous tissue, skin, nerves, and blood vessels. They are generally found only on males, with the exception of reindeer/caribou. Antlers are shed and regrown each year and function primarily as objects of sexual attraction and as weapons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Musk deer</span> Genus of mammals

Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. Despite being commonly called deer, they are not true deer belonging to the family Cervidae, but rather their family is closely related to Bovidae, the group that contains antelopes, bovines, sheep, and goats. The musk deer family differs from cervids, or true deer, by lacking antlers and preorbital glands also, possessing only a single pair of teats, a gallbladder, a caudal gland, a pair of canine tusks and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sika deer</span> Species of deer native to much of East Asia

The sika deer, also known as the Northernspotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia and introduced to other parts of the world. Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russian Far East in the north, it is an uncommon species that has been extirpated in most areas of its native range, except in Japan, where it is overabundant and present in very large numbers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muntjac</span> Genus of deer

Muntjacs, also known as the barking deer or rib-faced deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Muntjacs are thought to have begun appearing 15–35 million years ago, with remains found in Miocene deposits in France, Germany and Poland. Most are listed as least-concern species or Data Deficient by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), although others such as the black muntjac, Bornean yellow muntjac, and giant muntjac are vulnerable, near threatened, and Critically Endangered, respectively.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sambar deer</span> Species of deer

The sambar is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, South China and Southeast Asia that is listed as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List since 2008. Populations have declined substantially due to severe hunting, local insurgency, and industrial exploitation of habitat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southern red muntjac</span> Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak)

The southern red muntjac is a deer species native to Southeast Asia. It was formerly known as the Indian muntjac or the common muntjac before the species was taxonomically revised to represent only populations of Sunda and perhaps Malaysia. The other populations being attributed to this species are now attributed to Muntiacus vaginalis. Muntjacs are also referred to as barking deer. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Water deer</span> Species of mammals belonging to the deer family of ruminants

The water deer is a small deer species native to Korea and China. Its prominent tusks, similar to those of musk deer, have led to both subspecies being colloquially named vampire deer in English-speaking areas to which they have been imported. It was first described to the Western world by Robert Swinhoe in 1870.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thorold's deer</span> Species of mammal

Thorold's deer is a threatened species of deer found in grassland, shrubland, and forest at high altitudes in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. It is also known as the white-lipped deer for the white patches around its muzzle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barasingha</span> Species of deer

The barasingha, sometimes barasinghe, also known as the swamp deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian subcontinent. Populations in northern and central India are fragmented, and two isolated populations occur in southwestern Nepal. It has been extirpated in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and its presence is uncertain in Bhutan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippine deer</span> Species of deer

The Philippine deer, also known as the Philippine sambar or Philippine brown deer, is a vulnerable deer species endemic to the Philippines. It was first described from introduced populations in the Mariana Islands, hence the specific name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Calamian deer</span> Species of deer

The Calamian deer, also known as Calamian hog deer, is an endangered species of deer found only in the Calamian Islands of Palawan province in the Philippines. It is one of three species of deer native to the Philippines, the other being the Philippine sambar and the Visayan spotted deer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sri Lankan axis deer</span> Subspecies of deer

The Sri Lankan axis deer or Ceylon spotted deer is a subspecies of axis deer that inhabits only Sri Lanka. The name chital is not used in Sri Lanka. Its validity is disputed, and some maintain that the axis deer is monotypic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bawean deer</span> Species of deer

The Bawean deer, also known as Kuhl's hog deer or Bawean hog deer, is a highly threatened species of deer endemic to the island of Bawean in Indonesia. Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size and limited range, the Bawean deer is evaluated as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It has few natural enemies except for birds of prey and large snakes such as pythons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manitoban elk</span> Subspecies of deer

The Manitoban elk is a subspecies of elk found in the Midwestern United States and southern regions of the Canadian Prairies. In 2001–2002, a breeding population of 52 Manitoban elk was also introduced into the Cataloochee valley of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina to replace a population of Eastern elk which had gone extinct over 100 years prior. As of 2021, the population has grown to 150-200 individuals and has expanded their range outside of their initial protected region. In 2016, one of the elk from the North Carolina herd was spotted in South Carolina, the first time an elk had been seen in that state since the late 1700s.

<i>Rucervus</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Rucervus is a genus of deer from India, Nepal, Indochina, and the Chinese island of Hainan. The only extant representatives, the barasingha or swamp deer and Eld's deer, are threatened by habitat loss and hunting; another species, Schomburgk’s deer, went extinct in 1938. Deer species found within the genus Rucervus are characterized by a specific antler structure, where the basal ramification is often supplemented with an additional small prong, and the middle tine is never present. The crown tines are inserted on the posterior side of the beam and may be bifurcated or fused into a small palmation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indian hog deer</span> Species of deer

The Indian hog deer, or Indochinese hog deer, is a small cervid native to the region of the Indian subcontinent and Indo-Gangetic Plain. Introduced populations are established in Australia, as well as the United States and Sri Lanka.

The Barandabhar forest covers an area of 87.9 km2 and bisects the Chitwan District in east and west Chitwan. Barandabhar, a 29 km long forest patch, is bisected by the Mahendra Highway, resulting in a 56.9 km2 area in the buffer zone of RCNP and 31 km2 is under the district forest office.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Preorbital gland</span> Paired exocrine gland in many hoofed animals

The preorbital gland is a paired exocrine gland found in many species of artiodactyls, which is homologous to the lacrimal gland found in humans. These glands are trenchlike slits of dark blue to black, nearly bare skin extending from the medial canthus of each eye. They are lined by a combination of sebaceous and sudoriferous glands, and they produce secretions which contain pheromones and other semiochemical compounds. Ungulates frequently deposit these secretions on twigs and grass as a means of communication with other animals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deer Park, Hisar</span> Wildlife park in Haryana, India

The Deer Park, Hisar, on Hisar-Dhansu in Hisar city of Haryana state in India has an area of 19 hectares including a 6-acre plot for producing fodder for the deer. Park as 4 species, blackbuck, chital spotted deer and 6 sambar. It also doubles up as the wildlife rescue clinic for the treatment injured wild animals and birds brought here by the people, which are released back in to the wild after the recovery.

References

  1. 1 2 K. Suraprasit, J.-J. Jaegar, Y. Chaimanee, O. Chavasseau, C. Yamee, P. Tian, and S. Panha (2016). "The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications". ZooKeys (613): 1–157. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.613.8309 . PMC   5027644 . PMID   27667928.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Duckworth, J.W.; Kumar, N.S.; Anwarul Islam, M.; Sagar Baral, H. & Timmins, R. (2015). "Axis axis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T41783A22158006. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T41783A22158006.en . Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  3. 1 2 Srinivasulu, C.; Srinivasulu, B. (2012). South Asian Mammals: their Diversity, Distribution, and Status. New York: Springer. pp. 357–358. ISBN   978-1-4614-3449-8.
  4. 1 2 3 Grubb, P. (2005). "Species Axis axis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 661. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  5. "Chital". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  6. Platts, J. T. (1884). "चीतल ćītal". A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English. London: W. H. Allen & Co. p. 470.
  7. "Cheetah". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary . Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  8. "Chital". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary . Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  9. Erxleben, J. C. P. (1777). "Axis". Systema Regni Animalis per Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Varietates cvm Synonymia et Historia Animalivm (in Latin). p. 312.
  10. Cuvier, G. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in Conformity with its Organization. Vol. 5. London: William Clowes. p. 312.
  11. Groves, C. P.; Grubb, P. (1987). "Relationships of living deer". In Wemmer, C. M. (ed.). Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 21–59. ISBN   978-0-87474-980-9.
  12. Meijaard, E. & Groves, C.P. (2004). "Morphometrical relationships between South-east Asian deer (Cervidae, tribe Cervini): evolutionary and biogeographic implications". Journal of Zoology. 263 (2): 179–196. doi:10.1017/S0952836904005011.
  13. Gilbert, C.; Ropiquet, A.; Hassanin, A. (2006). "Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 101–117. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.017. PMID   16584894.
  14. Di Stefano, G. & Petronio, C. (2002). "Systematics and evolution of the Eurasian Plio-Pleistocene tribe Cervini (Artiodactyla, Mammalia)" (PDF). Geologica Romana. 36 (311): e334. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2016.
  15. 1 2 3 4 Waring, G.H. (1996). "Preliminary study of the behavior and ecology of axis deer on Maui, Hawaii". Online Report Presented by the Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) Project. Archived from the original on 16 August 2023. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Schmidly, D.J. (2004). The Mammals of Texas (Revised ed.). Austin, Texas (USA): University of Texas Press. pp. 263–264. ISBN   978-1-4773-0886-8. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017.
  17. Kays, R.W.; Wilson, D.E. (2009). Mammals of North America (2nd ed.). Princeton, New Jersey (USA): Princeton University Press. p. 166. ISBN   978-069114092-6.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Geist, V. (1998). Deer of the World: their Evolution, Behaviour and Ecology (1st ed.). Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. pp. 58–73. ISBN   978-081170496-0.
  19. Groves, C.; Grubb, P. (1982). "Relationships of living deer". Biology and Management of the Cervidae: A Conference Held at the Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia, 1–5 August 1982: 21–59.
  20. Müller-Schwarze, D. (1982). "Evolution of cervid olfactory communication". Biology and Management of the Cervidae: A Conference Held at the Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia, 1–5 August 1982: 223–234.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Ables, E.D. (1984). The Axis Deer in Texas. Texas, USA: Texas A & M University Press. pp. 1–86. ISBN   978-089096196-4.
  22. Fletcher, T.J. (1986). "Reproduction: seasonality". Management and Diseases of Deer: A Handbook for the Veterinary Surgeon: 17–18.
  23. Kay, R.N.B.; Phillippo, M.; Suttie, J.M.; Wenham, G. (1982). "The growth and mineralization of antlers". Journal of Physiology. 322: 4.
  24. Pathak, N.N; Pattanaik, A.K; Patra, R.C; Arora, B.M (2001). "Mineral composition of antlers of three deer species reared in captivity". Small Ruminant Research. 42 (1): 61–65. doi:10.1016/S0921-4488(01)00218-8.
  25. McGlashan, A. (2011). Al McGlashan's Hunting Australia. Croydon, London (UK): Australian Fishing Network. pp. 76–80. ISBN   978-186513189-4.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Schaller, G.B. (1984). The Deer and the Tiger: A Study of Wildlife in India (Midway reprinted ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN   978-022673631-0.
  27. 1 2 Sankar, K. & Acharya, B. (2004). "Chital (Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777)". ENVIS Bulletin (7): 171–180.
  28. "Australia's Wild Deer". Australian Deer Research Foundation (ADRF). Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  29. "Deer in Australia". Australian Deer Association . Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  30. Jones, Caleb (9 February 2021). "Deer native to India starve to death amid drought in Hawaii". Associated Press . Retrieved 1 October 2023.
  31. McAvoy, A. (2012). "Mystery deer growth pitting hunters against Hawaii". Associated Press. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  32. Nosowitz, Dan (24 May 2021). "The Struggle to Contain, and Eat, the Invasive Deer Taking over Hawaii". Modern Farmer . Hudson, New York . Retrieved 1 October 2023.
  33. Aranita, Kiki (10 August 2023). "Axis Deer Are a Threat to Hawaii's Native Species and You Can Help Out by Eating Them: Maui Nui humanely harvests Axis deer, a threat to Hawaii's native species, and transforms them into venison". Food and Wine . Retrieved 1 October 2023.
  34. McAvoy, A. (2012). "Alleged animal smugglers used helicopters to fly sheep to Maui, deer to Big Island". Associated Press. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  35. "New law prohibits having or releasing feral deer in Hawaii". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  36. Davis, W. B.; Schmidly, D. J. "Axis Deer". The Mammals of Texas – Online Edition. Texas Tech University. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  37. Ables, E. D. "Axis Deer". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  38. Kusak, J. & Krapinec, K. (2010). "23. Ungulates and their management in Croatia". In Apollonio, M.; Andersen, R. & Putman, R. (eds.). European Ungulates and their Management in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 527–539. ISBN   9780521760614.
  39. Ramírez-Chaves, H.; Roncancio-Duque, N.; Morales-Martínez, D.M. (2023). "Más allá de los hipopótamos: evidencia de un venado introducido en Colombia". Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales. 47 (185): 882–888. doi: 10.18257/raccefyn.1953 .
  40. Dave, C.V. (2008). Ecology of Chital (Axis axis) in Gir (PDF) (PhD thesis). Saurashtra University. pp. 21–209. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  41. 1 2 3 Ramesh, T.; Sankar, K.; Qureshi, Q.; Kalle, R. (2010). "Group size, sex and age composition of chital (Axis axis) and sambar (Rusa unicolor) in a deciduous habitat of Western Ghats". Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 77 (1): 53–59. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2011.09.003.
  42. de Silva, P.K.; de Silva, M. (1993). "Population structure and activity rhythm of the spotted deer in Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka". Developments in Animal and Veterinary Sciences (26): 285–294.
  43. 1 2 Srinivasulu, C. (2001). "Chital (Axis axis Erxleben, 1777) herd composition and sex ratio on the Nallamala Hills of Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India". Zoos' Print Journal. 16 (12): 655–658. doi: 10.11609/jott.zpj.16.12.655-8 .
  44. Mishra, H. and Wemmer, C. 1987. "The comparative breeding ecology of four cervids in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal". Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  45. Prasad, S.; Chellam, R.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Goyal, S.P. (2004). "Frugivory of Phyllanthus emblica at Rajaji National Park, northwest India" (PDF). Current Science. 87 (9): 1188–1190. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  46. Newton, P.N. (1989). "Associations between langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus) and chital deer (Axis axis): Chance encounters or a mutualism?". Ethology. 83 (2): 89–120. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1989.tb00522.x.
  47. Barrette, C. (1985). "Antler eating and antler growth in wild Axis deer". Mammalia. 49 (4). doi:10.1515/mamm.1985.49.4.491. S2CID   85046773.
  48. First record of the invasive alien species Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Brazil
  49. Ciervo Axis (Axis axis)
  50. "Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2022/1203 of 12 July 2022". Official Journal of the European Union. 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022.