Chital

Last updated

Chital
A chital stag 1.JPG
Stag
Spotted deer (Axis axis) female.jpg
Doe
Both in Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Subfamily: Cervinae
Genus: Axis
Species:
A. axis
Binomial name
Axis axis
(Erxleben, 1777)
Chital range map.png
Distribution of chital (2011) [1]
Synonyms [2] [3]
List
  • Axis majorHodgson, 1842
  • A. minorHodgson, 1842
  • Cervus axis ceylonensis (J. B. Fischer, 1829)
  • C. a. indicus(J. B. Fischer, 1829)
  • C. a. maculatus(Kerr, 1792)
  • C. a. zeylanicus(Lydekker, 1905)
  • C. nudipalpebra(Ogilby, 1831)
  • Rusa axis zeylanicus(Lydekker, 1905)

The chital (Axis axis; /təl/ ), also known as spotted deer, chital deer, and axis deer, is a deer species native to the Indian subcontinent. It was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777. A moderate-sized deer, male chital reach nearly 90 cm (35 in) and females 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder. While males weigh 30–75 kg (66–165 lb), the lighter females weigh 25–45 kg (55–99 lb). It is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. The upper parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. The abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs, ears, and tail are all white. The antlers, three-pronged, are nearly 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long.

Contents

Etymology

The vernacular name "chital" (pronounced /təl/ ) [4] comes from cītal (Hindi : चीतल), derived from the Sanskrit word citrala (चित्रलः), meaning "variegated" or "spotted". [5] The name of the cheetah has a similar origin. [6] Variations of "chital" include "cheetal" and "cheetul". [7] Other common names for the chital are Indian spotted deer (or simply the spotted deer) and axis deer. [1]

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The chital was first described by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777 as Cervus axis. [8] In 1827, Charles Hamilton Smith placed the chital in its own subgenus Axis under the genus Cervus . [9] [3] Axis was elevated to generic status by Colin P. Groves and Peter Grubb in 1987. [10] The genus Hyelaphus was considered a subgenus of Axis. [2] However, a morphological analysis showed significant differences between Axis and Hyelaphus. [11] A phylogenetic study later that year showed that Hyelaphus is closer to the genus Rusa than Axis. Axis was revealed to be paraphyletic and distant from Hyelaphus in the phylogenetic tree; the chital was found to form a clade with the barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii) and the Schomburgk's deer (Rucervus schomburgki). The chital was estimated to have genetically diverged from the Rucervus lineage in the Early Pliocene about 5  million years ago. The following cladogram is based on the 2004 phylogenetic study: [12]

Cervus , fallow deer (Dama dama), Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), Hyelaphus and Rusa

Rucervus

Barasinga

Schomburgk's deer

Chital (Axis axis)

Muntjacs (Muntiacus)

Fossils of extinct Axis species dating to the early to middle Pliocene were excavated from Iran in the west to Indochina in the east. [13]

Description

Male in velvet, Kanha National Park Spotted deer (Axis axis) male.jpg
Male in velvet, Kanha National Park

The chital is a moderately sized deer. Males reach nearly 90 cm (35 in) and females 70 cm (28 in) at the shoulder; the head-and-body length is around 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in). While immature males weigh 30–75 kg (66–165 lb), the lighter females weigh 25–45 kg (55–99 lb). Mature males can weigh up to 98 to 110 kg (216 to 243 lb). [14] The tail, 20 cm (7.9 in) long, is marked by a dark stripe that stretches along its length. The species is sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and antlers are present only on males. [15]

The dorsal (upper) parts are golden to rufous, completely covered in white spots. The abdomen, rump, throat, insides of legs, ears, and tail are all white. [15] A conspicuous black stripe runs along the spine (back bone). [16] The chital has well-developed preorbital glands (near the eyes) with stiff hairs. [17] It also has well-developed metatarsal glands and pedal glands located in its hind legs. The preorbital glands, larger in males than in females, are frequently opened in response to certain stimuli. [18] [19]

Each of the antlers has three lines on it. The brow tine (the first division in the antler) is roughly perpendicular to the beam (the central stalk of the antler). [15] The antlers, three-pronged, are nearly 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long. [20] Antlers, as in most other cervids, are shed annually. The antlers emerge as soft tissues (known as velvet antlers) and progressively harden into bony structures (known as hard antlers), following mineralisation and blockage of blood vessels in the tissue, from the tip to the base. [21] [22] A study of the mineral composition of the antlers of captive barasinga, chital, and hog deer showed that the antlers of the deer are very similar. The mineral content of the chital's antlers was determined to be (per kg) 6.1 mg (0.094 gr) copper, 8.04 mg (0.1241 gr) cobalt, and 32.14 mg (0.4960 gr) zinc. [23]

Hooves measure between 4.1 and 6.1 cm (1.6 and 2.4 in) in length; hooves of the fore legs are longer than those of the hind legs. The toes taper to a point. [14] The dental formula is 0.1.3.33.1.3.3, same as the elk. [15] The milk canine, nearly 1 cm (0.39 in) long, falls off before one year of age, but is not replaced by a permanent tooth as in other cervids. [17] cvtCompared to the hog deer, the chital has a more cursorial build. The antlers and brow tines are longer than those in the hog deer. The pedicles (the bony cores from which antlers arise) are shorter, and the auditory bullae are smaller in the chital. [17] The chital may be confused with the fallow deer. Chital have several white spots, whereas fallow deer usually have white splotches. Fallow also have palmate antlers whereas chital have 3 distinct points on each side. The chital has a prominent white patch on its throat, while the throat of the fallow deer is completely white. The biggest distinction is the dark brown stripe running down the chital's back. [24] The hairs are smooth and flexible. [14]

Distribution and habitat

The chital ranges over 8–30°N in India and through Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. [3] The western limit of its range is eastern Rajasthan and Gujarat. The northern limit is along the Terai belt of the foothills of the Himalaya and from Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal through to Nepal, northern West Bengal and Sikkim and then to western Assam and the forested valleys of Bhutan, which are below an elevation of 1,100 m (3,600 ft). [1] The eastern limit of its range is through western Assam [25] [26] to the Sunderbans of West Bengal and Bangladesh. [1] Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Sri Lanka are the southern limits. [27] Chital occur sporadically in the forested areas throughout the rest of the Indian peninsula. [28] Within Bangladesh, it currently only exists in the Sundarbans and some ecoparks situated around the Bay of Bengal, as it became extinct in the central and north-east of the country. [1]

Australia

The chital was the first species of deer introduced into Australia in the early 1800s by Dr. John Harris, surgeon to the New South Wales Corps, and he had about 400 of these animals on his property by 1813. These did not survive, and the primary range of the chital is now confined to a few cattle stations in North Queensland near Charters Towers and several feral herds on the NSW north and south[ citation needed ] coasts. While some of the stock originated from Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the Indian race likely is also represented. [29] [30]

The United States

In the 1860s, axis deer were introduced to the island of Molokai, Hawaii, as a gift from Hong Kong to King Kamehameha V. The deer were introduced to Lanai, another of the Hawaiian Islands, soon afterward and are now plentiful on both islands. The deer were introduced to Maui island in the 1950s to increase hunting opportunities. Because the deer have no natural predators on the Hawaiian islands, their population is growing 20 to 30% each year, causing serious damage to agriculture and natural areas. [31]

Releasing them on the island of Hawaii was planned, as well, but this was abandoned after pressure from scientists over damage to landscapes caused by the deer on other islands. In 2012, deer were spotted on the island of Hawaii; wildlife officials believe people had flown the deer by helicopter and transported them by boat onto the island. In August 2012, a helicopter pilot pleaded guilty to transporting four axis deer from Maui to Hawaii. [32] Hawaiian law now prohibits "the intentional possession or interisland transportation or release of wild or feral deer." [33]

In 1932, axis deer were introduced to Texas. In 1988, self-sustaining herds were found in 27 counties, located in Central and South Texas. [34] The deer are most populous on the Edwards Plateau, where the land is similar to that of India. [35]

Croatia

Chital of unknown origin were introduced to the island of Brijuni in 1911. They also live on Rab Island, and the population on the two islands comprised about 200 individuals as of 2010. Attempts by hunters to introduce the species to the mainland of Croatia were unsuccessful. [36]

Behaviour and ecology

Male feeding in Nagarhole Axis axis (Nagarhole, 2010).jpg
Male feeding in Nagarhole
Female running in Mudumalai Spotted deer (Axis axis) female running.jpg
Female running in Mudumalai

Chital are active throughout the day. In the summer, time is spent in rest under shade, and the sun's glare is avoided if the temperature reaches 80 °F (27 °C); activity peaks as dusk approaches. As days grow cooler, foraging begins before sunrise and peaks by early morning. Activity slows down during midday, when the animals rest or loiter about slowly. Foraging recommences by late afternoon and continues till midnight. They fall asleep a few hours before sunrise, typically in the forest which is cooler than the glades. [27] These deer typically move in a single file on specific tracks, with a distance of two to three times their width between them, when on a journey, typically in search of food and water sources. [15] A study in the Gir National Park (Gujarat, India) showed that chital travel the most in summer of all seasons. [37]

When cautiously inspecting its vicinity, the chital stands motionless and listens with rapt attention, facing the potential danger, if any. This stance may be adopted by nearby individuals, as well. As an antipredator measure, chital flee in groups (unlike the hog deer that disperse on alarm); sprints are often followed by hiding in dense undergrowth. The running chital has its tail raised, exposing the white underparts. [27] The chital can leap and clear fences as high as 1.5 m (4.9 ft) but prefers to dive under them. It stays within 300 m (980 ft) of cover. [17]

A gregarious animal, the chital forms matriarchal herds comprising an adult female and her offspring of the previous and the present year, which may be associated with individuals of any age and either sex, male herds, and herds of juveniles and mothers. [20] [38] Small herds are common, though aggregations of as many as 100 individuals have been observed. [15] Groups are loose and disband frequently, save for the juvenile-mother herd. [39] Herd membership in Texas is typically up to 15; [20] herds can have five to 40 members in India. [27] [40] Studies in the Nallamala Hills (Andhra Pradesh, India) and the Western Ghats (western coast of India) showed seasonal variation in the sex ratio of herds; this was attributed to the tendency of females to isolate themselves ahead of parturition. Similarly, rutting males leave their herds during the mating season, hence altering the herd composition. [38] Large herds were most common in monsoon, observed foraging in the grasslands. [40] Predators of the chital include wolves, Bengal tigers, Asiatic lions, leopards, Indian rock pythons, dholes, Indian pariah dogs, and mugger crocodiles. Red foxes and golden jackals target juveniles. Males are less vulnerable than females and juveniles. [17] [27]

A vocal animal, the chital, akin to the North American elk, gives out bellows and alarm barks. [15] Its calls are, however, not as strong as those of elk or red deer; they are mainly coarse bellows or loud growls. [17] Bellowing coincides with rutting. [27] [41] Dominant males guarding females in oestrus make high-pitched growls at less powerful males. [17] Males may moan during aggressive displays or while resting. [20] Chital, mainly females and juveniles, bark persistently when alarmed or if they encounter a predator. Fawns in search of their mother often squeal. The chital can respond to the alarm calls of several animals, such as the common myna and langurs. [17]

Marking behaviour is pronounced in males. Males have well-developed preorbital glands (near the eyes). They stand on their hind legs to reach tall branches and rub the open preorbital glands to deposit their scent there. This posture is also used while foraging. Urine marking is also observed; the smell of urine is typically stronger than that of the deposited scent. Sparring between males begins with the larger male displaying his dominance before the other; this display consists of hissing heading away from the other male with the tail facing him, the nose pointing to the ground, the ears down, the antlers upright, and the upper lip raised. The fur often bristles during the display. The male approaches the other in a slow gait. Males with velvet antlers may hunch over instead of standing erect as the males with hard antlers. The opponents then interlock their horns and push against each other, with the smaller male producing a sound at times which is louder than that produced by sambar deer, but not as much as the barasinga's. The fight terminates with the males stepping backward, or simply leaving and foraging. [17] Fights are not generally serious. [27]

Individuals may occasionally bite one another. [17] Common mynas are often attracted to the chital. [14] An interesting relationship has been observed between herds of chital and troops of the northern plains grey langurs, a widespread South Asian monkey. Chital benefit from the langurs' eyesight and ability to post a lookout from trees, while the langur benefit from the chital's strong sense of smell, both of which help keep a check on potential danger. [27] The chital also benefit from fruits dropped by langurs from trees such as Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica . [42] [43] The chital has been observed foraging with sambar deer in the Western Ghats. [38]

Diet

Chital graze when grasses are available, else they browse. Nagjirar ekla harin - Debabrata Ghosh.jpg
Chital graze when grasses are available, else they browse.

Grazers as well as browsers, the chital mainly feed on grasses throughout the year. They prefer young shoots, in the absence of which, tall and coarse grasses are nibbled off at the tips. Browse forms a major portion of the diet only in the winter-October to January-when the grasses, tall or dried up, are no longer palatable. Browse includes herbs, shrubs, foliage, fruits, and forbs; Moghania species are often preferred while browsing. Fruits eaten by chital in the Kanha National Park (Madhya Pradesh, India) include those of Ficus species from January to May, Cordia myxa from May to June, and Syzygium cumini from June to July. Individuals tend to group together and forage while moving slowly. [27] Chital are generally silent when grazing together. Males often stand on their hindlegs to reach tall branches. Water holes are visited nearly twice daily, with great caution. [17] In the Kanha National Park, mineral licks rich in calcium and phosphorus pentoxide were scraped at by the incisors. Chital in the Sunderbans may be omnivores; remains of red crabs have been found in the rumen of individuals. [27]

Reproduction

Chital bucks sparring Chital sparring Kanha.JPG
Chital bucks sparring
Female with newborn Spotted deer (Axis axis) mother with newborn.jpg
Female with newborn

Breeding takes place throughout the year, with peaks that vary geographically. Sperm is produced year-round, though testosterone levels register a fall during the development of the antlers. Females have regular oestrus cycles, each lasting three weeks. The female can conceive again two weeks to four months after the birth. Males sporting hard antlers are dominant over those in velvet or those without antlers, irrespective of their size. Courtship is based on tending bonds. A rutting male fasts during the mating season and follows and guards a female in oestrus. The pair does several bouts of chasing and mutual licking before copulation. [17]

The newborn is hidden for a week after birth, a period much shorter than most other deer. The mother-fawn bond is not very strong, as the two get separated often, though they can reunite easily as the herds are cohesive. If the fawn dies, the mother can breed once again so as to give birth twice that year. The males continue their growth till seven to eight years. The average lifespan in captivity is nearly 22 years. The longevity in the wild, however, is merely five to ten years. [17] [27]

The chital is found in large numbers in dense deciduous or semievergreen forests and open grasslands. [27] The highest numbers of chital are found in the forests of India, where they feed upon tall grass and shrubs. Chital have been also spotted in Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary in Bhutan, which has the only remaining natural sal ( Shorea robusta ) forest in the country. They do not occur at high altitudes, where they are usually replaced by other species such as the sambar deer. They also prefer heavy forest cover for shade and avoid direct sunlight. [17]

Conservation status

The chital is listed on the IUCN Red List as least concern "because it occurs over a very wide range within which there are many large populations". [1] Currently, no range-wide threats to chitals are present, and they live in many protected areas. However, population densities are below ecological carrying capacity in many places due to hunting and competition with domestic livestock. Hunting for the deer's meat has caused substantial declines and local extinctions. [1] The axis deer is protected under Schedule III of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (1972) [28] and under the Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974 of Bangladesh. [1] Two primary reasons for its good conservation status are its legal protection as a species and a network of functioning protected areas. [1]

The chital has been introduced to the Andaman Islands, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, Alabama, Point Reyes National Seashore in California, Florida, Hawaii, Mississippi, and Texas in the United States, and the Veliki Brijun Island in the Brijuni Archipelago of the Istrian Peninsula in Croatia. [1] [44] [45]

See also

Related Research Articles

Deer Family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

Deer or true deer are hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the red deer, and the fallow deer; and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), white-tailed deer, the roe deer, and the moose. Male deer of all species as well as female reindeer, grow and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla).

Antler Extensions of the skull found in animals of the family Cervidae (deer)

Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the Cervidae (deer) family. Antlers are a single structure composed of bone, cartilage, fibrous tissue, skin, nerves, and blood vessels. They are generally found only on males, with the exception of reindeer/caribou. Antlers are shed and regrown each year and function primarily as objects of sexual attraction and as weapons in fights between males for control of harems.

Musk deer Genus of mammals

Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. Despite being commonly called deer, they are not true deer belonging to the family Cervidae but rather their family is closely related to Bovidae, the group that contains antelopes, bovines, sheep and goats. The musk deer family differs from cervids, or true deer, by lacking antlers and preorbital glands also, possessing only a single pair of teats, a gallbladder, a caudal gland, a pair of canine tusks and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland.

European fallow deer Species of hooved mammal

The European fallow deer also known as the common fallow deer or simply just fallow deer is a species of ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. It is native to Turkey and possibly the Italian Peninsula, Balkan Peninsula, and the island of Rhodes in Europe, but has also been introduced to other parts of Europe and the rest of the world.

Blackbuck Antelope native to India and Nepal

The blackbuck, also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope native to India and Nepal. It inhabits grassy plains and lightly forested areas with perennial water sources. It stands up to 74 to 84 cm high at the shoulder. Males weigh 20–57 kg (44–126 lb), with an average of 38 kg (84 lb). Females are lighter, weighing 20–33 kg (44–73 lb) or 27 kg (60 lb) on average. Males have 35–75 cm (14–30 in) long, ringed horns, though females may develop horns as well. The white fur on the chin and around the eyes is in sharp contrast with the black stripes on the face. The coats of males show a two-tone colouration; while the upper parts and outsides of the legs are dark brown to black, the underparts and the insides of the legs are white. Females and juveniles are yellowish fawn to tan. The blackbuck is the sole living member of the genus Antilope and was scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Two subspecies are recognized.

Sambar deer Species of deer

The sambar is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, South China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List since 2008. Populations have declined substantially due to severe hunting, local insurgency, and industrial exploitation of habitat.

Indian muntjac Barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak)

The Indian muntjac, also called the southern red muntjac and barking deer, is a deer species native to South and Southeast Asia. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

Water deer Species of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

The water deer is a small deer superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer. Native to China and Korea, there are two subspecies: the Chinese water deer and the Korean water deer. Despite certain anatomical peculiarities, including a pair of prominent tusks, and its lack of antlers, it is classified as a cervid. Yet, its unique anatomical characteristics have caused it to be classified in its own genus (Hydropotes) as well as its own subfamily (Hydropotinae). However, studies of mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b DNA sequences placed it near Capreolus within an Old World section of the subfamily Capreolinae. Its prominent tusks, similar to those of musk deer, have led to both subspecies being colloquially named vampire deer in English-speaking areas to which they have been imported. The species is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. It was first described to the Western world by Robert Swinhoe in 1870.

Thorolds deer Species of mammal

Thorold's deer is a threatened species of deer found in grassland, shrubland, and forest at high altitudes in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. It is also known as the white-lipped deer for the white patches around its muzzle.

Barasingha species of deer

The barasingha, also called swamp deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian subcontinent. Populations in northern and central India are fragmented, and two isolated populations occur in southwestern Nepal. It has been extirpated in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and its presence is uncertain in Bhutan.

Elk Large antlered species of deer from North America and East Asia

The elk, also known as the wapiti, is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, and one of the largest terrestrial mammals in North America, as well as Central and East Asia. It is often confused with the larger Alces alces, which is called moose in North America, but called elk in British English, and related names in other European languages. The name "wapiti" is used in Europe for Cervus canadensis. It originates from the Shawnee and Cree word waapiti, meaning 'white rump'.

Philippine deer Species of deer

The Philippine deer, also known as the Philippine sambar or Philippine brown deer, is a vulnerable deer species endemic to the Philippines. It was first described from introduced populations in Guam and the Marianas Islands, hence the specific name.

Calamian deer Species of deer

The Calamian deer, also known as Calamian hog deer, is an endangered species of deer found only in the Calamian Islands of Palawan province in the Philippines. It is one of three species of deer native to the Philippines, the other being the Philippine sambar, and Visayan spotted deer.

Sri Lankan axis deer Subspecies of deer

The Sri Lankan axis deer or Ceylon spotted deer is a subspecies of axis deer that inhabits only Sri Lanka. The name chital is not used in Sri Lanka. Its validity is disputed, and some maintain that the axis deer is monotypic.

Bawean deer Species of deer

The Bawean deer, also known as Kuhl's hog deer or Bawean hog deer, is a highly threatened species of deer endemic to the island of Bawean in Indonesia. Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size and limited range, the Bawean deer is evaluated as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It has few natural enemies except for birds of prey and large snakes such as pythons.

Manitoban elk Subspecies of deer

The Manitoban elk is a subspecies of elk found in the Midwestern United States and southern regions of the Canadian Prairies. Compared to the Rocky Mountain elk, it is larger in body size, but has smaller antlers. The subspecies was driven into near extinction by 1900, but has recovered since then.

<i>Rucervus</i> Genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants

Rucervus is a genus of deer from India, Nepal, Indochina, and the Chinese island of Hainan. The only extant representatives, the barasingha and Eld's deer, are threatened by habitat loss and hunting, and another species became extinct in 1938. The species of the genus Rucervus are characterized by a specific antler structure: its basal ramification is often supplemented with an additional small prong, the middle tine is never present, while the crown tines are inserted on the posterior side of the beam and may be bifurcated or fused into a small palmation.

Indian hog deer Species of deer

The Indian hog deer is a small deer native to the Indo-Gangetic Plain in Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh to mainland Southeast Asia. It also occurs in western Thailand and southwestern Yunnan Province in China. Introduced populations exist in Australia.

Preorbital gland Paired exocrine gland in many hoofed animals

The preorbital gland is a paired exocrine gland found in many species of hoofed animals, which is homologous to the lacrimal gland found in humans. These glands are trenchlike slits of dark blue to black, nearly bare skin extending from the medial canthus of each eye. They are lined by a combination of sebaceous and sudoriferous glands, and they produce secretions which contain pheromones and other semiochemical compounds. Ungulates frequently deposit these secretions on twigs and grass as a means of communication with other animals.

Deer Park, Hisar Wildlife park in Haryana, India

The Deer Park, Hisar, on Hisar-Dhansu in Hisar city of Haryana state in India has an area of 19 hectares including a 6-acre plot for producing fodder for the deer. Park as 4 species, blackbuck, chital spotted deer and 6 sambar. It also doubles up as the wildlife rescue clinic for the treatment injured wild animals and birds brought here by the people, which are released back in to the wild after the recovery.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Duckworth, J.W.; Kumar, N.S.; Anwarul Islam, M.; Sagar Baral, H. & Timmins, R. (2015). "Axis axis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2015: e.T41783A22158006. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T41783A22158006.en . Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. 1 2 Srinivasulu, C.; Srinivasulu, B. (2012). South Asian Mammals: their Diversity, Distribution, and Status. New York: Springer. pp. 357–358. ISBN   978-1-4614-3449-8.
  3. 1 2 3 Grubb, P. (2005). "Species Axis axis". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 661. ISBN   978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC   62265494.
  4. "Chital". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House . Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  5. Platts, J. T. (1884). "चीतल ćītal". A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English. London: W. H. Allen & Co. p. 470.
  6. "Cheetah". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  7. "Chital". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  8. Erxleben, J. C. P. (1777). "Axis". Systema Regni Animalis per Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Varietates cvm Synonymia et Historia Animalivm (in Latin). p. 312.
  9. Cuvier, G. (1827). The Animal Kingdom arranged in Conformity with its Organization. Volume 5. London: William Clowes. p. 312.|volume= has extra text (help)
  10. Groves, C. P.; Grubb, P. (1987). "Relationships of living deer". In Wemmer, C. M. (ed.). Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 21–59. ISBN   978-0-87474-980-9.
  11. Meijaard, E. & Groves, C.P. (2004). "Morphometrical relationships between South-east Asian deer (Cervidae, tribe Cervini): evolutionary and biogeographic implications". Journal of Zoology. 263 (2): 179–196. doi:10.1017/S0952836904005011.
  12. Pitra, C.; Fickel, J.; Meijaard, E.; Groves, C. (2004). "Evolution and phylogeny of old world deer". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 33 (3): 880–895. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.07.013. PMID   15522810.
  13. Di Stefano, G. & Petronio, C. (2002). "Systematics and evolution of the Eurasian Plio-Pleistocene tribe Cervini (Artiodactyla, Mammalia)" (PDF). Geologica Romana. 36 (311): e334. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2016.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Waring, G.H. (1996). "Preliminary study of the behavior and ecology of axis deer on Maui, Hawaii". Online Report Presented by the Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) Project.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Schmidly, D.J. (2004). The Mammals of Texas (Revised ed.). Austin, Texas (USA): University of Texas Press. pp. 263–264. ISBN   978-1-4773-0886-8. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017.
  16. Kays, R.W.; Wilson, D.E. (2009). Mammals of North America (2nd ed.). Princeton, New Jersey (USA): Princeton University Press. p. 166. ISBN   978-069114092-6.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Geist, V. (1998). Deer of the World: their Evolution, Behaviour and Ecology (1st ed.). Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. pp. 58–73. ISBN   978-081170496-0.
  18. Groves, C.; Grubb, P. (1982). "Relationships of living deer". Biology and Management of the Cervidae: A Conference Held at the Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia, 1–5 August 1982: 21–59.
  19. Müller-Schwarze, D. (1982). "Evolution of cervid olfactory communication". Biology and Management of the Cervidae: A Conference Held at the Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, Virginia, 1–5 August 1982: 223–234.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Ables, E.D. (1984). The Axis Deer in Texas. Texas, USA: Texas A & M University Press. pp. 1–86. ISBN   978-089096196-4.
  21. Fletcher, T.J. (1986). "Reproduction: seasonality". Management and Diseases of Deer: A Handbook for the Veterinary Surgeon: 17–18.
  22. Kay, R.N.B.; Phillippo, M.; Suttie, J.M.; Wenham, G. (1982). "The growth and mineralization of antlers". Journal of Physiology. 322: 4.
  23. Pathak, N.N; Pattanaik, A.K; Patra, R.C; Arora, B.M (2001). "Mineral composition of antlers of three deer species reared in captivity". Small Ruminant Research. 42 (1): 61–65. doi:10.1016/S0921-4488(01)00218-8.
  24. McGlashan, A. (2011). Al McGlashan's Hunting Australia. Croydon, London (UK): Australian Fishing Network. pp. 76–80. ISBN   978-186513189-4.
  25. Gee, E.P. (1964). The wild life of India. London: Collins.
  26. Choudhury, A.U. (1994). Checklist of the Mammals of Assam. Guwahati, India: Gibbon Books. ISBN   81-900866-0-X.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Schaller, G.B. (1984). The Deer and the Tiger: A Study of Wildlife in India (Midway reprinted ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN   978-022673631-0.
  28. 1 2 Sankar, K. & Acharya, B. (2004). "Chital (Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777)". ENVIS Bulletin (7): 171–180.
  29. "Australia's Wild Deer". Australian Deer Research Foundation (ADRF). Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  30. "Deer in Australia". Australian Deer Association . Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  31. McAvoy, A. (2012). "Mystery deer growth pitting hunters against Hawaii". Associated Press. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  32. Audrey McAvoy (22 August 2012). "Alleged animal smugglers used helicopters to fly sheep to Maui, deer to Big Island". Associated Press. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  33. "New law prohibits having or releasing feral deer in Hawaii", Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 21 June 2012, archived from the original on 26 June 2012, retrieved 21 June 2012
  34. Davis, William B., and David J. Schmidly. "Axis Deer". The Mammals of Texas – Online Edition. Texas Tech University. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  35. Ables, Ernest D. "Axis Deer". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  36. Kusak, J. & Krapinec, K. (2010). "23. Ungulates and their management in Croatia". In Apollonio, M.; Andersen, R. & Putman, R. (eds.). European Ungulates and their Management in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 527–539. ISBN   9780521760614.
  37. Dave, C.V. (2008). Ecology of Chital (Axis axis) in Gir (PDF) (PhD thesis). Saurashtra University. pp. 21–209.
  38. 1 2 3 Ramesh, T.; Sankar, K.; Qureshi, Q.; Kalle, R. (2010). "Group size, sex and age composition of chital (Axis axis) and sambar (Rusa unicolor) in a deciduous habitat of Western Ghats". Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 77 (1): 53–59. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2011.09.003.
  39. de Silva, P.K.; de Silva, M. (1993). "Population structure and activity rhythm of the spotted deer in Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka". Developments in Animal and Veterinary Sciences (26): 285–294.
  40. 1 2 Srinivasulu, C. (2001). "Chital (Axis axis Erxleben, 1777) herd composition and sex ratio on the Nallamala Hills of Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India". Zoos' Print Journal. 16 (12): 655–658. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.16.12.655-8.
  41. Mishra, H. and Wemmer, C. 1987. "The comparative breeding ecology of four cervids in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal". Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  42. Prasad, S.; Chellam, R.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Goyal, S.P. (2004). "Frugivory of Phyllanthus emblica at Rajaji National Park, northwest India" (PDF). Current Science. 87 (9): 1188–1190.
  43. Newton, P.N. (1989). "Associations between langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus) and chital deer (Axis axis): Chance encounters or a mutualism?". Ethology. 83 (2): 89–120. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1989.tb00522.x.
  44. First record of the invasive alien species Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Brazil
  45. Ciervo Axis (Axis axis)