Chittagong

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Chittagong

চট্টগ্রাম

Chattogram
Chittagong city skyline.jpg
Chittagong War Cemetery 8.jpg
The Shah Amanat Bridge.jpg
A ride in Foy's Lake amusement park. Chittagong .jpg
Ethnological Museum of Chittagong..JPG
Karnaphuli River at night (02).jpg
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Chittagong
Location of Chittagong in Bangladesh
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Chittagong
Chittagong (Asia)
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Chittagong
Chittagong (Earth)
Coordinates: 22°22′N91°48′E / 22.367°N 91.800°E / 22.367; 91.800 Coordinates: 22°22′N91°48′E / 22.367°N 91.800°E / 22.367; 91.800
CountryFlag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh
Division Chittagong Division
District Chittagong District
Establishment1340
Granted city status1863 [1]
Government
  Type Mayor–Council
  Body Chittagong City Corporation
   City Mayor A J M Nasir Uddin
Area
[2]
   Metropolis 168.07 km2 (64.89 sq mi)
Elevation
29 m (95 ft)
Population
 (2011)
   Metropolis 2,592,439 [3]
   Metro
4,009,423
   Demonym
Chittagonian
Time zone UTC+6 (BST)
Postal code
4000, 4100, 42xx
Calling code +880 31
Police Chittagong Metropolitan Police
Metro GDP/PPP (2014) Increase2.svg$41.45 billion
International airport Shah Amanat International
Website Chittagong City Corporation

Chittagong ( /ɪtəɡɒŋ/ ), officially known as Chattogram, [4] is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh. The city has a population of more than 2.5 million [3] while the metropolitan area had a population of 4,009,423 in 2011, [3] making it the second-largest city in the country. It is the capital of an eponymous District and Division. The city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal. Modern Chittagong is Bangladesh's second most significant urban center after Dhaka.

Financial centre Locations which are centres of financial activity

A financial centre is defined by the IMF as encompassing: International Financial Centres (IFCs), such as New York City, London, and Tokyo; Regional Financial Centres (RFCs), such as Frankfurt, Chicago and Sydney; and Offshore Financial Centres (OFCs), such as Cayman Islands, Dublin, and Singapore.

Bangladesh Country in South Asia

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's 8th-most populous country with a population exceeding 162,951,560 people. In area, it is the 92nd-largest country, spanning 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi). It shares land borders with India to the west and Myanmar to the east. It is also one of the most densely-populated countries in the world. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, and is also the economic, political and the cultural center of Bangladesh, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region. The country's geography is dominated by the Bengal delta, the largest delta in the world. The country has many rivers and 8,046 km (5,000 mi) of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. The country also has the longest sea beach and the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plants and wildlife, including the endangered Bengal tiger, the national animal.

Chittagong District, officially known as Chattogram District, is a district located in the south-eastern region of Bangladesh. It is a part of the Chittagong Division. The port city of Chittagong, second largest city in Bangladesh, is located in this district.

Contents

Chittagong plays a vital role in the Bangladeshi economy. The Port of Chittagong is the principal maritime gateway to the country. The port is the busiest international seaport on the Bay of Bengal and the third busiest in South Asia. [5] The Chittagong Stock Exchange is one of the country's two stock markets. Several Chittagong-based companies are among the largest industrial conglomerates and enterprises in Bangladesh. The port city is the largest base of the Bangladesh Navy and Bangladesh Coast Guard; while the Bangladesh Army and Bangladesh Air Force also maintain bases and contribute to the city's economy. Chittagong is the headquarters of the Eastern Zone of the Bangladesh Railway, having historically been the headquarters of British India's Assam Bengal Railway and East Pakistan's Pakistan Eastern Railway. A controversial ship breaking industry on the outskirts of the city, which supplies local steel but causes pollution, has come under international scrutiny.

Economy of Bangladesh economy of the country

The market-based economy of Bangladesh is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. It's the 41st largest in the world in nominal terms, and 30th largest by purchasing power parity; it is classified among the Next Eleven emerging market middle income economies and a Frontier market. According to the IMF, Bangladesh's economy is the second fastest growing major economy of 2016, with a rate of 7.1%. Dhaka and Chittagong are the principal financial centers of the country, being home to the Dhaka Stock Exchange and the Chittagong Stock Exchange. The financial sector of Bangladesh is the second largest in the subcontinent.

Port of Chittagong major port in Bangladesh

The Port of Chittagong is the busiest seaport on the coastline of the Bay of Bengal, and the second busiest in the overall region of countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal. According to Lloyd's, it ranked as the 71st busiest port in the world in 2017 Located in the Bangladeshi port city of Chittagong and on the banks of the Karnaphuli River, the port of Chittagong handles 90% of Bangladesh's export-import trade, and has been used by India, Nepal and Bhutan for transshipment.

South Asia Southern region of Asia

South Asia, or Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.

Chittagong is an ancient seaport due to its natural harbor. It was noted as one of the largest Eastern ports by the Roman geographer Ptolemy in the 1st century. The harbor has been a gateway through southeastern Bengal in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Arab sailors and traders, who once explored the Bay of Bengal, set up a mercantile station in the harbor during the 9th century. [6] During the 14th century, the port became a "mint town" of the Sultanate of Bengal, with the status of an administrative center.

Eastern world Countries and cultures east of Europe

The Eastern world are various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, the Mediterranean Region and Arab world, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.

Ptolemy 2nd-century Greco-Egyptian writer and astronomer

Claudius Ptolemy was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, under the rule of the Roman Empire, had a Latin name, which several historians have taken to imply he was also a Roman citizen, cited Greek philosophers, and used Babylonian observations and Babylonian lunar theory. The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late, however, and there is no other evidence to confirm or contradict it. He died in Alexandria around AD 168.

Bengal Region in Asia

Bengal is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world; along with mountains in its north bordering the Himalayan states of Nepal and Bhutan and east bordering Burma.

During the 16th century, Portuguese historian João de Barros described Chittagong as "the most famous and wealthy city of the Kingdom of Bengal". [7] Portuguese Chittagong was the first European colonial settlement in Bengal. A naval battle in 1666 between the Mughal Empire and Arakan resulted in the expulsion of Portuguese pirates. British colonization began in 1760 when the Nawab of Bengal ceded Chittagong to the East India Company. During World War II, Chittagong was a base for Allied Forces engaged in the Burma Campaign. The port city began to expand and industrialize during the 1940s, particularly after the Partition of British India. During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, Chittagong was site of the country's declaration of independence.

João de Barros Portuguese historian

João de Barros, called the Portuguese Livy, is one of the first great Portuguese historians, most famous for his Décadas da Ásia, a history of the Portuguese in India, Asia, and southeast Africa.

Mughal Empire dynastic empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent

The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, was a large empire in South Asia. It was founded in 1526 and was formally dissolved in 1857. It is considered to be one of the largest centralized states known in pre-modern world history based in South Asia. It was founded in 1526 and was formally dissolved in 1857.

Arakan

Arakan is a historic coastal region in Southeast Asia. Its borders faced the Bay of Bengal to its west, the Indian subcontinent to its north and Burma proper to its east. The Arakan Mountains isolated the region and made it accessible only by sea. The region now forms the Rakhine State in Myanmar.

Chittagong has a high degree of religious and ethnic diversity among Bangladeshi cities, despite having an overwhelming Bengali Muslim majority. Minorities include Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians, Bengali Buddhists, the Chakmas, the Marmas, the Bohmong, the Rohingyas and Rakhines.

Etymology

The etymology of Chittagong is uncertain. [8] One explanation credits the first Arab traders for shatt ghangh (Arabic : شط غنغ) where shatt means "delta" and ghangh stood for the Ganges. [8] [9] [10] The Burmese tradition is that an Arakanese king, invading in the 9th century, gave the city the name Tsit-ta-gung (to make war is improper). [8] Another legend dates the name to the spread of Islam, when a Muslim lit a chati (lamp) at the top of a hill in the city and called out ( adhan ) for people to come to prayer. [11] However, the local name of the city (in Bengali or Chittagonian) Chatga (Bengali : চাটগা), which is a corruption of Chatgao (Bengali : চাটগাঁও) or Chatigao (Bengali : চাটিগাঁও), and officially Chottogram (Bengali : চট্টগ্রাম) bears the meaning of "village or town of Chatta (possibly a caste or tribe)."

Etymology Study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time

Etymology is the study of the history of words. By extension, the term "the etymology " means the origin of the particular word and for place names, there is a specific term, toponymy.

Rakhine people ethnic group

The Rakhine people are an ethnic group in Myanmar (Burma) forming the majority along the coastal region of present-day Rakhine State. They possibly constitute 5.53% or more of Myanmar's total population, but no accurate census figures exist. Arakanese people also live in the southeastern parts of Bangladesh, especially in Chittagong Division and Barisal Division. A group of Arakanese descendants, living in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh at least since the 16th century, are known as the Marma people or Mog people.

The adhan, also written as adhaan, athan, or azaan is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day. The root of the word is ʾadhina أَذِنَ meaning "to listen, to hear, be informed about". Another derivative of this word is ʾudhun (أُذُن), meaning "ear".

The port city has been known by various names in history, including Chatigaon, Chatigam, Chattagrama, Islamabad, Chattala, Chaityabhumi and Porto Grande De Bengala. In April 2018, the Bangladesh government decided that the English spelling would change from Chittagong to Chattogram to make the name sound similar to the Bangla spelling. [12]

Name

In 2018, the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina decided to change the city's name to a version of its Bengali spelling without public consultation, drawing protests and concern. [13] [14] After that, the name changed to Chattogram based on its Bengali pronunciation.

History

The medieval Kadam Mubarak Mosque Kadam mubarak mosque.JPG
The medieval Kadam Mubarak Mosque
Dutch VOC ships in Chittagong, 1702 Dutch VOC ships in Chittagong or Arakan.jpg
Dutch VOC ships in Chittagong, 1702

Stone age fossils and tools unearthed in the region indicate that Chittagong has been inhabited since Neolithic times. [15] It is an ancient port city, with a recorded history dating back to the 4th century BC. [16] Its harbour was mentioned in Ptolemy's world map in the 2nd century as one of the most impressive ports in the East. [17] The region was part of the ancient Bengali Samatata and Harikela kingdoms. The Candra dynasty once dominated the area, and was followed by the Varman dynasty and Deva dynasty.

Chinese traveler Xuanzang described the area as "a sleeping beauty rising from mist and water" in the 7th century. [18]

Arab Muslim traders frequented Chittagong from the 9th century. In 1154, Al-Idrisi wrote of a busy shipping route between Basra and Chittagong, connecting it with the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. [9]

Many Sufi missionaries settled in Chittagong and played an instrumental role in the spread of Islam. [19]

Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah of Sonargaon conquered Chittagong in 1340, [20] making it a part of Sultanate of Bengal. It was the principal maritime gateway to the kingdom, which was reputed as one of the wealthiest states in the Indian subcontinent. Medieval Chittagong was a hub for maritime trade with China, Sumatra, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, the Middle East and East Africa. It was notable for its medieval trades in pearls, [21] silk, muslin, rice, bullion, horses and gunpowder. The port was also a major shipbuilding hub.

Ibn Battuta visited the port city in 1345. [22] Niccolò de' Conti, from Venice, also visited around the same time as Battuta. [23] Chinese admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet anchored in Chittagong during imperial missions to the Sultanate of Bengal. [24] [25]

One of the few surviving structures of the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong Portuguese building tower 1.jpg
One of the few surviving structures of the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong
The Chittagong College was established in 1869. A branch of Pubali Bank is also seen in the picture. Chittagong College Red Building Front View.jpg
The Chittagong College was established in 1869. A branch of Pubali Bank is also seen in the picture.
The first steam engine of Bangladesh at the Central Railway Building. Chittagong was the terminus of the Eastern Bengal Railway and the Assam Bengal Railway First Ever Steam Engine of Bangladesh.jpg
The first steam engine of Bangladesh at the Central Railway Building. Chittagong was the terminus of the Eastern Bengal Railway and the Assam Bengal Railway
The Chittagong War Cemetery is the burial place of many Allied personnel who died during the Burma Campaign of World War II Chittagong War Cemetery 9.jpg
The Chittagong War Cemetery is the burial place of many Allied personnel who died during the Burma Campaign of World War II

Chittagong featured prominently in the military history of the Bengal Sultanate, including during the Reconquest of Arakan and the Bengal Sultanate–Kingdom of Mrauk U War of 1512–1516.

During the 13th and 16th centuries, Arabs and Persians heavily colonized the port city of Chittagong, initially arriving for trade and to preach the word of Islam. Most Arab settlers arrived from the trade route between Iraq and Chittagong, and were perhaps the prime reason for the spread of Islam to Bangladesh. [26] The first Persian settlers have also hinted to arrive for trade and religious purposes, with clues of Persianization tasks as well. Persians and other Iranic peoples have deeply affected the history of the Bengal Sultanate, with Persian being one of the main languages of the Muslim state, as well as also influencing the Chittagonian language and writing scripts. [27] [28] It has been affirmed that much of the Muslim population in Chittagong are descendants of the Arab and Persian settlers. [29]

Two decades after Vasco Da Gama's landing in Calicut, the Bengal Sultanate gave permission for the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong to be established in 1528. It became the first European colonial enclave in Bengal. The Bengal Sultanate lost control of Chittagong in 1531 after Arakan declared independence and the established Kingdom of Mrauk U. This altered geopolitical landscape allowed the Portuguese unhindered control of Chittagong for over a century. [30] [31]

Portuguese ships from Goa and Malacca began frequenting the port city in the 16th century. The cartaz system was introduced and required all ships in the area to purchase naval trading licenses from the Portuguese settlement. [32] Slave trade and piracy flourished. The nearby island of Sandwip was conquered in 1602. In 1615, the Portuguese Navy defeated a joint Dutch East India Company and Arakanese fleet near the coast of Chittagong.

In 1666, the Mughal government of Bengal led by viceroy Shaista Khan moved to retake Chittagong from Portuguese and Arakanese control. They launched the Mughal conquest of Chittagong. The Mughals attacked the Arakanese from the jungle with a 6,500-strong army, which was further supported by 288 Mughal naval ships blockading the Chittagong harbour. [33] After three days of battle, the Arakanese surrendered. The Mughals expelled the Portuguese from Chittagong. Mughal rule ushered a new era in the history of Chittagong territory to the southern bank of Kashyapnadi (Kaladan river). The port city was renamed as Islamabad. The Grand Trunk Road connected it with North India and Central Asia. Economic growth increased due to an efficient system of land grants for clearing hinterlands for cultivation. The Mughals also contributed to the architecture of the area, including the building of Fort Ander and many mosques. Chittagong was integrated into the prosperous greater Bengali economy, which also included Orissa and Bihar. Shipbuilding swelled under Mughal rule and the Sultan of Turkey had many Ottoman warships built in Chittagong during this period. [25] [34]

In 1685, the British East India Company sent out an expedition under Admiral Nicholson with the instructions to seize and fortify Chittagong on behalf of the English; however, the expedition proved abortive. Two years later, the company's Court of Directors decided to make Chittagong the headquarters of their Bengal trade and sent out a fleet of ten or eleven ships to seize it under Captain Heath. However, after reaching Chittagong in early 1689, the fleet found the city too strongly held and abandoned their attempt at capturing it. The city remained under the possession of the Nawab of Bengal until 1793 when East India Company took complete control of the former Mughal province of Bengal. [35] [36]

The First Anglo-Burmese War in 1823 threatened the British hold on Chittagong. There were a number of rebellions against British rule, notably during the Indian rebellion of 1857, when the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th companies of the 34th Bengal Infantry Regiment revolted and released all prisoners from the city's jail. In a backlash, the rebels were suppressed by the Sylhet Light Infantry. [9]

Railways were introduced in 1865, beginning with the Eastern Bengal Railway connecting Chittagong to Dacca and Calcutta. The Assam Bengal Railway connected the port city to its interior economic hinterland, which included the world's largest tea and jute producing regions, as well as one of the world's earliest petroleum industries. Chittagong was a major center of trade with British Burma. It hosted many prominent companies of the British Empire, including James Finlay, Duncan Brothers, Burmah Oil, the Indo-Burma Petroleum Company, Lloyd's, Mckenzie and Mckenzie, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, Turner Morrison, James Warren, the Raleigh Brothers, Lever Brothers and the Shell Oil Company.

The Chittagong armoury raid by Bengali revolutionaries in 1930 was a major event in British India's anti-colonial history.

During World War II, Chittagong became a frontline city in the Southeast Asian Theater. It was a critical air, naval and military base for Allied Forces during the Burma Campaign against Japan. The Imperial Japanese Air Force carried out air raids on Chittagong in April and May 1942, in the run up to the aborted Japanese invasion of Bengal. [37] [38] British forces were forced to temporarily withdraw to Comilla and the city was evacuated. After the Battle of Imphal, the tide turned in favor of the Allied Forces. Units of the United States Army Air Forces Tenth Air Force were stationed in Chittagong Airfield between 1944 and 1945. [39] American squadrons included the 80th Fighter Group, which flew P-38 Lightning fighters over Burma; the 8th Reconnaissance Group; and the 4th Combat Cargo Group. Commonwealth forces included troops from Britain, India, Australia and New Zealand. The war had major negative impacts on the city, including the growth of refugees and the Great Famine of 1943. [9]

Port of Chittagong in 1960 Chittagong port 1960.jpg
Port of Chittagong in 1960

Many wealthy Chittagonians profited from wartime commerce. The Partition of British India in 1947 made Chittagong the chief port of East Pakistan. In the 1950s, Chittagong witnessed increased industrial development. Among pioneering industrial establishments included those of Chittagong Jute Mills, the Burmah Eastern Refinery, the Karnaphuli Paper Mills and Pakistan National Oil. However, East Pakistanis complained of a lack of investment in Chittagong in comparison to Karachi in West Pakistan, even though East Pakistan generated more exports and had a larger population. The Awami League demanded that the country's naval headquarters be shifted from Karachi to Chittagong. [40]

During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, Chittagong witnessed heavy fighting between rebel Bengali military regiments and the Pakistan Army. It covered Sector 1 in the Mukti Bahini chain of command. The Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence was broadcast from Kalurghat Radio Station and transmitted internationally through foreign ships in Chittagong Port. [41] Ziaur Rahman and M A Hannan were responsible for announcing the independence declaration from Chittagong on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The Pakistani military, and supporting Razakar militias, carried out widespread atrocities against civilians in the city. Mukti Bahini naval commandos drowned several Pakistani warships during Operation Jackpot in August 1971. [42] In December 1971, the Bangladesh Air Force and the Indian Air Force carried out heavy bombing of facilities occupied by the Pakistani military. A naval blockade was also enforced. [43]

After the war, the Soviet Navy was tasked with clearing mines in Chittagong Port and restoring its operational capability. 22 vessels of the Soviet Pacific Fleet sailed from Vladivostok to Chittagong in May 1972. [44] The process of clearing mines in the dense water harbour took nearly a year, and claimed the life of one Soviet marine. [45] Chittagong soon regained its status as a major port, with cargo tonnage surpassing pre-war levels in 1973. In free market reforms launched by President Ziaur Rahman in the late 1970s, the city became home to the first export processing zones in Bangladesh. Zia was assassinated during an attempted military coup in Chittagong in 1981. The 1991 Bangladesh cyclone inflicted heavy damage on the city. The Japanese government financed the construction of several heavy industries and an international airport in the 1980s and 90s. Bangladeshi private sector investments increased since 1991, especially with the formation of the Chittagong Stock Exchange in 1995. The port city has been the pivot of Bangladesh's emerging economy in recent years, with the country's rising GDP growth rate.

Geography

Topography

Mohammad Yusuf Chowdhury Road in the Tigerpass area, an example of the city's hilly landscape Mohammad Yusuf Chowdhury Road from CRB hill (03).jpg
Mohammad Yusuf Chowdhury Road in the Tigerpass area, an example of the city's hilly landscape
Foy's Lake Foy's Lake 2 by Rahat.jpg
Foy's Lake

Chittagong lies at 22°22′0″N91°48′0″E / 22.36667°N 91.80000°E / 22.36667; 91.80000 . It straddles the coastal foothills of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in southeastern Bangladesh. The Karnaphuli River runs along the southern banks of the city, including its central business district. The river enters the Bay of Bengal in an estuary located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) west of downtown Chittagong. Mount Sitakunda is the highest peak in Chittagong District, with an elevation of 351 metres (1,152 ft). [46] Within the city itself, the highest peak is Batali Hill at 85.3 metres (280 ft). Chittagong has many lakes that were created under Mughal rule. In 1924, an engineering team of the Assam Bengal Railway established the Foy's Lake. [46]

Ecological hinterland

The Chittagong Division is known for its rich biodiversity. Over 2000 of Bangladesh's 6000 flowering plants grow in the region. [47] Its hills and jungles are laden with waterfalls, fast flowing river streams and elephant reserves. St. Martin's Island, within the Chittagong Division, is the only coral island in the country. The fishing port of Cox's Bazar is home to one of the world's longest natural beaches. In the east, there are the three hill districts of Bandarban, Rangamati, and Khagrachari, home to the highest mountains in Bangladesh. The region has numerous protected areas, including the Teknaf Game Reserve and the Sitakunda Botanical Garden and Eco Park. [48]

Patenga beach in the main seafront of Chittagong, located 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) west of the city.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Chittagong has a tropical monsoon climate (Am). [49]

Chittagong is vulnerable to North Indian Ocean tropical cyclones. The deadliest tropical cyclone to strike Chittagong was the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, which killed 138,000 people and left as many as 10 million homeless. [50]

Climate data for Chittagong (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)31.7
(89.1)
33.9
(93.0)
37.2
(99.0)
38.9
(102.0)
36.7
(98.1)
36.7
(98.1)
34.4
(93.9)
33.9
(93.0)
35.0
(95.0)
34.4
(93.9)
34.9
(94.8)
31.1
(88.0)
38.9
(102.0)
Average high °C (°F)26.0
(78.8)
28.3
(82.9)
30.8
(87.4)
31.9
(89.4)
32.4
(90.3)
31.7
(89.1)
31.0
(87.8)
31.4
(88.5)
31.8
(89.2)
31.7
(89.1)
30.0
(86.0)
27.2
(81.0)
30.4
(86.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)19.8
(67.6)
22.3
(72.1)
25.7
(78.3)
27.9
(82.2)
28.6
(83.5)
28.4
(83.1)
27.9
(82.2)
28.1
(82.6)
28.3
(82.9)
27.7
(81.9)
24.9
(76.8)
21.2
(70.2)
25.9
(78.6)
Average low °C (°F)14.0
(57.2)
16.3
(61.3)
20.5
(68.9)
23.6
(74.5)
24.9
(76.8)
25.4
(77.7)
25.2
(77.4)
25.3
(77.5)
25.2
(77.4)
24.1
(75.4)
20.3
(68.5)
15.8
(60.4)
21.7
(71.1)
Record low °C (°F)5.2
(41.4)
6.6
(43.9)
10.2
(50.4)
13.6
(56.5)
14.3
(57.7)
18.1
(64.6)
19.4
(66.9)
19.9
(67.8)
17.2
(63.0)
12.7
(54.9)
10.0
(50.0)
7.5
(45.5)
5.2
(41.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)7.3
(0.29)
25.0
(0.98)
55.5
(2.19)
136.4
(5.37)
314.0
(12.36)
591.3
(23.28)
735.6
(28.96)
513.9
(20.23)
239.3
(9.42)
197.8
(7.79)
59.5
(2.34)
14.1
(0.56)
2,889.7
(113.77)
Average precipitation days12481316191713731104
Average relative humidity (%)73707477798385858381787579
Mean monthly sunshine hours 264.1244.3276.4242.7227.2116.7105.1124.4166.7218.2241.3245.52,472.6
Source #1: Bangladesh Meteorological Department [51] [52] [53]
Source #2: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial (extremes), [54] Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990) [55] [lower-alpha 1]

Government

A meeting between the Bangladeshi and US navies in Chittagong Rear Adm.M. Farid Habib, assistant chief of Naval Staff for the Bangladesh Navy 120917-N-WX059-134.jpg
A meeting between the Bangladeshi and US navies in Chittagong

The Chittagong City Corporation (CCC) is responsible for governing municipal areas in the Chittagong Metropolitan Area. It is headed by the Mayor of Chittagong. The mayor and ward councillors are elected every five years. The mayor is Awami League leader A. J. M. Nasiuruddin, as of May 2015. [56] The city corporation's mandate is limited to basic civic services, however, the CCC is credited for keeping Chittagong one of the cleaner and most eco-friendly cities in Bangladesh. [57] [58] Its principal sources of revenue are municipal taxes and conservancy charges. [9] The Chittagong Development Authority is responsible for implementing the city's urban planning.

Deputy Commissioner and District Magistrate is the head of local administration on behalf of the Government of Bangladesh. Law enforcement is provided by the Chittagong Metropolitan Police and the Rapid Action Battalion-7. The District and Sessions Judge is the head of the local judiciary on behalf of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh. [9] The Divisional Special Judge's Court is located in the colonial-era Chittagong Court Building.

Although all resident embassies and high commissions in Bangladesh are located in capital Dhaka, Chittagong hosts an assistant high commission of India and a consulate general of Russia.

Military

Chittagong is also a strategically important military port on the Bay of Bengal. The Chittagong Naval Area is the principal base of the Bangladesh Navy and the home port of most Bangladeshi warships. [59] The Bangladesh Naval Academy and the navy's elite special force- Special Warfare Diving and Salvage (SWADS) are also based in the city. [60] The Bangladesh Army's 24th Infantry Division is based in Chittagong Cantonment, and the Bangladesh Air Force maintains the BAF Zahurul Haq Air Base in Chittagong. [61] The city is also home to the Bangladesh Military Academy, the premier training institute for the country's armed forces.

Economy

Top publicly traded
companies in Chittagong,

in 2014 [62]
Jamuna Oil Company
BSRM
Padma Oil Company
Meghna Petroleum
GPH Ispat
Aramit Cement
Western Marine Shipyard
RSRM
Hakkani Pulp & Paper
Source:
Chittagong Stock Exchange
Port of Chittagong Area Stacking Intermodal container in Port of Chittagong (11).jpg
Port of Chittagong Area

Chittagong generates for 40% of Bangladesh's industrial output, 80% of its international trade and 50% of its governmental revenue. [63] [64] The Chittagong Stock Exchange has more than 700 listed companies, with a market capitalisation of US$32 billion in June 2015. [62] The city is home to many of the country's oldest and largest corporations. The Port of Chittagong handled US$60 billion in annual trade in 2011, ranking 3rd in South Asia after the Port of Mumbai and the Port of Colombo. [5] [64]

The Agrabad area is the main central business district of the city. Major Bangladeshi conglomerates headquartered in Chittagong include M. M. Ispahani Limited, BSRM, A K Khan & Company, PHP Group, James Finlay Bangladesh, the Habib Group, the S. Alam Group of Industries, KDS Group and the T. K. Group of Industries. Major state-owned firms headquartered there include Pragati Industries, the Jamuna Oil Company, the Bangladesh Shipping Corporation and the Padma Oil Company. The Chittagong Export Processing Zone was ranked by the UK-based magazine, Foreign Direct Investment, as one of the leading special economic zones in the world, in 2010. [65] Other SEZs include the Karnaphuli Export Processing Zone and Korean EPZ. The city's key industrial sectors include petroleum, steel, shipbuilding, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, jute, leather goods, vegetable oil refineries, glass manufacturing, electronics and motor vehicles. The Chittagong Tea Auction sets the price of Bangladesh Tea. The Eastern Refinery is Bangladesh's largest oil refinery. GlaxoSmithKline has had operations in Chittagong since 1967. [66] Western Marine Shipyard is a leading Bangladeshi shipbuilder and exporter of medium-sized ocean going vessels. In 2011–12, Chittagong exported approximately US$4.5 billion in ready-made garments. [67] The Karnaphuli Paper Mills were established in 1953.

International banks operating in Chittagong include HSBC, Standard Chartered and Citibank NA. Chittagong is often called Bangladesh's commercial capital due to its diversified industrial base and seaport. The port city has ambitions to develop as a global financial centre and regional transshipment hub, given its proximity to North East India, Burma, Nepal, Bhutan and Southwest China. [68] [69]

Culture

The annual Chittagong City Corporation Book Fair Chittagong City Corporation Book Fair 2016 (04).jpg
The annual Chittagong City Corporation Book Fair
A typical Chittagonian dish, including roast chicken served with pulao rice Chittagonian Musallam.jpg
A typical Chittagonian dish, including roast chicken served with pulao rice

An inhabitant of Chittagong is called Chittagonian in English. [70] For centuries, the port city has been a melting pot for people from all over the world. Its historic trade networks have left a lasting impact on its language, culture and cuisine. The Chittagonian language has many Arabic, Persian, English and Portuguese loanwords. [9] The immensely popular traditional feast of Mezban features the serving of hot beef dish with white rice. [70] The cultivation of pink pearls is a historic activity in Chittagong. Its Mughal-era name, Islamabad (City of Islam), continues to be used in the old city. The name was given due to the port city's history as a gateway for early Islamic missionaries in Bengal. Notable Islamic architecture in Chittagong can be seen in the historic Bengal Sultanate-era Hammadyar Mosque and the Mughal fort of Anderkilla. Chittagong is known as the Land of the Twelve Saints [71] due to the prevalence of major Sufi Muslim shrines in the district. Historically, Sufism played an important role in the spread of Islam in the region. Prominent dargahs include the mausoleum of Shah Amanat and the shrine of Bayazid Bastami. The Bastami shrine hosts a pond of black softshell turtles.

During the medieval period, many poets thrived in the region when it was part of the Bengal Sultanate and the Kingdom of Mrauk U. Under the patronage of Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah's governor in Chittagong, Kabindra Parameshvar wrote his Pandabbijay, a Bengali adaptation of the Mahabharata. [72] Daulat Qazi lived in the region during the 17th century reign of the Kingdom of Mrauk U. Chittagong is home to several important Hindu temples, including the Chandranath Temple on the outskirts of the city, which is dedicated to the Hindu goddess Sita. [73] The city also hosts the country's largest Buddhist monastery and council of monks. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Chittagong is the oldest catholic mission in Bengal. [74]

Major cultural organisations in the city include the Theatre Institute Chittagong and the Chittagong Performing Arts Academy. The city has a vibrant contemporary art scene.

Being home to the pioneering rock bands in the country like Souls [75] and LRB, [76] Chittagong is regarded as the "birthplace of Bangladeshi rock music". [77] [78] [79]

Demographics

Jamiatul Falah, one of the largest mosques in Chittagong Jamiatul Falah Mosque.JPG
Jamiatul Falah, one of the largest mosques in Chittagong
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chittagong Patharghatta Catholic Church Chittagong.JPG
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chittagong

Chittagong has a population of more than 2.5 million, [3] and its Metropolitan Area has a population of 4,009,423. [80] By gender, the population was 54.36% male and 45.64% female, and the literacy rate in the city was 60 percent, in 2002. [81] Muslims at 86% form the overwhelming majority of the population and rest being 12% Hindus and 2% other religions. [9]

Chittagong was a melting pot of ethnicities during the Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal periods. Muslim immigration started as early as seventh century, and significant Muslim settlements occurred during medieval period. Muslim traders, rulers and preachers from Persia and Arabs were the early Muslim settlers, and descendants of them are the majority of current Muslim population of the city. The city has a relatively wealthy and economically influential Shia Muslim community, including Ismailis and Twelver Shias. The city also has many ethnic minorities, especially members of indigenous groups from the frontier hills of Chittagong Division, including Chakmas, Rakhines and Tripuris; as well as Rohingya refugees. The Bengali-speaking Theravada Buddhists of the area, known as Baruas , are one of the oldest communities in Chittagong and one of the last remnants of Buddhism in Bangladesh. [82] [83] [84] [85] Descendants of Portuguese settlers, often known as Firingis, also live in Chittagong, as well as Catholics, who largely live in the old Portuguese enclave of Paterghatta. [9] There is also a small Urdu-speaking Bihari community living in the ethnic enclave known as Bihari Colony. [86] [87]

Like other major urban centres in South Asia, Chittagong has experienced a steady growth in its slum settlements as a result of the increasing economic activities in the city and emigration from rural areas. According to a poverty reduction publication of the International Monetary Fund, there were 1,814 slums within the city corporation area, inhabited by about 1.8 million slum dwellers, the second highest in the country after the capital, Dhaka. [88] The slum dwellers often face eviction by the local authorities, charging them with illegal abode on government lands. [89] [90]

Media and communications

There are various newspapers, including daily newspapers, opposition newspapers and business newspapers, based in Chittagong. Daily newspapers include Dainik Azadi, [91] Peoples View, [92] The Daily Suprobhat Bangladesh, Purbokon, Life, Karnafuli, Jyoti, Rashtrobarta and Azan. Furthermore, there are a number of weekly and monthly newspapers. These include weeklies such as Chattala, Jyoti, Sultan, Chattagram Darpan and the monthlies such as Sanshodhani, Purobi, Mukulika and Simanto. The only press council in Chittagong is the Chittagong Press Club. Government owned Bangladesh Television and Bangladesh Betar have transmission centres in Chittagong. Chittagong has been featured in all aspects of Bangladeshi popular culture, including television, movies, journals, music and books. Nearly all televisions and radios in Bangladesh have coverage in Chittagong. Renowned Bollywood film director Ashutosh Gowariker directed a movie based on the 1930s Chittagong Uprising, Movie's name is Khelein Hum Jee Jaan Sey [93] in which Abhishek Bachchan played the lead role. [94] [95]

Utilities

The southern zone of the Bangladesh Power Development Board is responsible for supplying electricity to city dwellers. [96] [97] The fire services are provided by the Bangladesh Fire Service & Civil Defence department, under the Ministry of Home Affairs. [98]

The water supply and sewage systems are managed by the Chittagong Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (Chittagong WASA). [99] [100] Water is primarily drawn from Karnaphuli River and then purified in the Mohra Purification Plant. [101]

Chittagong has extensive GSM and CDMA coverage, served by all the major mobile operators of the country, including Grameenphone, Banglalink, Citycell, Robi, TeleTalk and Airtel Bangladesh. However, landline telephone services are provided through the state-owned Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB), as well as some private operators. BTTB also provides broadband Internet services, along with some private ISPs, including the 4G service providers Banglalion [102] and Qubee. [103]

Education

Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, one of the five public engineering universities in Bangladesh Entrance of CUET.jpg
Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, one of the five public engineering universities in Bangladesh
University of Chittagong Department of Computer Science and Engineering at University of Chittagong (11).jpg
University of Chittagong

The education system of Chittagong is similar to that of rest of Bangladesh, with four main forms of schooling. The general education system, conveyed in both Bangla and English versions, follows the curriculum prepared by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, part of the Ministry of Education. [104] Students are required to take four major board examinations: the Primary School Certificate (PSC), the Junior School Certificate (JSC), the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) before moving onto higher education. The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Chittagong is responsible for administering SSC and HSC examinations within the city. [105] [106] The Madrasah education system is primarily based on Islamic studies, though other subjects are also taught. Students are prepared according to the Dakhil and Alim examinations, which are controlled by the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board and are equivalent to SSC and HSC examinations of the general education system respectively. [107] There are also several private schools in the city, usually referred to as English medium schools, [104] which follow the General Certificate of Education.

The British Council supervises the O Levels and A levels examinations, conducted twice a year, through the Cambridge International and Edexcel examination boards. [108] [109] The Technical and Vocational education system is governed by the Directorate of Technical Education (DTE) and follow the curriculum prepared by Bangladesh Technical Education Board (BTEB). [110] [111] Chittagong College, established in 1869, is the earliest modern institution for higher education in the city. [112] Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University is the only public university located in Chittagong city. Chittagong Medical College is the only government medical college in Chittagong.

University of Chittagong is located 22 kilometres (14 miles) north and Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology is located 25 kilometres (16 miles) north of the Chittagong city. University of Chittagong, which was established in 1966 is one of the largest universities in Bangladesh. Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, established in 1968, is one of the five public engineering universities in Bangladesh and the only such university in the Chittagong Division.

The city also hosts several other private universities and medical colleges. The BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong Independent University (CIU), Asian University for Women, Port City International University, East Delta University, International Islamic University, Premier University, Southern University, University of Information Technology and Sciences and the University of Science & Technology Chittagong are among them. Chittagong has public, denominational and independent schools. Public schools, including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools and special schools are administered by the Ministry of Education and Chittagong Education Board. Chittagong has governmental and non-governmental primary schools, international schools and English medium schools.

Health

Chittagong Medical College and Hospital Chittagong Medical College and Hospital (5).jpg
Chittagong Medical College and Hospital

The Chittagong Medical College Hospital is the largest state-owned hospital in Chittagong. The Chittagong General Hospital, established in 1901, is the oldest hospital in the city. [113] The Bangladesh Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (BITID) is based the city. Other government-run medical centres in the city include the Family Welfare Centre, TB Hospital, Infectious Disease Hospital, Diabetic Hospital, Mother and Children Hospital and the Police Hospital. Among the city's private hospitals are the Chittagong Metropolitan Hospital, Surgiscope Hospital, CSCR, Centre Point Hospital, National Hospital and Mount Hospital Ltd. [114] [115] [116]

Transport

Shah Amanat International Airport ShahAmanatAirport-01.jpg
Shah Amanat International Airport

Transport in Chittagong is similar to that of the capital, Dhaka. Large avenues and roads are present throughout the metropolis. There are various bus systems and taxi services, as well as smaller 'baby' or 'CNG' taxis, which are basically tricycle-structured motor vehicles. There are also traditional manual rickshaws, which are very common.

Road

As the population of the city has begun to grow extensively, the Chittagong Development Authority (CDA) has undertaken some transportation initiatives aimed at easing the traffic congestion in Chittagong. Under this plan, the CDA, along with the Chittagong City Corporation, have constructed some flyovers and expanded the existing roads within the city. There are also some other major expressways and flyovers under-construction, most notably the Chittagong City Outer Ring Road, which runs along the coast of Chittagong city. This ring road includes a marine drive along with five feeder roads, and is also meant to strengthen the embankment of the coast. [117] [118] [ need quotation to verify ] [119] [120] [121] The government has also approved the construction of a 3.4 kilometres (2.1 mi) underwater expressway tunnel through the Karnaphuli river to ensure better connectivity between the northern and southern parts of Chittagong. This tunnel will be the first of its kind in Bangladesh. [122] [123] [124]

The N1 (Dhaka-Chittagong Highway), a major arterial national highway, is the only way to access the city by motor vehicle from most other part of the country. It is considered a very busy and dangerous highway. This highway is also part of AH41 route of the Asian Highway Network. It has been upgraded to 4 lanes. [125] The N106 (Chittagong-Rangamati Highway) is another important national highway that connects the Chittagong Hill Tracts with the city.

Rail

Chittagong can also be accessed by rail. It has a station on the metre gauge, eastern section of the Bangladesh Railway, whose headquarters are also located within the city. There are two main railway stations, on Station Road and in the Pahartali Thana. Trains to Dhaka, Sylhet, Comilla, and Bhairab are available from Chittagong. The Chittagong Circular Railway was introduced in 2013 to ease traffic congestion and to ensure better public transport service to the commuters within the city. The railway includes high-speed DEMU trains each with a carrying capacity of 300 passengers. These DEMU trains also travel on the Chittagong-Laksham route which connects the city with Comilla. [126] [127]

Air

The Shah Amanat International Airport ( IATA : CGP, ICAO : VGEG), located at South Patenga, serves as Chittagong's only airport. It is the second busiest airport in Bangladesh. The airport is capable of annually handling 1.5 million passengers and 6,000 tonnes of cargo. [128] Known as Chittagong Airfield during World War II, the airport was used as a combat airfield, as well as a supply point and photographic reconnaissance base by the United States Army Air Forces Tenth Air Force during the Burma Campaign 1944–45. [39] It officially became a Bangladeshi airport in 1972 after Bangladesh's liberation war. [129] International services fly to major cities of the Middle East as well as to Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Kolkata. At present, Middle Eastern low-cost carriers like Flydubai, Air Arabia, Oman Air and Southeast Asian airlines Malindo Air, Thai Smile operate flights from the city to these destinations along with local airlines. All Bangladeshi airlines operate regular domestic flights to Dhaka. The airport was formerly known as MA Hannan International Airport, but was renamed on 2 April 2005 by the Government of Bangladesh.

Sports

Zohur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium Zacs rain.jpg
Zohur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium

Chittagong has produced numerous cricketers, footballers and athletes, who have performed at the national level. Tamim Iqbal, Akram Khan, Minhajul Abedin, Aftab Ahmed, Nafees Iqbal, Nazimuddin, Faisal Hossain, Tareq Aziz are some of the most prominent figures among them. Cricket is the most popular sport in Chittagong, while football, tennis and kabaddi are also popular. A number of stadiums are located in Chittagong with the main one being the multipurpose MA Aziz Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 20,000 and hosts football matches in addition to cricket. [130] MA Aziz Stadium was the stadium where Bangladesh achieved its first ever Test cricket victory, against Zimbabwe in 2005. [131] The stadium now focuses only on football, and is currently the main football venue of the city. Zohur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium, is currently the main cricket venue of the city, which was awarded Test status in 2006, hosting both domestic and international cricket matches. The city hosted two group matches of the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011, both taking place in Zohur Ahmed Chowdhury Stadium. [132] Other stadiums in Chittagong include the Women's Complex Ground. Major sporting clubs such as, Mohammedan Sporting Club and Abahani Chittagong are also located in the city. Chittagong is also home to the Bangladesh Premier League franchise, the Chittagong Vikings.

Twin towns and sister cities

Chittagong is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Bangladesh aspect of history

Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after breaking away and achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War. The country's borders corresponded with the major portion of the ancient and historic region of Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, where civilization dates back over four millennia, to the Chalcolithic. The history of the region is closely intertwined with the history of Bengal and the broader history of the Indian subcontinent.

Karnaphuli river in the south-eastern part of Bangladesh

Karnaphuli, or Khawthlangtuipui, is the largest and most important river in Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. It is a 667-metre (2,188 ft) wide river in the south-eastern part of Bangladesh. Originating from the Saitah village of Mamit district in Mizoram, India, it flows 270 kilometres (170 mi) southwest through Chittagong Hill Tracts and Chittagong into the Bay of Bengal. It is said to "represent the drainage system of the whole south-western part of Mizoram." Principal tributaries include the Kawrpui River or Thega River, Tuichawng River and Phairuang River. A large hydroelectric power plant using Karnaphuli river was built in the Kaptai region during the 1960s. The mouth of the river hosts Chittagong's sea port, the main port of Bangladesh.

Sonargaon historic administrative, commercial and maritime centre in Bengal

Sonargaon is a historic city in central Bangladesh. It is one of the old capitals of the historic region of Bengal and was an administrative center of eastern Bengal. It was also a port and trading center. During British colonial rule, merchants built many Indo-Saracenic townhouses in the Panam neighborhood. Sonargaon was central to the muslin trade in Bengal.

History of Bengal Hindu is a great relegion

The history of Bengal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta. The advancement of civilisation in Bengal dates back four millennia. The region was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Gangaridai. The Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers act as a geographic marker of the region, but also connects the region to the broader Indian subcontinent. Bengal, at times, has played an important role in the history of the Indian subcontinent.

Bengalis Ethnic group native to India and Bangladesh

Bengalis, also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to the Bengal region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam's Barak Valley, who speak Bengali, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The term "Bangalee" is also used to denote people of Bangladesh as a nation.

Architecture of Bengal

The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, Assam's Barak Valley, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements from the Indian subcontinent, with influences from different parts of the world. Bengali architecture includes ancient urban architecture, religious architecture, rural vernacular architecture, colonial townhouses and country houses, and modern urban styles. The bungalow style is a notable architectural export of Bengal. The corner towers of Bengali religious buildings were replicated in medieval Southeast Asia. Bengali curved roofs were copied by the Mughals in North India.

Sitakunda Upazila Upazila in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh

Sitakunda is an upazila, or administrative unit, in the Chittagong District of Bangladesh. It includes one urban settlement, the Sitakunda Town, and 10 unions, the lowest of administrative units in Bangladesh. It is one of the 14 upazilas, the second tier of administrative units, of the Chittagong District, which also includes 12 thanas, the urban equivalent of upazilas. The district is part of the Chittagong Division, the highest order of administrative units in Bangladesh. Sitakunda is the home of the country's first eco-park, as well as alternative energy projects, specifically wind energy and geothermal power.

Tourism in Bangladesh

Bangladesh's tourist attractions include historical monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and tribal people, wildlife of various species. Activities for tourists include angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, yachting, and sea bathing.

Sylhet region Region

Sylhet is a geographical, historical and cultural region in the north-eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and comprises the Sylhet Division in Bangladesh, which includes the Surma Valley, and the three districts of the Barak Valley in Assam, India. In 1947, when a plebiscite was held in Sylhet, the population decided to join to the Pakistani province of East Bengal. However, when the Radcliffe Line was drawn up, the Barak Valley was given to India by the Commission after being pleaded by a delegation led by Abdul Matlib Mazumdar. Nihar Ranjan Roy, author of Bangalir Itihash, says that "South Assam / Northeastern Bengal or Barak Valley is the extension of the Greater Surma/Meghna Valley of Bengal in every aspect from culture to geography".

Bengal Sultanate The sovereign power of Bengal for much of the 14th to 16th centuries

The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah and Shahi Bangalah was the sovereign power of Bengal for much of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. It emerged after more than a century of rule by the Delhi Sultanate. The Bengal Sultanate was a cosmopolitan and important Muslim state in Asia. Described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with, it was the first independent unified Bengali kingdom under Muslim rule. The region became widely known as Bangalah and Bengala under this kingdom. The two terms are precursors to the modern terms Bangla and Bengal. In European and Chinese accounts, the Bengal Sultanate was described as a major trading nation in the medieval period.

Chittagong Port Authority

Chittagong Port Authority(CPA) is a government agency of Bangladesh responsible for the management, maintenance and governance of the country's major port of Chittagong, located in the city of Chittagong on the Karnaphuli River nine nautical miles from the shore of the Bay of Bengal of the Indian Ocean. The CPA is part of the Ministry of Shipping.

Bangladeshis Ethnic group

Bangladeshis are the citizens of Bangladesh. The country is named after the historical region of Bengal, of which it constitutes the largest and easternmost part. Bangladeshi citizenship was formed in 1971, when the permanent residents of the former East Pakistan were transformed into citizens of a new republic. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous nation. Vast majority of Bangladeshis are ethnolingustically Asian Indo-Aryan people who speak Bengali language and follow the Islamic religion. The population of Bangladesh is concentrated in the fertile Bengal delta, which has been the center of urban and agrarian civilizations for millennia. The country's highlands, including the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Sylhet Division, are home to various tribal minorities.

Bengal Subah Subdivision of the Mughal Empire, encompassing most of the Bengal region

The Bengal Subah, was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries. The state was established following the dissolution of the Islamic Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world, when the region was absorbed into one of the Gunpowder Empires. Bengal was the wealthiest and commercially the most developed province of the empire as well as in the Muslim world and its economy signalled period of proto-industrialization. The Mughals played an important role in developing modern Bengali culture and society.

History of Chittagong

Chattogram has been a seaport since ancient times. The region was home to the ancient Bengali Buddhist Samatata and Harikela states. It later fell under of the rule of the Gupta Empire, the Pala Empire and the Vesali kingdom of Arakan till the 7th century. Arabs traded with the port from the 9th century AD. An account by historian Lama Taranath has revealed a Buddhist king Gopichandra had his capital at Chittagong in the 10th century, and according to Tibetan tradition, Chittagong was the birthplace of 10th century Buddhist Tantric Tilayogi. In the Fourteenth Century, explorer Ibn Battuta passed through Chittagong during his travels.

Chittagong, the second largest city and main port of Bangladesh, was home to a thriving trading post of the Portuguese Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Portuguese first arrived in Chittagong around 1528 and left in 1666 after the Mughal conquest. It was the first European colonial enclave in the historic region of Bengal.

Bengali Muslims Ethno-linguistic and religious population from Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent

Bengali Muslims are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. They are Bengalis who adhere to Islam and speak the Bengali language. They form the largest Bengali and the second largest Muslim ethnic group in the world.

Names of Chittagong

The city known in English as Chittagong has undergone changes in both its official and popular names worldwide. The choice of names stems from the Chittagonian culture, language and colonisation. A reason for the city having a number of names is due to the diverse history of Chittagong and the Chittagonian language, which nearly has a 50% Arabic-origin vocabulary.

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Notes

  1. Station ID for Chittagong (Patenga) is 41978 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration
  1. Population and Housing Census 2011 - Volume 3: Urban Area Report (PDF), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, August 2014