Chiusaforte

Last updated
Chiusaforte
Comune
Comune di Chiusaforte
Chiusaforte 08092007 25.jpg
Italy provincial location map 2015.svg
Red pog.svg
Chiusaforte
Location of Chiusaforte in Italy
Coordinates: 46°24′N13°19′E / 46.400°N 13.317°E / 46.400; 13.317
Country Italy
Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Province Udine (UD)
Frazioni Costamolino e Sella Nevea
Government
  Mayor Fabrizio Fuccaro
Area
  Total 100.6 km2 (38.8 sq mi)
Elevation 391 m (1,283 ft)
Population (31 December 2010) [1]
  Total 705
  Density 7.0/km2 (18/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Chiusani
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code33010
Dialing code 0433

Chiusaforte (Slovene : Kluže, German : Klausen, Friulian : Sclûse) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

Slovene language language spoken in Slovenia

Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Friulian or Friulan is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy. Friulian has around 600,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian. It is sometimes called Eastern Ladin since it shares the same roots as Ladin, but, over the centuries, it has diverged under the influence of surrounding languages, including German, Italian, Venetian, and Slovene. Documents in Friulian are attested from the 11th century and poetry and literature date as far back as 1300. By the 20th century, there was a revival of interest in the language that has continued to this day. In North America the more common English form is Friulan for both the language and the ethnic identity of the people living in Friuli and abroad. Friulan follows the example of Friulano in Italian. See the reference, Friulan Dictionary: English–Friulan / Friulan–English. Eds. Gianni Nazzi & Deborah Saidero. Udine: Ent Friul tal Mond. 2000.

Contents

Geography

Road and railway bridges crossing the Fella River Chiusaforte alte Strassenbruecke.jpg
Road and railway bridges crossing the Fella River

It is located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Udine, on the border with Slovenia. Chiusaforte is situated in the Canal del Ferro valley of the Fella River, running between the Carnic and Julian Alps to its confluence with the Tagliamento.

Trieste Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi) south.

Udine Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Udine is a city and comune in north-eastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps. Its population was 100,514 in 2012, 176,000 with the urban area.

Slovenia republic in Central Europe

Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, and of NATO. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.

Chiusaforte borders the following municipalities: Dogna, Malborghetto Valbruna, Moggio Udinese, Bovec (Slovenia), Resia, Resiutta, Tarvisio.

Dogna Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Dogna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Udine. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 235 and an area of 70.0 square kilometres (27.0 sq mi).

Malborghetto Valbruna Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Malborghetto Valbruna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

Moggio Udinese Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Moggio Udinese is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.

The Fella Valley is the site of Pontebbana railway line from Udine to Tarvisio and the Austrian border. It is also traversed by the parallel Italian Autostrada A23 highway from Palmanova to Tarvisio.

Tarvisio Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Tarvisio is a comune in the Province of Udine, the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy.

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

Autostrada A23 (Italy) controlled-access highway

The Autostrada A23 is an Italian motorway, which connects the A4 motorway (Turin–Trieste) near Palmanova via Udine to Tarvisio and the Austrian Süd Autobahn (A2).

History

the Jof di Montasio from Kanin Mountains Montasio dal canin.jpg
the Jôf di Montasio from Kanin Mountains

The narrow valley probably had been the site of a Roman Road from Italy to the Noricum province. Ulric von Eppenstein, Patriarch of Aquileia (10861121) had a fortress erected to charge tolls to travellers crossing the Alps. The Patriarchs had to defend their territory against the claims raised by the Counts of Görz and the Dukes of Carinthia, until in 1420 the Republic of Venice conquered the Fella Valley up to Pontebba and incorporated it into the Domini di Terraferma.

Noricum celtic kingdom, then a province of the Roman Empire

Noricum is the Latin name for the Celtic kingdom or federation of tribes that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia. In the first century AD, it became a province of the Roman Empire. Its borders were the Danube to the north, Raetia and Vindelicia to the west, Pannonia to the east and southeast, and Italia to the south. The kingdom was founded around 400 BC, and had its capital at the royal residence at Virunum on the Magdalensberg.

Toll road roadway for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage

A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing typically implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance.

Southern Limestone Alps mountain range

The Southern Limestone Alps are the ranges of the Eastern Alps south of the Central Eastern Alps mainly located in northern Italy and the adjacent lands of Austria and Slovenia. The distinction from the Central Alps, where the higher peaks are located, is based on differences in geological composition. The Southern Limestone Alps extend from the Sobretta-Gavia range in Lombardy in the west to the Pohorje in Slovenia in the east.

Annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy according to the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio it was part of the Austrian Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1815, until it fell with Venetia to the newly established Kingdom of Italy according to the 1866 Treaty of Vienna.

Habsburg Monarchy former Central European empire (1526–1804)

The Habsburg Monarchy – also Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Treaty of Campo Formio 1797 treaty between Napoleonic France and Habsburg Austria

The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on 18 October 1797 by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively. The treaty followed the armistice of Leoben, which had been forced on the Habsburgs by Napoleon's victorious campaign in Italy. It ended the War of the First Coalition and left Great Britain fighting alone against revolutionary France.

Kingdom of Italy kingdom on the Appenine Peninsula between 1861 and 1946

The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state.

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References

  1. All demographics and other statistics: Italian statistical institute Istat.