|• Revised Romanization||Cheongjin-si|
Downtown Chongjin in September 2011, as seen from the city's monument of Kim Il-sung.
City of Iron
Map of North Hamgyong showing the location of Chongjin
|Administrative divisions||7 kuyok|
|• Total||269 km2 (104 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)|
Chŏngjin (Korean pronunciation: [tsʰʌŋ.dʑin] ; Korean : 청진시; MR : Ch'ŏngjin-si) is the capital of North Korea's North Hamgyong Province (함경북도) and the country's third largest city. It is sometimes called the City of Iron.
This section relies largely or entirely on a single source . (February 2021)
Chongjin was a small fishing village prior to the Japanese annexation of Korea; its date of establishment is unknown. The Chinese characters for its name mean 'clear river crossing'.During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, Japanese forces landed at Chongjin and established a supply base due to its proximity to the front lines in Manchuria. The Japanese remained after the end of the war, and in 1908, declared the city an open trading port both for the transport of Korean resources and as a stopping point for resources from China. The city was known during this period as “Seishin”, after the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese characters for its name. The Imperial Japanese Army’s 19th Division was headquartered in Ranam from 1918, where the Japanese built a new planned city based on a rectangular street grid. In 1930, Nippon Steel built a large steel mill, the Seishin Iron and Steel Works, in the town. Ranam was annexed to Chongjin in 1940, which was elevated to city status. The city was overrun after a brief resistance by the Soviet Union on 13 August 1945, only two days before the end of World War II. Under the rule of North Korea, Chongjin remained an important military and industrial centre. It was directly administered by the central government from 1960-1967 and from 1977-1988.
During the North Korean famine of the 1990s, Chongjin was one of the worst affected locations in the country; death rates may have been as high as 20 %. Conditions there remain poor in terms of food availability. This problem has caused several instances of civil unrest in Chongjin, a rarity in North Korea. On 4 March 2008, a crowd of women merchants protested in response to tightened market controls. Rising grain prices and government attempts to prohibit "peddling in the market" have been cited as causes for the protests. As a result of the protest, the Chongjin local government "posted a proclamation allowing peddling in the market." On 24 August 2008, a clash occurred between foot patrol agents and female merchants, which escalated into a "massive protest rally". It was reported that the Chongjin local government-issued verbal instructions relaxing the enforcement activity until the time of the next grain ration.
From 1948 to 1960, 1967 to 1977, and 1987 to present, Ch'ŏngjin was governed as a part of North Hamgyong Province. From 1960 until 1967, and again from 1977 to 1987, Chongjin was administered as a directly governed city.
Ch'ŏngjin is divided into 7 wards (구역, kuyŏk, Korean pronunciation: [kujʌk] ).
Chongjin is located in the northeast of North Korea, in North Hamgyong Province, near the East Korea Bay (Kyŏngsŏng Bay)in the Sea of Japan. The Susong River (수성천) runs through the city; contained in the city are the Sodu Stream (서두수) and Mount Komal (고말산).
Chongjin has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dwb) with cold, dry winters and warm, rainy summers.
|Climate data for Chongjin (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.0|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.4|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.7|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||4.3||3.5||3.6||4.5||9.3||11.0||13.1||10.0||6.4||3.6||4.1||4.9||78.3|
|Average snowy days||8.2||5.9||4.2||1.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.2||3.1||7.6||30.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||62.0||63.4||64.6||67.0||75.0||83.1||87.5||84.3||75.9||66.4||62.9||62.0||71.2|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration|
Chongjin is one of the DPRK's important steel and fiber industry centers. It has a shipyard, a locomotive plant, and a rubber factory. Near the port area are the Chongjin Steel Co., Chemical Textile Co., May 10 Coal Mine Machinery Factory, and Kimchaek Iron & Steel (which was called Nippon Steel during the Japanese occupation);however industrial activities in the city have been severely handicapped due to a lack of resources. Despite this, however, Chongjin is estimated to have a 24 percent share of the DPRK's foreign trade and is home to a resident Chinese consul who serves Chinese merchants and businesspersons operating in the northeast of the country. Chongjin also contains Sunam Market, an example of market economics in North Korea.
Because of the heavy concentration of industries in the area, Chongjin is also the DPRK's air pollution black spot.[ citation needed ] With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent shortage of oil to generate electricity, many factories have been shuttered. One of the first senior U.N. officials permitted to visit the area, Tun Myat, observed in 1997 when the North Korea economic crisis reached its peak, "Chongjin was like a forest of scrap metal, with huge plants that seem to go on for miles and miles that have been turned into rust buckets. I've been all over the world, and I've never seen anything quite like this."
Chongjin Bus Factory, established in 1981, supplies a large number of buses and trolleybuses to Chongjin.It also builds the trams used within Chongjin, including one articulated tram. In recent years, the factory has built more trolleybuses that visually resemble the Chollima-321 of the Trolleybuses in Pyongyang.
The area has little arable land, so the famine in the 1990s hit the residents of Chongjin particularly hard. During the late 1990s, the city's residents experienced some of the highest death rates from famine, which might have been as high as 20 percent of the population.By 1995, the local frog population was wiped out due to overhunting.
Chongjin's port has established itself as a critical component of busy international shipping trade with neighbouring parts of Northeast and Southeast Asia. Of DPRK's eight international shipping ports, Chongjin is thought to be the second most economically important (after Nampho port on the west coast)and serves as a base of trade to Russia and Japan. Chongjin also boasts a seamen's club which serves to cater for foreign crews as well as a meeting base for North Koreans and foreigners engaged in the shipping trade.
The People's Republic of China and Russia have set up their consulates in Chongjin. It is unique for a North Korean city to have a foreign consulate. Chongjin is the administrative centre of the North Hamgyong Province.
Orang Airport located in Orang County 40 kilometres from Chongjin is equipped with a 2,500 m (8,200 ft) runway on military and civilian dual purpose air station (CHO). North Korea planned to upgrade an old airport near Hamhung as late as 2003, so that it would have a 4,000 m (13,000 ft) runway, and would act as the nation's second international airport. However, it is still not completed.
The Wonson-Rason Railway and Chongjin-Rason Railway (Pyongra Line) electric railways operated by the Korean State Railway connect Rason and capital Pyongyang.
Chongjin Tram is the only city in North Korea other than Pyongyang to operate a tram system. These trains are all locally manufactured. It consists of one line built in two phases, phase 1, 6 km (3.7 mi), and phase 2, 7 km (4.3 mi). It has a turning loop in Pongchon and Namchongjin, with the depot located in Sabong.
A trolleybus system also operates with 3 lines.
The main road through the city, called Road No. 1, is a six lane highway.
There are several state-run higher educational facilities located here, such as:
The Kim Jong-suk Teachers' College, which was named after Kim Jong-il's mother, Kim Jong-suk, is in Chongjin.
Schools for gifted and talented students include:
There is an aquatic product research center. Famous scenic sites include hot springs and Mt. Chilbo. Chongjin's most famous product is processed squid. The city is home to the football team, the Ch'ŏngjin Chandongcha.
The local newspaper is the Hambuk Daily .
Chongjin is featured in the book Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea by Barbara Demick.
Chongjin has two sister cities:
Wŏnsan, previously known as Wŏnsanjin (元山津), Port Lazarev, and Genzan (元山), is a port city and naval base located in Kangwŏn Province, North Korea, along the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula, on Sea of Japan and the provincial capital. The port was opened by occupying Japanese forces in 1880. Before the 1950–1953 Korean War, it fell within the jurisdiction of the then South Hamgyŏng province, and during the war it was the location of the Blockade of Wŏnsan. The population of the city was estimated at 329,207 in 2013. Notable people from Wŏnsan include Kim Ki-nam, a diplomat and former Vice Chairman of the ruling Workers' Party of Korea.
Rason is a North Korean city and ice-free port in the Sea of Japan in the North Pacific Ocean on the northeast tip of North Korea. It is in the Kwanbuk region and location of the Rason Special Economic Zone.
Hamhŭng is North Korea's second largest city, and the capital of South Hamgyŏng Province. With an estimated population of 768,551, Hamhung is the second largest city by population in the whole country of North Korea. Located in the southern part of the South Hamgyong province, Hamhung is the main and most popular metropolitan area in the whole province, and serves for almost all tourism by foreigners to the province. Hamhung has a thriving local economy compared to other metropolitan areas in North Korea, and it is known by North Koreans as a great area of architectural construction that was centrally planned, and built by the government of North Korea.
Trams and Trolleybuses in North Korea are forms of public transportation for North Koreans to travel around in urban centres given the shortages on fuel and access to cars for average citizens.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to North Korea:
Rail transport in North Korea is provided by Korean State Railway which is the only rail operator in North Korea. It has a network of over 6,000 km of track, of which the vast majority is standard gauge; there is, however, nearly 400 km of narrow-gauge lines (762 mm) in various locations around the country.
Ranam station is a railway station located in Ranam-guyok, Chongjin, North Korea. It is located on the Pyongra Line, which connects the capital, Pyongyang, to Rason, a major port city.
The Pyongyang trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network of Pyongyang, the capital city of North Korea, and extends to some of its suburbs.
Rajin station is a railway station in Rajin-guyŏk, Rasŏn Special City, North Korea. It is the junction point and terminus of both the Hambuk and P'yŏngra lines of the Korean State Railway. It is also the starting point of a freight-only branchline to Rajin Port station.
Ch'ŏngjin Ch'ŏngnyŏn station is the central railway station in Ch'ŏngjin-si, North Hamgyŏng Province, North Korea. It is the junction point of the Hambuk Line and the P'yŏngra Line of the Korean State Railway, and is the beginning of the Ch'ŏngjinhang Line to Ch'ŏngjin Port.
The Kangdŏk Line is an electrified standard-gauge secondary line of the North Korean State Railway running from Namgangdŏk on the P'yŏngra Line to Susŏng on the Hambuk Line.
The Hambuk Line is an electrified standard-gauge trunk line of the Korean State Railway in North Korea, running from Ch'ŏngjin) on the P'yŏngra Line to Rajin, likewise on the P'yŏngra line.
The Musan Line is an electrified standard-gauge secondary trunk line of the Korean State Railway in Musan and Puryŏng counties, North Hamgyŏng Province, North Korea, running from Komusan on the Hambuk Line to Musan, where it connects to the narrow-gauge Paengmu Line. The section from Komusan to Sinch'am is double tracked.
Kim Chaek Iron & Steel Works is one of North Korea's largest steel mills. It is located in Songpyong-guyok, Chongjin, North Hamgyŏng Province. Kim Chaek was the name of a North Korean politician and Kim Il Sung's friend. It was established by Nippon Steel during the Japanese occupation of Korea, and was subsequently nationalised after the establishment of the DPRK. In North Korea, this factory is called "The Big Metallurgic Base of the North ". It has fifty thousand employees.
The P'yŏngra Line is an electrified standard-gauge trunk line of the Korean State Railway in North Korea, running from P'yŏngyang to Rason, where it connects with the Hambuk Line. It is North Korea's main northeast–southwest rail line.
Musan Kwangsan station is a railway station in Musan County, North Hamgyŏng Province, North Korea. It is the terminus of the freight-only Musan Mining Line of the Korean State Railway's Musan Line.
Hoeryŏng Ch'ŏngnyŏn station is a railway station in Hoeryŏng-si, North Hamgyŏng, North Korea, on the Hambuk Line of the Korean State Railway. It is also the starting point of the 10.6-km-long freight-only Hoeryŏng Colliery Line to Yusŏn-dong, Hoeryŏng-si.
Namyang station is a railway station in Namyang-rodongjagu, Onsŏng county, North Hamgyŏng, North Korea, on the Hambuk Line of the Korean State Railway, and there is a bridge across the Tumen River, giving a connection to the Chinese railway network at Tumen, China via the Namyang Border Line.
The Namyanggukkyŏng Line, or Namyang Border Line, is a 0.8 km (0.50 mi) long railway line of the Korean State Railway connecting Namyang on the Hambuk Line with Kukkyŏng at the DPRK–China border, continuing on to Tumen, China, 3.3 km (2.1 mi) from Namyang. At Tumen it connects with China Railway's Changtu Railway, Tujia Railway, and Tuhun Railway. The line is electrified between Namyang and Kukkyong.
Chongjin Tram is a public tram system in Chongjin, Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The line opened in 1999. There is currently one line in operation.
The source referred to thriving Sunam Market in North Hamgyong’s capital Chongjin—North Korea’s third-largest city—where profits from running a stand can generate profits “as high as those earned by foreign currency-generating organizations.”
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chongjin .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chongjin .|
Largest cities or towns in North Korea
|Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.||Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.|
|1||Pyongyang||Pyongyang Capital City||3,255,288||11||Sunchon||South Pyongan||297,317|| |
|2||Hamhung||South Hamgyong||768,551||12||Pyongsong||South Pyongan||284,386|
|3||Chongjin||North Hamgyong||667,929||13||Haeju||South Hwanghae||273,300|
|4||Nampo||South Pyongan Province||366,815||14||Kanggye||Chagang||251,971|
|6||Sinuiju||North Pyongan||359,341||16||Tokchon||South Pyongan||237,133|
|7||Tanchon||South Hamgyong||345,875||17||Kimchaek||North Hamgyong||207,299|
|8||Kaechon||South Pyongan||319,554||18||Rason||Rason Special Economic Zone||196,954|
|9||Kaesong||North Hwanghae||308,440||19||Kusong||North Pyongan||196,515|