|• Chosŏn'gŭl||천 내 군|
|• Hancha||川 內 郡|
|• Revised Romanization||Cheonnae-gun|
Map of Kangwon showing the location of Chonnae
|Administrative divisions||1 ŭp, 3 workers' districts, 15 ri|
|Population (1991 est.)|
Ch'ŏnnae County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. Originally part of Munch'ŏn, it was made a separate county as part of the general reorganization of local government in December 1952.
The administrative divisions of North Korea are organized into three hierarchical levels. These divisions were discovered in 2002. Many of the units have equivalents in the system of South Korea. At the highest level are nine provinces, two directly governed cities, and three special administrative divisions. The second-level divisions are cities, counties, wards, and districts. These are further subdivided into third-level entities: towns, neighborhoods, villages, and workers' districts.
Kangwon Province is a province of North Korea, with its capital at Wŏnsan. Before the division of Korea in 1945, Kangwŏn Province and its South Korean neighbour Gangwon Province formed a single province that excluded Wŏnsan.
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers; it is bordered to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two. Nevertheless, North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands.
Ch'ŏnnae borders the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea) to the east. Most of the terrain is mountainous, but there is level ground near the coast in the northeast. The chief stream is the Ch'ŏnt'an River (천탄강). The county's area is roughly 70% forestland.
The Sea of Japan is the marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula and Russia. The Japanese archipelago separates the sea from the Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. Like the Mediterranean Sea, it has almost no tides due to its nearly complete enclosure from the Pacific Ocean. This isolation also reflects in the fauna species and in the water salinity, which is lower than in the ocean. The sea has no large islands, bays or capes. Its water balance is mostly determined by the inflow and outflow through the straits connecting it to the neighboring seas and Pacific Ocean. Few rivers discharge into the sea and their total contribution to the water exchange is within 1%.
Ch'ŏnnae county is divided into 1 ŭp (town), 3 rodongjagu (workers' districts) and 15 ri (villages):
In the northeast, the dominant industry is agriculture. The chief local crops are rice, maize, and soybeans; sericulture (silk farming) and orcharding also play a role.
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.
Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.
Mines extract local mineral deposits including limestone and anthracite.
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A closely related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones.
Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest energy density of all types of coal and is the highest ranking of coals.
The Kangwŏn Line of the Korean State Railway runs through Ch'ŏnnae county, with a short branchline connecting Ch'ŏnnae-ŭp to the mainline. The county is also served by roads.
The Kangwŏn Line is a 145.8 km (90.6 mi) electrified standard-gauge trunk line of the Korean State Railway of North Korea, connecting Kowŏn on the P'yŏngra Line to P'yŏnggang, providing an east–west connection between the P'yŏngra and Ch'ŏngnyŏn Ich'ŏn lines.
The Korean State Railway is the operating arm of the Ministry of Railways of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and has its headquarters at P'yŏngyang. The current Minister of Railways is Jang Hyuk, who has held the position since 2015.
Munch'ŏn is a North Korean city located in Kangwŏn Province. It lies on the coast of the Sea of Japan and borders Wonsan.
Ŏrang County is a kun, or county, in North Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It is situated on the coast of the Sea of Japan. Originally part of Kyŏngsŏng county, Ŏrang was created in 1952 following the division of Korea.
Kŭmya County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It borders the Sea of Japan to the east.
Kowŏn County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It lies at the southern tip of the province.
Hongwŏn County is a county in South Hamgyŏng province, North Korea. It is flanked by the Sea of Japan to the south, and by the Hamgyŏng Mountains to the north.
Kosŏng County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. It lies in the southeasternmost corner of North Korea, immediately north of the Korean Demilitarized Zone. Prior to the end of the Korean War in 1953, it made up a single county, together with what is now the South Korean county of the same name. In a subsequent reorganization, the county absorbed the southern portion of Tongch'ŏn county.
Anbyŏn is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. Originally included in South Hamgyŏng province, it was transferred to Kangwŏn province in a September 1946 reshuffling of local government.
Ch'angdo County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. Originally part of Kimhwa, it was split off as a separate county in 1952.
Ch'ŏrwŏn County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. Portions of it were once a single county together with the county of the same name in South Korea; other portions were added from neighbouring counties in the 1952 reorganization of local governments. After the initial division of Korea, the entire county lay to the Northern side of the dividing line, but in the course of the Korean War part of the county was taken by the South.
Hoeyang County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. It was established in a general reorganization of local government in 1952.
Ich'ŏn County is a kun, or county, in northern Kangwŏn province, North Korea. The terrain is predominantly high and mountainous; the highest point is Myongidoksan, 1,585 meters above sea level. The county's borders run along the Masingryong and Ryongam ranges. The chief stream is the Rimjin River.
Kimhwa County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea.
Pŏptong County is a kun in the Kangwŏn province, North Korea.
P'an'gyo County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. In December 1952, during the Korean War, P'an'gyo was formed as a separate county from five myŏn of Ichŏn-gun and Yujin-myŏn of P'yŏnggang-gun. Myŏn were administrative units below county (kun) level and are no longer used in North Korea.
Kŭmgang County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. Kŭmgang lies immediately north of the Korean Demilitarized Zone. It was formed in 1952 from a portion of Hoeyang County and from those sections of Yanggu, and Rinje counties that remained under Northern control after the armistice. The county takes its name from the Mount Kŭmgang, which is partially located there. The county seat, Kŭmgang-ŭp, was formerly called Malhwi-ri.
T'ongch'ŏn County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. It abuts the Sea of Japan to the north and east. Famous people from T'ongch'ŏn include former Hyundai chairman Chung Ju-yung, who is believed to have been born there.
P'yŏnggang County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. It borders Sep'o to the north, Ch'ŏrwŏn to the south, Ich'ŏn to the west, and Kimhwa to the east.
Sep'o County is a kun, or county, in Kangwŏn province, North Korea. It was created as a separate entity following the division of Korea.
Songgan County is a kun, or county, in central Chagang province, North Korea. It borders Rangrim to the east, Wiwon to the west, Kanggye to the north and Chonchon and Ryongrim to the south. It was formed in 1952 from parts of Chonchon and Changgang, as part of a general reorganization of local government.
Songwŏn County is a kun, or county, in southwestern Chagang province, North Korea. It borders Usi and Kop'ung counties to the north, Tongsin to the east, and Hŭich'ŏn to the south, as well as North P'yŏngan's Tongchang county to the west. Originally part of Chosan, it was established as a separate county in 1949, when Chagang province was created.