Chorni Klobuky, meaning "black hats" (Russian : Чёрные Клобуки; Ukrainian : Чорні клобуки; Turkic: Karakalpak or Qaraqalpaq) was a generic name for a group of semi-nomadic Turkic or Turkic-speaking tribes of Berendei, Torkils, Kovui of Chernihiv, Pechenegs, and others that at the end of 11th century settled on the southern frontier of Kiev and Pereyaslav principalities along the Ros River valley. They are first mentioned in the Kiev Chronicles of 1146.
In the 12th century many of these tribes became sedentaryand town-based (within modern Cherkasy and southern Kiev oblasts). Their main city was Torchesk (next to the modern city of Kaharlyk). They also were used by Ruthenian princes for the defense of their southern borders against Cumans and took part in the political life of Ruthenia. After the Mongol invasion they were partially assimilated by neighboring people and partially deported by the Golden Horde rulers such as Uzbeg Khan (between 1340-1390) to the Central Asia.
Their name means "Black Hats" or "Black Hoods", and in Turkic languages it is "Karakalpak"; presumably this refers to their national costume. It is unclear whether the Chornyi Klobuki are related to the Karakalpaks of today.
In the Moscow Chronicle collection of the 15th century under the year 1152 it explains that all Chorni Klobuky were called Circassians as they arrived from the north Caucasus.
Klym Polishchuk's short story “God of Chorni Klobuky” is based on a Ukrainian legend. The story comprises Treasure of the Ages: Ukrainian Legends [Skarby vikiv: Ukrainski Lehendy].
Sviatoslav I Igorevich, also spelled Svyatoslav, was a Grand Prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire. He also conquered numerous East Slavic tribes, defeated the Alans and attacked the Volga Bulgars, and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages. Formerly the main population of the loose medieval Kievan Rus federation state, by the seventeenth century they evolved into the Belarusian, Russian, Rusyn and Ukrainian people.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups of Central, East, North and West Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa, who speak Turkic languages.
The Tale of Bygone Years, known in English-language historiography as the Primary Chronicle or Russian Primary Chronicle (RPC) or, after the author it has traditionally been ascribed to, Nestor's Chronicle or The Chronicle of Nestor, is a history of the Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. The work’s name originates from the opening sentence of the text, which reads: “These are the narratives of bygone years regarding the origin of the land of Rus’, the first princes of Kiev, and from what source the land of Rus’ had its beginning.” The work is considered to be a fundamental source in the interpretation of the history of the East Slavs. The Chronicle's content is known to us today from several surviving editions and codices that have been revised over the years and evince a slight degree of variation from each other.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people that speak the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in central Asia. The name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources call the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling them Muslim Turkmens, as opposed to shamanist or Buddhist. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage and the Oghuzes were overwhelmingly Muslim. The term "Oghuz" was gradually supplanted among the Turks themselves by Turkmen and Turcoman, from the mid 900's on, a process which was completed by the beginning of the 1200s.
The Kipchaks, also known as Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Second Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region from where they expanded over the following centuries, first as part of the Kimek Khanate and later as part of a confederation with the Cumans. There were groups of Kipchaks in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, Syr Darya and Siberia. The Cuman–Kipchak confederation was conquered by the Mongols in the early 13th century.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family.
The Cumans, also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy, were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation. After the Mongol invasion (1237), many sought asylum in the Kingdom of Hungary, as many Cumans had settled in Hungary, the Second Bulgarian Empire playing important role in the development of the state, and Anatolia before the invasion.
The Tivertsi, were a tribe of early East Slavs which lived in the lands near the Dniester, and probably the lower Danube, that is in modern-day western Ukraine and Moldova and possibly in eastern Romania and southern Odessa oblast of Ukraine. The Tivertsi were one of the tribes that formed the Moldovan and Ukrainian ethnicities, namely the sub-ethnic and historic region of Podolia. The Tivertsis' cultural inheritors, the Podolians are a distinct group of Ukrainians.
The Karakalpaks or Qaraqalpaqs are a Turkic ethnic group native to Karakalpakstan in Northwestern Uzbekistan. During the 18th century, they settled in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. The name "Karakalpak" comes from two words: "qara" meaning black and "qalpaq" meaning hat. The Karakalpaks number nearly 620,000 worldwide, out of which about 500,000 live in the Uzbek Republic of Karakalpakstan.
The Berendei or Berindei were a medieval Turkic tribe, most likely of Kipchak-Oghuz origin. They were part of the tribal confederation of the "peak caps" or the "black hats".
Torkils were a Turkic tribe of the Middle Ages, possibly or Kipchak or Oghuz origin. The Torkil were one of the tribes who formed the Chornye Klobuki, semi-nomadic tribes who fought as border guards for various princes of Kievan Rus.
White Croats, or simply known as Croats, were a group of Early Slavic tribes who lived among other West and East Slavic tribes in the area of Bohemia, Lesser Poland, Galicia and modern-day Western Ukraine. They were documented primarily by foreign medieval authors and managed to preserve their ethnic name until the early 20th century, primarily in Lesser Poland. It is considered that they were assimilated into Czech, Polish and Ukrainian ethnos, and are one of the predecessors of the Rusyn people. In the 7th century, some White Croats migrated from their homeland, White Croatia, to the territory of modern-day Croatia in Southeast Europe along the Adriatic Sea, forming the ancestors of the South Slavic ethnic group of Croats.
The Kayı or Kai tribe were an Oghuz Turkic people and a sub-branch of the Bozok tribal federation. In the 11th century Mahmud al-Kashgari cited Kayı (Kayığlardır). The word kayı means "the one who has might and power by relationship". The anicent Turkmen proverb says: "Kayi and Bayat tribes shall lead the people".
Torchesk was a medieval town, located between today's villages of Olshanytsia and Sharky in Kiev Oblast (province) of central Ukraine near Kaharlyk.
This deals with the History of Transnistria before it became part of the Russian Empire in 1792.
Kievan Rus' or Kyivan Rus was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finnic peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. Russia itself was ruled by the Rurikid dynasty until 16th century. At its greatest extent, in the mid-11th century, it stretched from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the majority of East Slavic tribes.
Kangar union, Kazakh: Қaңғар Oдағy was a Turkic state in the territory of the entire modern Kazakhstan without Zhetysu. The ethnic name Kangar is an early medieval name for the Kangly people, who are now part of the Kazakh, Uzbek, and Karakalpak nations. The capital of the Kangar union was located in the Ulytau mountains. The Pechenegs, three of whose tribes were known as Kangar, after being defeated by the Oghuzes, Karluks, and Kimek-Kypchaks, attacked the Bulgars and established the Pecheneg state in Eastern Europe.
This article summarizes the History of the western steppe, which is the western third of the Eurasian steppe, that is, the grasslands of Ukraine and southern Russia. It is intended as a summary and an index to the more-detailed linked articles. It is a companion to History of the central steppe and History of the eastern steppe. All dates are approximate since there are few exact starting and ending dates. This summary article does not list the uncertainties, which are many. For these, see the linked articles.