Chorni Klobuky

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Chorni Klobuky, meaning "black hats" (Russian : Чёрные Клобуки; Ukrainian : Чорні клобуки; Turkic: Karakalpak or Qaraqalpaq) was a generic name [1] for a group of semi-nomadic Turkic or Turkic-speaking tribes of Berendei, Torkils, Kovui of Chernihiv, Pechenegs, and others [2] that at the end of 11th century settled on the southern frontier of Kiev and Pereyaslav principalities along the Ros River valley. [2] [3] They are first mentioned in the Kiev Chronicles of 1146. [4]


In the 12th century many of these tribes became sedentary [2] and town-based (within modern Cherkasy and southern Kiev oblasts). Their main city was Torchesk (next to the modern city of Kaharlyk). [4] They also were used by Ruthenian princes for the defense of their southern borders against Cumans [2] and took part in the political life of Ruthenia. [2] After the Mongol invasion they were partially assimilated by neighboring people [2] and partially deported by the Golden Horde rulers such as Uzbeg Khan (between 1340-1390) to the Central Asia. [2] [5]

Their name means "Black Hats" or "Black Hoods", and in Turkic languages it is "Karakalpak"; presumably this refers to their national costume. It is unclear whether the Chornyi Klobuki are related to the Karakalpaks of today. [6]

In the Moscow Chronicle collection of the 15th century under the year 1152 it explains that all Chorni Klobuky were called Circassians as they arrived from the north Caucasus. [1]

Klym Polishchuk's short story “God of Chorni Klobuky” is based on a Ukrainian legend. The story comprises Treasure of the Ages: Ukrainian Legends [Skarby vikiv: Ukrainski Lehendy]. [7]

See also

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  1. 1 2 Chorni Klobuky in the Cossack dictionary-handbook
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Chorni Klobuky in the Small dictionary of History of Ukraine
  3. Chorni Klobuky in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia
  4. 1 2 Chorni Klobuky in the Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine
  5. Antique root of sharovary. Ukrayinska Pravda. 5 February 2013
  6. David Nicolle, Angus McBride (2001), Armies of Medieval Russia, Osprey Publishing, ISBN   978-1-85532-848-8, ISBN   1855328488
  7. Polishchuk, K. 2015, Treasure of the Ages: Ukrainian Legends Archived 2017-09-21 at the Wayback Machine , Sova Books, Sydney (Engl. transl.) (original work was published in 1921)