Christa McAuliffe

Last updated

Christa McAuliffe
ChristaMcAuliffe.jpg
Born
Sharon Christa Corrigan

(1948-09-02)September 2, 1948
Status Killed during mission
DiedJanuary 28, 1986(1986-01-28) (aged 37)
NationalityAmerican
OccupationTeacher
Awards SpaceMOH.jpg
Space career
NASA Space flight participant [1]
Selection Teacher in Space Project (1985)
Missions STS-51-L
Mission insignia
STS-51-L.svg

Sharon Christa McAuliffe (née Corrigan; September 2, 1948 – January 28, 1986) was an American teacher and astronaut from Concord, New Hampshire and one of the seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

Concord, New Hampshire capital of New Hampshire

Concord is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Hampshire and the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695.

Space Shuttle <i>Challenger</i> disaster In-flight breakup of spacecraft on January 28, 1986

On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter undertaking mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of Space ShuttleChallenger (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts, one payload specialist, and a civilian school teacher. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11:39 a.m. EST. The disintegration of the vehicle began after a joint in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The failure was caused by the failure of O-ring seals used in the joint that were not designed to handle the unusually cold conditions that existed at this launch. The seals' failure caused a breach in the SRB joint, allowing pressurized burning gas from within the solid rocket motor to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB aft field joint attachment hardware and external fuel tank. This led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft field joint attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces broke up the orbiter.

Contents

She received her bachelor's degree in education and history from Framingham State College in 1970 and also a master's degree in education, supervision and administration [2] from Bowie State University in 1978. She took a teaching position as a social studies teacher at Concord High School in New Hampshire in 1983.

Framingham State University

Framingham State University is a public university in Framingham, Massachusetts. It offers undergraduate programs in a range of subjects, including art, biology, and communication arts, and graduate programs, including MBA, MEd, and MS.

Bowie State University university

Bowie State University is a public historically black university in Prince George's County, Maryland, north of Bowie. It is part of the University System of Maryland. Founded in 1865, Bowie State is Maryland's oldest historically black university and one of the ten oldest in the country. Bowie State is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund.

Concord High School (New Hampshire) High School in New Hampshire, USA

Concord High School is a high school in Concord, New Hampshire, in the United States.

In 1985, she was selected from more than 11,000 applicants to participate in the NASA Teacher in Space Project and was scheduled to become the first teacher in space. [3] As a member of mission STS-51-L, she was planning to conduct experiments and teach two lessons from Space Shuttle Challenger. On January 28, 1986, the shuttle broke apart 73 seconds after launch. After her death, schools and scholarships were named in her honor, and in 2004 she was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

NASA space-related agency of the United States government

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

Teacher in Space Project

The Teacher in Space Project (TISP) was a NASA program announced by Ronald Reagan in 1984 designed to inspire students, honor teachers, and spur interest in mathematics, science, and space exploration. The project would carry teachers into space as Payload Specialists, who would return to their classrooms to share the experience with their students.

STS-51-L Twenty-fifth flight of the American Space Shuttle program

STS-51-L was the 25th mission of the United States Space Shuttle program, the program to carry out routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo; as well as the final flight of Space Shuttle Challenger.

Early life

Christa McAuliffe was born on September 2, 1948, in Boston, Massachusetts. She was the oldest of the five children of accountant Edward Christopher Corrigan (1922–1990), who was of Irish descent [4] ; and Grace Mary Corrigan (1924–2018; née George), a substitute teacher, [5] [6] [7] whose father was of Lebanese Maronite descent. [4] McAuliffe was a great niece of Lebanese-American historian Philip Khuri Hitti. [8] She was known by her middle name from an early age, although in later years she signed her name "S. Christa Corrigan", and eventually "S. Christa McAuliffe". [9]

The year she was born, her father was completing his sophomore year at Boston College. [5] Not long after, he took a job as an assistant comptroller in a Boston department store, and they moved to Framingham, Massachusetts, where she attended and graduated from Marian High School in 1966. [10] As a youth, she was inspired by Project Mercury and the Apollo moon landing program. The day after John Glenn orbited the Earth in Friendship 7 , she told a friend at Marian High, "Do you realize that someday people will be going to the Moon? Maybe even taking a bus, and I want to do that!" [11] She wrote years later on her NASA application form: "I watched the Space Age being born, and I would like to participate." [5] [12]

Sophomore Type of student in the United States

In the United States, a sophomore is a student in the second year of study at high school or college.

Boston College private research university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, United States

Boston College is a private Jesuit research university in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. The university has more than 9,300 full-time undergraduates and nearly 5,000 graduate students. The university's name reflects its early history as a liberal arts college and preparatory school in Boston's South End. It is a member of the 568 Group and the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities. Its main campus is a historic district and features some of the earliest examples of collegiate gothic architecture in North America.

A comptroller is a management-level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization. A financial comptroller is a senior-level executive who acts as the head of accounting, and oversees the preparation of financial reports, such as balance sheets and income statements.

In 1970, she married her longtime boyfriend whom she had known since high school, Steven J. McAuliffe, a 1970 graduate of the Virginia Military Institute, and they moved closer to Washington, D.C., so that he could attend the Georgetown University Law Center. [5] [10] They had two children, Scott and Caroline, who were nine and six, respectively, when she died. [13]

Steven James McAuliffe is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire. He is the widower of Christa McAuliffe, one of the victims of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.

Virginia Military Institute state-supported military college in Lexington, Virginia, USA

Founded 11 November 1839 in Lexington, Virginia, the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is the oldest state-supported military college and the first public Senior Military College in the United States. In keeping with its founding principles and unlike any other Senior Military College in the United States, VMI enrolls cadets only and awards baccalaureate degrees exclusively. VMI offers its students, all of whom are cadets, strict military discipline combined with a physically and academically demanding environment. The Institute grants degrees in 14 disciplines in engineering, the sciences and liberal arts, and all VMI students are required to participate in one of the three ROTC programs.

Georgetown University Law Center law school of Georgetown University

The Georgetown University Law Center is one of the professional graduate schools of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. Established in 1870, it is the second largest law school in the United States by student body and receives more full-time applications than any other law school in the country.

McAuliffe was a teacher at Concord High School in New Hampshire. Concord NH High School.jpg
McAuliffe was a teacher at Concord High School in New Hampshire.

She obtained her first teaching position in 1970, as an American history teacher at Benjamin Foulois Junior High School in Morningside, Maryland. [14] From 1971 to 1978, she taught history and civics at Thomas Johnson Middle School in Lanham, Maryland. In addition to teaching, she completed a Master of Arts in education supervision and administration from Bowie State University in Maryland. [15] In 1978, she moved to Concord, New Hampshire, when Steven accepted a job as an assistant to the New Hampshire Attorney General. [5] McAuliffe taught 7th and 8th grade American history and English in Concord, New Hampshire, and 9th grade English in Bow, New Hampshire, before taking a teaching post at Concord High School in 1983. [16]

She was a social studies teacher, and taught several courses including American history, law, and economics, in addition to a self-designed course: "The American Woman". [17] Taking field trips and bringing in speakers were an important part of her teaching techniques. According to The New York Times , she "emphasized the impact of ordinary people on history, saying they were as important to the historical record as kings, politicians or generals." [18]

Teacher in Space Project

In 1984, President Ronald Reagan announced the Teacher in Space Project, and Christa learned about NASA's efforts to find their first civilian, an educator, to fly into space. [19] NASA wanted to find an "ordinary person," a gifted teacher who could communicate with students while in orbit. [5] [14] McAuliffe became one of more than 11,000 applicants. [19]

McAuliffe undergoing pre-flight training experiences weightlessness during a KC-135 "vomit comet" flight Christa McAuliffe Experiences Weightlessness During KC-135 Flight - GPN-2002-000149.jpg
McAuliffe undergoing pre-flight training experiences weightlessness during a KC-135 "vomit comet" flight
I cannot join the space program and restart my life as an astronaut, but this opportunity to connect my abilities as an educator with my interests in history and space is a unique opportunity to fulfill my early fantasies. I will never give up.

—Christa McAuliffe, 1985 [20]

NASA hoped that sending a teacher into space would increase public interest in the Space Shuttle program, and also demonstrate the reliability of space flight at a time when the agency was under continuous pressure to find financial support. [21] [22] [23] President Reagan said it would also remind Americans of the important role that teachers and education serve in their country. [24]

The Council of Chief State School Officers, a non-profit organization of public officials in education, was chosen by NASA to coordinate the selection process. [25] Out of the initial applicant pool, 114 semi-finalists were nominated by state, territorial, and agency review panels. McAuliffe was one of two teachers nominated by the state of New Hampshire. [26] The semi-finalists gathered in Washington, DC, from June 22–27, 1985, for a conference on space education and to meet with the Review Panel that would select the 10 finalists. [25]

Challenger crew from left to right: (front row) Michael J. Smith, Dick Scobee, Ronald McNair; (back row) Ellison Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Gregory Jarvis, and Judith Resnik Challenger flight 51-l crew.jpg
Challenger crew from left to right: (front row) Michael J. Smith, Dick Scobee, Ronald McNair; (back row) Ellison Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Gregory Jarvis, and Judith Resnik

On July 1, 1985, she was announced as one of the 10 finalists, and on July 7 she traveled to Johnson Space Center for a week of thorough medical examinations and briefings about space flight. [25] The finalists were interviewed by an evaluation committee composed of senior NASA officials, and the committee made recommendations to NASA Administrator James M. Beggs for the primary and backup candidates for the Teacher in Space Project. On July 19, 1985, Vice President George H. W. Bush announced that she had been selected for the position. Another teacher, Barbara Morgan, served as her backup. [27] According to Mark Travis of the Concord Monitor , it was her manner that set her apart from the other candidates. [26] NASA official Alan Ladwig said "she had an infectious enthusiasm", and NASA psychiatrist Terrence McGuire told New Woman magazine that "she was the most broad-based, best-balanced person of the 10." [26]

Later that year, she and Morgan each took a year-long leave of absence from teaching in order to train for a space shuttle mission in early 1986. [5] [28] (NASA paid both their salaries.) While not a member of the NASA Astronaut Corps, McAuliffe was to be part of the STS-51-L crew, and would conduct experiments and teach lessons from space. Her planned duties included basic science experiments in the fields of chromatography, hydroponics, magnetism, and Newton's laws. [29] She was also planning to conduct two 15-minute classes from space, including a tour of the spacecraft, called "The Ultimate Field Trip", and a lesson about the benefits of space travel, called "Where We've Been, Where We're Going, Why." [14] [30] The lessons were to be broadcast to millions of schoolchildren via closed-circuit TV. To record her thoughts, McAuliffe intended to keep a personal journal like a "woman on the Conestoga wagons pioneering the West." [31]

After being chosen to be the first teacher in space, she was a guest on several television programs, including Good Morning America ; the CBS Morning News ; the Today Show ; and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson , where, when asked about the mission, she stated, "If you're offered a seat on a rocket ship, don't ask what seat. Just get on." [32] She had an immediate rapport with the media, and the Teacher in Space Project received popular attention as a result. [5]

Disaster and aftermath

McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan - GPN-2002-000004.jpg
McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan

On January 28, 1986, McAuliffe boarded Challenger with the other six crew members of STS-51-L. Just 73 seconds into its flight at an altitude of 48,000 feet, the shuttle broke apart, resulting in the deaths of all seven crew members. [5] [33] According to NASA, it was in part because of the excitement over her presence on the shuttle that the accident had such a significant effect on the nation. Many schoolchildren were viewing the launch live, and media coverage of the accident was extensive. [34]

The Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident—also known as the Rogers Commission—was formed to investigate the disaster. It determined that the accident was due to a failure of rubber O-rings made by Morton-Thiokol that provided a pressure seal in the aft field joint of the shuttle's right Solid Rocket Booster. [35] The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a design flaw, as their performance could be too easily compromised by factors that included the low temperature on the day of launch. The Commission found that O-ring resiliency is directly related to temperature and due to the low temperature at launch—36 degrees Fahrenheit or 15 degrees lower than the next coldest previous launch—it was probable the O-rings had not provided a proper seal.

Barbara Radding Morgan, her backup, became a professional astronaut in January 1998, [28] and flew on Space Shuttle mission STS-118, to the International Space Station, on August 8, 2007, aboard Endeavour , the orbiter that replaced Challenger. [28] [36]

Legacy

The McAuliffe Exhibit in the Henry Whittemore Library at Framingham State University Christa Corrigan McAuliffe Exhibit - Henry Whittemore Library.jpg
The McAuliffe Exhibit in the Henry Whittemore Library at Framingham State University

McAuliffe was buried at Blossom Hill Cemetery in her hometown, Concord. [37] She has since been honored at many events, including the Daytona 500 NASCAR race in 1986. [38] The McAuliffe-Shepard Discovery Center in Concord and the Christa Corrigan McAuliffe Center for Education and Teaching Excellence at Framingham State University are named in her memory, [39] [40] as are the asteroid 3352 McAuliffe, [41] the crater McAuliffe on the Moon, [42] [43] and a crater on the planet Venus, which was named McAuliffe by the Soviet Union. [44] Approximately 40 schools around the world have been named after her, including the Christa McAuliffe Space Education Center in Pleasant Grove, Utah. [45] [46]

The McAuliffe-Shepard Discovery Center in Concord, New Hampshire Christaplanetarium1.jpg
The McAuliffe-Shepard Discovery Center in Concord, New Hampshire

Scholarships and other events have also been established in her memory. The Christa McAuliffe Technology Conference has been held in Nashua, New Hampshire, every year since 1986, and is devoted to the use of technology in all aspects of education. [47] The Nebraska McAuliffe Prize honors a Nebraska teacher each year for courage and excellence in education. [48] Grants in her name, honoring innovative teachers, are provided by the American Association of State Colleges and Universities and the National Council for the Social Studies. [49] [50]

In 1990, she was portrayed by Karen Allen in the TV movie Challenger . [51] The spaceship on the 1996–1997 children's science-fiction series Space Cases , about a group of students lost in space, was called "Christa". [52] In 2006, a documentary film about her and Morgan called Christa McAuliffe: Reach for the Stars aired on CNN in the CNN Presents format. [53] The film, produced by Renee Sotile and Mary Jo Godges, commemorated the 20th anniversary of her death. It was narrated by Susan Sarandon, and included an original song by Carly Simon. [54]

McAuliffe's grave in Concord, New Hampshire Christa McAuliffe gravestone in Concord, NH.jpg
McAuliffe's grave in Concord, New Hampshire

Her parents worked with Framingham State College to establish the McAuliffe Center. [45] Her husband Steven J. McAuliffe remarried and in 1992 became a federal judge, [55] serving with the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire in Concord. Her son, Scott, completed graduate studies in marine biology, and her daughter, Caroline, went on to pursue the same career as her mother: teaching. [45] On July 23, 2004, she and all the other 13 astronauts lost in both the Challenger and Columbia disasters were posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor by President George W. Bush. [56]

On January 28, 2016, Space Shuttle Challenger was honored once again, but in a uniquely memorable way. Dozens of teachers who competed alongside the fallen Christa McAuliffe traveled to Cape Canaveral, Florida, to remember those lost on that day 30 years ago. Christa McAuliffe's son Scott and her widower, Steven, also participated in the ceremony. After remarking on the fact that 30 years had indeed passed, Steven said "Challenger will always be an event that occurred just recently. Our thoughts and memories of Christa will always be fresh and comforting." [57] In 2017, McAuliffe was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. [58]

Notes

  1. "Astronaut Biographies: Space Flight Participant". NASA/Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. December 5, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  2. Hohler, Robert T. (1986). "I Touch the Future ..." The Story of Christa McAuliffe. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN   0-394-55721-2.
  3. "Teachers in Space: A Chronology". Education Week. January 28, 1998. pp. Vol. 17, Issue 20, p.12. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  4. 1 2 Corrigan 2000 , p. 21
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "The Crew of the Challenger Shuttle Mission in 1986". NASA. October 22, 2004. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  6. "Edward C. Corrigan, Astronaut's Father, 67". The New York Times. January 28, 1990. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  7. Corrigan 2000 , p. 156
  8. "20 Years Later... Remembering Lebanese American Astronaut Christa McAuliffe" (PDF). Lebanese Monthly Magazine. February 2006. p. 18, Volume 1, Issue 2. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  9. Burgess & Corrigan 2000 , pp. 6–7
  10. 1 2 Corrigan 2000 , p. 40
  11. Burgess & Corrigan 2000 , p. 10
  12. Burgess & Corrigan 2000 , pp. 9–10
  13. Corrigan 2000 , p. 123
  14. 1 2 3 Staff writer (January 28, 1986). "McAuliffe: Teacher on 'Ultimate Field Trip'". The Washington Post. p. A10. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
  15. "Christa McAuliffe 1948–1986". Framingham State College – Henry Whittemore Library. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved January 11, 2009.
  16. Application for NASA Teacher in Space Program: Sharon Christa McAuliffe can be found in the Christa Corrigan McAuliffe Special Collections at Whittemore Library at Framingham State University "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. Burgess & Corrigan 2000 , pp. 15–16
  18. "The Shuttle Explosion, The Seven Who Perished in The Explosion of The Challenger". The New York Times. January 29, 1986. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
  19. 1 2 "The Challenger Story:Teacher in Space". Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
  20. Ware, Susan; Stacy Lorraine Braukman, eds. (2004). Notable American Women. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 425. ISBN   0-674-01488-X.
  21. "On anniversary, some reflect on lessons learned". MSNBC. Associated Press. January 28, 2006. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  22. Vaughan, Diane (1996). The Challenger launch decision: risky technology, culture, and deviance at NASA. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. p. 16. ISBN   0-226-85176-1.
  23. "Chapter VIII: Pressures on the System". Report of the PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. NASA. June 6, 1986. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  24. "Remarks at a Ceremony Honoring the 1983–1984 Winners in the Secondary School Recognition Program". The American Presidency Project. August 27, 1984. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
  25. 1 2 3 "SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION STS-51L Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. January 1986. pp. 22–25. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
  26. 1 2 3 Travis, Mark (January 26, 2006). "An inspired choice for an extraordinary role". Concord Monitor. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
  27. "Remarks of the Vice President Announcing the Winner of the Teacher in Space Project". The American Presidency Project. July 19, 1985. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
  28. 1 2 3 "Barbara Radding Morgan – NASA Astronaut biography". NASA. 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  29. "Christa's Lost Lessons". Space Educators' Handbook – OMB/NASA Report #S677/Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  30. Magnuson, Ed (June 24, 2001). "They Slipped the Surly Bonds of Earth to Touch". Time. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  31. "Teacher embraced historic chance". Telegraph Herald. United Press International. January 28, 1986. p. 13.
  32. Belman, Felice; Mike Pride (2001). The New Hampshire Century: Concord Monitor Profiles of One Hundred People Who Shaped It. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. p. 4. ISBN   1-58465-087-7.
  33. Kerwin, Joseph P. (1986). "Challenger crew cause and time of death". NASA. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
  34. Wright, John C.; Dale Kunkel; Marites Pinon; Aletha C. Huston (Spring 1989). "How Children Reacted to Televised Coverage of the Space Shuttle Disaster". Journal of Communication. 39 (2): 27. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1989.tb01027.x.
  35. "Chapter IV: The Cause of the Accident". Report of the PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. NASA. June 6, 1986. Retrieved May 15, 2009.
  36. "NASA Orbiter Fleet – Space Shuttle Overview: Endeavour (OV-105)". NASA/Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved March 7, 2009.
  37. Hohler, Bob (January 21, 1996). "McAuliffe's legacy 'keeps us reaching for the stars'". Boston Globe.
  38. "Elliott has competition in Daytona 500". Philadelphia Daily News. February 15, 1986. p. 35, Sports.
  39. Tirrell-Wysocki, David (March 31, 2009). "McAuliffe-Shepard Discovery Center honors New Hampshire astronauts". The Dallas Morning News. Associated Press. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  40. "Centers & Institutes". Framingham State College. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  41. "NASA to put probe to the test: New technologies to be tried in flight". The Washington Times. September 14, 1997.
  42. Burgess & Corrigan 2000 , p. 103
  43. McAuliffe crater, Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature
  44. "The Magellan Venus Explorer's Guide: Chapter 8 What's in a Name?". NASA JPL Publication 90-24. August 1990. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  45. 1 2 3 "Then & Now: Grace Corrigan". CNN. August 15, 2005. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  46. Kapos, Katherine (December 2, 1990). "School Launches Jaunts to Outer Space". The Salt Lake Tribune. p. B3.
  47. "22nd Annual Christa McAuliffe Technology Conference". New Hampshire School Administrators Association. 2008. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  48. "Do You Know a Courageous Teacher?". University of Nebraska-Lincoln: College of Education and Human Sciences. 2008. Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  49. "Christa McAuliffe Award". American Association of State Colleges and Universities. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
  50. "Christa McAuliffe Reach for the Stars Award". National Council for the Social Studies. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
  51. Saunders, Dusty (February 25, 1990). "'CHALLENGER' Playing McAuliffe Provided Karen Allen with the Greatest Challenge of her Career". Rocky Mountain News.
  52. Grahnke, Lon (February 29, 1996). "2 New Series Fire Up Sci-Fi Shows Aim a Light Touch at Kids". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 37.
  53. "CNN Presents: CHRISTA MCAULIFFE REACH FOR THE STARS". CNN. Archived from the original on September 19, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  54. "Christa McAuliffe: Reach for the Stars". Christa McAuliffe: Reach for the Stars Official Website. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  55. "Their families today". Houston Chronicle. 1996. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  56. "Congressional Space Medal of Honor". NASA History Division. Retrieved January 9, 2009.
  57. https://apnews.com/dd026bb4c6f5414282f2eea4a71057e4/30-years-challenger-new-voice-astronauts-memorial
  58. Sprekelmeyer, Linda, editor. These We Honor: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame. Donning Co. Publishers, 2006. ISBN   978-1-57864-397-4.

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Marian High School was a private, Roman Catholic high school in Framingham, Massachusetts, United States that was established in 1956. It was located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston and ran independently of the Diocese since 2004. On 3 April 2018, the school's board voted unanimously to cease operations at the end of the 2018 school year, due to low enrollment.

The Christa McAuliffe Prize

The Nebraska Christa McAuliffe Prize For Courage and Excellence in Education is an award given annually to recognize a teacher in Nebraska for showing courage in education. Founded in 1987 this award was founded in memorial to Christa McAuliffe, the teacher/astronaut who lost her life in the Challenger space shuttle accident in January, 1986. This fund provides a way to recognize these teachers, and at the same time honor the memory of Ms. McAuliffe's courage. Among the recipients of the Mcauliffe Prize over the past 20 years have been teachers who exemplified courage in many ways, including befriending and helping deaf people expand their capacity to learn despite a closed learning center to virtually adopting students and helping them out financially while fighting school bureaucracy. The winning teacher receives a $1000 stipend and a plaque that is presented at a banquet held in his or her honor. This year the winning school will receive a $500 award to help support important school activities.

Women in space

Women of many nationalities have worked in space. The first woman in space, Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, flew in 1963. Space flight programs were slow to employ women, and only began to include them from the 1980s. Most women in space have been United States citizens, with missions on the Space Shuttle and on the International Space Station. Three countries maintain active space programs that include women: China, Russia, and the United States. In addition, a number of other countries — Canada, France, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and the United Kingdom — have sent women into orbit or space on Russian or US missions.

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