Christian Pineau (French pronunciation: [kʁistjɑ̃ pino] ; 14 October 1904, in Chaumont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, France – 5 April 1995, in Paris) was a noted French Resistance fighter, who later served an important term as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1956 through 1958.
Pineau was born in 1904 in Chaumont-en-Bassigny, Haute-Marne, France. [ citation needed ] He was educated at the École alsacienne in Paris and graduated with degrees in law and in political science. In 1931 he joined the staff of the Bank of France, and later worked for the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas. In 1937 he founded the journal Banque et Bourse.His father was a colonel in the French Army died when he was a young child. His mother married again to the French playwright Jean Giraudoux. Later, Christian Pineau would say that it was Giraudoux who gave him his love of writing.
A World War II French Resistance leader who established a network called Phalanx, Pineau helped found the underground newspaper Libération .He was a close ally of Charles de Gaulle and went on dangerous secret missions passing communications between occupied France and the Free France headquarters in London. He was arrested by the Gestapo in September 1942 but escaped. He was arrested again in 1943 and evaded a death sentence through forged identity papers which hid his true identity. He was sent to the Buchenwald concentration camp, and remained there until it was liberated by American soldiers in 1945.
Pineau represented the Sarthe department as a Socialist in the French National Assembly from 1946 to 1958.After the war, he served as a minister in French governments, 1945–1958. He was minister of supply in Charles de Gaulle's government (1945) and minister of public works (1947–1950) in various governments.
Pineau was finance minister for a short time in 1948.[ citation needed ] He was designated as prime minister of France by President René Coty after the February 1955 resignation of Pierre Mendès-France, but the National Assembly refused to ratify his cabinet by 312 votes against 268; his prime ministership lasted for two days between 17 and 19 February 1955.[ citation needed ]
As foreign minister (February 1956 – May 1958), Pineau was responsible for handling the Suez crisis and for signing the Treaty of Rome on behalf of France. [ citation needed ] In October 1956, he signed the Protocol of Sèvres with Great Britain and Israel on behalf of France.With Guy Mollet, he visited Moscow.
Pineau was a lifelong advocate of European integration.[ citation needed ]
Pineau is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris.[ citation needed ]
Pineau wrote several political books and memoirs:
He also wrote children's books:
Haute-Marne is a department in the Grand Est region of Northeastern France. Named after the Marne River, its prefecture is Chaumont. In 2016, it had a population of 178,084.
Champagne-Ardenne is a former administrative region of France, located in the northeast of the country, bordering Belgium. Mostly corresponding to the historic province of Champagne, the region is known for its sparkling white wine of the same name.
Maurice Jean Marie Bourgès-Maunoury was a French Radical politician who served as the Prime Minister in the Fourth Republic during 1957.
Colombey-les-Deux-Églises is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France. It is best known as the home of Charles de Gaulle.
Chaumont is a commune of France, and the capital of the Haute-Marne department. As of 2013, it has a population of 23,011.
Jacques Émile Massu was a French general who fought in World War II, the First Indochina War, the Algerian War and the Suez crisis. He led French troops in the Battle of Algiers, first supporting and later denouncing their use of torture.
Saint-Dizier is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France.
The arrondissement of Chaumont is an arrondissement of France in the Haute-Marne department in the Grand Est region. It has 158 communes. Its population is 64,148 (2016), and its area is 2,476.3 km2 (956.1 sq mi).
Champagne-et-Fontaine is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Maurice Diamant-Berger, known as André Gillois, was a French writer, radio pioneer and - during the Second World War - general Charles de Gaulle's spokesman in London.
Michel Droit was a French novelist and journalist. He was the father of the photographer Éric Droit (1954–2007).
Count François de Menthon was a French politician and professor of law.
Maurice Vaïsse is a French historian specialised in international relations and Defence. He is an Editorial Board member on Journal of Intelligence and Terrorism Studies.
Armand Lanoux was a French writer.
Henri Clément Serveau, also known as Clément-Serveau, was a French painter, designer, engraver and illustrator. Clément-Serveau produced works in a realist manner early on, but soon became interested in the new movements. He was influenced by his friend Louis Marcoussis and experimented with Cubism, utilising geometric patterns to give the illusion of form and space. Later in his career he turned toward abstraction with a post-cubist stance. He designed banknotes for the Banque de France and produced large murals and participated in numerous French and international exhibitions.
Guy Alcide Mollet was a French politician. He led the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) from 1946 to 1969 and was the French Prime Minister from 1956 to 1957.
Chaumont-Hill 402, was a temporary World War I airfield in France, named after the height of its highest point. It was located East South East of the city of Chaumont, in the Haute-Marne department in the Champagne-Ardenne region of north-eastern France, between the main road and the "Ferme d'Heurtebise", 0.5 miles (0.80 km) west of the village of Laville aux Bois.
Édouard Henri Jean Bonnefous was a French politician. Before World War II (1939–45) he was active in the study of international affairs. After the war he was elected a deputy on the Rally of Left Republicans platform in 1946, and remained a deputy until 1958. He served as a minister in several cabinets, and was also active in the Council of Europe. He was a strong advocate of greater European integration. From 1959 to 1986 he was a member of the Senate, where he became a critic of General de Gaulle, and an advocate of protection of the environment.
Albert Gazier was a French trade union leader and politician. During World War II (1939–45) he helped reorganize the unions during the German occupation of France. He escaped arrest by the Gestapo, made his way to England, and represented the trade union movement in General de Gaulle's Free French government. After the war he was a deputy in the legislature from 1945 to 1958. He was Minister of Information from 1950 to 1951 and again for two weeks in 1958. He was Minister of Social Affairs from 1956 to 1957. As a minister he tried but failed to contain health costs, and contributed to the fiasco of the Suez Crisis.
The canton of Poissons is an administrative division of the Haute-Marne department, northeastern France. Its borders were modified at the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015. Its seat is in Poissons.