| King of Denmark and Norway |
|Reign||9 February 1670 – 25 August 1699|
|Coronation||7 June 1671|
Frederiksborg Palace Chapel
|Born||15 April 1646|
Duborg Castle, Flensburg
|Died||25 August 1699 53) (aged|
| Frederick IV of Denmark |
Princess Sophia Hedwig
|Father||Frederick III of Denmark|
|Mother||Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
Christian V (15 April 1646 – 25 August 1699) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699.
Well-regarded by the common people, he was the first king anointed at Frederiksborg Castle chapel as absolute monarch since the decree that institutionalized the supremacy of the king in Denmark-Norway. Christian fortified the absolutist system against the aristocracy by accelerating his father's practice of allowing both Holstein nobles and Danish and Norwegian commoners into state service.
As king, he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture, and dreamed of a Danish Versailles. He was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark, partly made for this purpose.His motto was: Pietate et Justitia (With piety and justice).
Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650. This was not a free choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a long trip abroad, to Holland, England, France, and home through Germany. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIV's court, and heard about the theory of the divine right of kings. He returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College. Hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. Christian was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, and in Christiania, Norway in July 1666. Only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court. He became king upon his father's death on 9 February 1670, and was formally crowned in 1671. He was the first hereditary king of Denmark-Norway, and in honor of this, Denmark-Norway acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword.
It is generally argued that Christian V's personal courage and affability made him popular among the common people, but his image was marred by his unsuccessful attempt to regain Scania for Denmark in the Scanian War. The war exhausted Denmark's economic resources without securing any gains.Part of Christian's appeal to the common people may be explained by the fact that he allowed Danish and Norwegian commoners into state service, but his attempts to curtail the influence of the nobility also meant continuing his father's drive toward absolutism. To accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the commoners elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count of Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670 and high councillor of Denmark in 1674.
Griffenfeld, a skilled statesman, better understood the precarious situation Denmark-Norway placed itself by attacking Sweden at a time when the country was allied with France, the major European power of the era. After some hesitation, Christian V initiated the Scanian War (1675-1679) against Sweden in an attempt to reconquer Scania which Denmark had lost under the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. As Griffenfeld predicted, Sweden's stronger ally France was the party that dictated the peace with Denmark's ally the Netherlands, and in spite of Danish victory at sea in the battles against Sweden in 1675–1679 during the Scanian War, Danish hopes for border changes on the Scandinavian Peninsula between the two countries were dashed. The results of the war efforts proved politically and financially unremunerative for Denmark-Norway. The damage to the Danish-Norwegian economy was extensive. At this point, Christian V no longer had his most experienced foreign relations counsel around to repair the political damage — in 1676 he had been persuaded to sacrifice Griffenfeld as a traitor, and to the clamour of his adversaries, Griffenfeld was imprisoned for the remainder of his life.
After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married Swedish king Charles XI, whose mother was a stout supporter of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. In spite of the family ties, war between the brothers-in-law was close again in 1689, when Charles XI nearly provoked confrontation with Denmark-Norway by his support of the exiled Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp in his claims to Holstein-Gottorp in Schleswig-Holstein.
Like Charles XI of Sweden, who had never been outside Sweden, Christian V spoke only German and Danish and was therefore often considered poorly educated due to his inability to communicate with visiting foreign diplomats.Christian V was also often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources. The Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion. In his memoirs, he listed "hunting, love-making, war and maritime affairs" as his main interests in life.
Christian V introduced the Danish Code (Danske Lov) in 1683, the first law code for all of Denmark.He also introduced the similar Norske Lov (Norwegian Code) of 1687 to replace Christian IVs Norwegian Code from 1604 in Norway. He also introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to work out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation.
During the reign of Christian V, Denmark's trade in cattle that had declined due to catastrophic fires and wars has been restored, and livestock and crop exports have also surpassed Frederick III, with thousands of cattle entering and leaving Jutland through the Oxen Way. After entering and fattening in the Danish King's German enclave County of Oldenburg，the castle reached the big market in Wedel. From there, cattle are resold to all parts of North Germany via Stade, Hamburg and Lübeck. As the population continues to soar at the end of the seventeenth century, demand for beef, grains and fish is increasing, both throughout North Germany and on the Baltic coast alone. In terms of the number of livestock shipped to the South, in 1680 each market had reached 40,000 cattle. Traditional export commodities, including fish and grains, have increased their exports since the beginning of the seventeenth century. The agricultural products exported by Denmark, especially cattle, have made a lot of money from Germany and the Netherlands for the Danish royal family, the aristocrats and the town residents. During his reign, science witnessed a golden age due to the work of the astronomer Ole Rømer in spite of the king's personal lack of scientific knowledge and interest. He died from the after-effects of a hunting accident and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral.
Christian V had eight children by his wife and six by his Maîtresse-en-titre, Sophie Amalie Moth (1654–1719), whom he took up with when she was sixteen. Sophie was the daughter of his former tutor Poul Moth. Christian publicly introduced Sophie into court in 1672, a move which insulted his wife, and made her countess of Samsø on 31 December 1677.
Legitimate children by his queen Charlotte Amalie:
|Frederick IV||2 October 1671||12 October 1730|
|Christian Vilhelm||1 December 1672||25 January 1673|
|Christian||25 March 1675||27 June 1695|
|Sophie Hedevig||28 August 1677||13 March 1735|
|Christiane Charlotte||18 January 1679||24 August 1689|
|Charles||26 October 1680||8 June 1729|
|Daughter||17 July 1683||17 July 1683|
|Vilhelm||21 February 1687||23 November 1705|
Illegitimate children by his mistress, Sophie Amalie Moth, Countess of Samsø:
|Christiane Gyldenløve||7 July 1672||12 September 1689|
|Christian Gyldenløve||28 February 1674||16 July 1703|
|Sophie Christiane Gyldenløve||1675||18 August 1684|
|Anna Christiane Gyldenløve||1676||11 August 1689|
|Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve||24 June 1678||8 December 1719|
|Daughter||1682||8 July 1684|
|Heraldry of Christian V of Denmark-Norway|
|Christian V's crown, produced in 1671||Royal Monogram||Coat of arms as King|
|Ancestors of Christian V of Denmark|
Charles XI was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1721).
Frederick III was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death in 1670. He also governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (1635–45).
Frederick I was the king of Denmark and Norway. His name is also spelled Frederik in Danish and Norwegian, Friedrich in German and Fredrik in Swedish. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over Denmark and Norway, when subsequent monarchs embraced Lutheranism after the Protestant Reformation. As king of Norway, Frederick is most remarkable in never having visited the country and was never crowned as such. Therefore, he was styled King of Denmark, the Vends and the Goths, elected King of Norway. Frederick's reign began the enduring tradition of calling kings of Denmark alternatively by the names Christian and Frederick, which has continued up to the reign of the current monarch, Margrethe II.
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730 to 1746. The eldest surviving son of Frederick IV and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, he is considered one of Denmark-Norway's more anonymous kings, but he was a skilled politician, best known for his authoritarian regime. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war. During his reign both compulsory confirmation (1736) and a public, nationwide school system (1739) were introduced. His chosen motto was "deo et populo".
Frederick IV was the king of Denmark and Norway from 1699 until his death. Frederick was the son of Christian V of Denmark-Norway and his consort Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel.
Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, also known as Ducal Holstein, that were ruled by the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. Other parts of the duchies were ruled by the kings of Denmark.
The House of Oldenburg is a European dynasty of North German origin and with strong links to Denmark since the 15th century. It is one of Europe's most significant royal houses, with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Iceland, Greece, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Schleswig, Holstein, and Oldenburg. The current Queen of Denmark and King of Norway, the former King of Greece, the late consort of the monarch of the United Kingdom, as well as the first ten persons in the line of succession to the British throne, are all patrilineal members of the Glücksburg branch of this house.
Jarlsberg was a former countship that forms a part of today's Vestfold county in Norway.
Jens Juel was a Danish diplomat and statesman of great influence at the Danish court. He was created Baron and granted Juellinge in 1672 and also established Juellund in 1694. He was the brother of Admiral Niels Juel.
Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Count of Laurvig was Governor-general of Norway from 1664–1699. He was the leading general in Norway during the Scanian War, whose Norwegian leg is conventionally named the Gyldenløve War after him.
The Count's Feud, also called the Count's War, was a war of succession that raged in Denmark in 1534–36 and brought about the Reformation in Denmark. In the international context, it was part of the European wars of religion. The Count's Feud takes its name from the Protestant Count Christopher of Oldenburg, who supported the Catholic King Christian II, deposed in 1523, over the election of Christian III, a staunch Protestant who had already implemented Lutheranism as the state religion in Schleswig and Holstein in 1528.
The Scanian War was a part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark–Norway, Brandenburg and Sweden. It was fought from 1675 to 1679 mainly on Scanian soil, in the former Danish and Norway provinces along the border with Sweden, and in Northern Germany. While the latter battles are regarded as a theater of the Scanian war in English, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish historiography, they are seen as a separate war in German historiography, called the Swedish-Brandenburgian War.
Christian Albert was a duke of Holstein-Gottorp and bishop of Lübeck.
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Calenberg was queen of Denmark and Norway as the consort of the King Frederick III of Denmark. She is known for her political influence, as well as for her cultural impact: she acted as the adviser of Frederick III, and introduced ballet and opera to Denmark.
Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel was Queen of Denmark and Norway by marriage to King Christian V. Although she did not have much political influence, she was a successful businesswoman in her many estates and protected foreign Protestant non-Lutherans from oppression. She gained popularity for defending Copenhagen from Swedish forces in 1700.
Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark and Norway was the second daughter of King Frederick III of Denmark and Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp from 1667 to 1695 as the consort of Duke Christian Albert.
Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel, German and Norwegian: Karl; 19 December 1744 – 17 August 1836) was a cadet member of the house of Hesse-Kassel and a Danish general field marshal. Brought up with relatives at the Danish court, he spent most of his life in Denmark, serving as royal governor of the twin duchies of Schleswig-Holstein from 1769 to 1836 and commander-in-chief of the Norwegian army from 1772 to 1814.
Sophie Amalie Moth, Countess of Samsøe was the officially acknowledged royal mistress of King Christian V of Denmark. Together they had five acknowledged illegitimate children, all of whom bore the surname Gyldenløve. In 1677 she was elevated to be the first Countess of Samsø. The still-existing Danish noble family of Danneskiold-Samsøe is descended from her.
Conrad, Greve von Reventlow was a Danish statesman who was "Grand Chancellor of Denmark", a predecessor title of the Prime Minister of Denmark, from 1699 until his death. His chancellorship occurred during the reign of King Frederick IV.
The Peace of Lund, signed on 16 September (O.S.) / 26 September 1679, was the final peace treaty between Denmark-Norway and the Swedish Empire in the Scanian War.
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Christian VBorn: 14 April 1646 Died: 25 August 1699
| King of Denmark and Norway |
Count of Oldenburg
Frederick III of Denmark
as co-ruler of Christian Albert of Gottorp
| Duke of Holstein and Schleswig |
with Christian Albert (1670–1695)
Frederick IV (1695–1699)
Frederick IV of Denmark
as co-ruler of Frederick IV of Gottorp