Christian headcovering

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Female dieners in the Moravian Church serving bread to fellow members of their congregation during the celebration of a lovefeast are seen wearing headcoverings. Lovefeast at Bethania Moravian Church.jpg
Female dieners in the Moravian Church serving bread to fellow members of their congregation during the celebration of a lovefeast are seen wearing headcoverings.
Women who belong to the Hutterite Church, an Anabapist Christian denomination, wear their headcovering daily and only remove it when sleeping. Hutterite Sunset.jpg
Women who belong to the Hutterite Church, an Anabapist Christian denomination, wear their headcovering daily and only remove it when sleeping.
Orthodox Christian woman in Ukraine. Female believers are required to cover their head entering churches and monasteries. Orthodox pilgrim.jpg
Orthodox Christian woman in Ukraine. Female believers are required to cover their head entering churches and monasteries.

Christian head covering and Christian hair covering is worn by women in a variety of Christian traditions. Some Christian women, based on Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, Calvinist, and Methodist teaching, wear the head covering in public worship (though some women belonging to these traditions may also choose to wear the head covering outside of church), [1] while others, especially Anabaptist Christians, believe women should wear head coverings all the time. [2] Anglican women used to wear the hair covering at home and outside; those who didn't wear them were considered to be prostitutes or adultresses. The practice of Christian head covering for "praying and prophesying" was inspired by a traditional interpretation of 1 Corinthians 11:2–6 in the New Testament. [3] The practice of the Christian hair covering and Christian face covering for modesty is from Holy Oral Tradition; though, Saint Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:13-16 of Holy Scripture stated that a woman is to just have long hair for modesty. The majority of Biblical scholars have held that "verses 4-7 refer to a literal veil or covering of cloth" for "praying and prophesying" and verse 15 to refer to long hair of a woman for modesty. [4] Although the head covering and hair covering was practiced by most Christian women until the latter part of the 20th century, [5] it is now a minority practice among contemporary Christians in the West, though it continues to be the normal practice in other parts of the world, such as Russia, Ukraine, Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and South Korea. [6] The style of the Christian head covering and Christian hair covering varies by region.

Contents

History

New Testament

The practice of Christian head covering for "praying and prophesying" is commanded in 1 Corinthians 11:2-6 of the New Testament. [3] [7] Christian women are commanded to wear the Christian head covering without ceasing because Christians are commanded to "16 Rejoice always; 17 pray without ceasing; 18 in everything give thanks; for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus. 19 Do not quench the Spirit; 20 do not despise prophetic [l]utterances. 21 But examine everything carefully; hold fast to that which is good; 22 abstain from every [m]form of evil" in 1 Thessalonians 5 NASB The four virgin daughters of Philip prophesied in the Church Acts 21:8-9 NASB and widow Anna prophesied in the Temple Luke 2:36-38 NASB because virgins and widows can dedicate their lives to the Lord 1 Corinthians 7:32-35 NASB; however, wives are supposed to be silent in the churches and are not to teach or usurp authority over husbands because they are busy with the secular (the things of the world) 1 Corinthians 7:32-35 NASB. Calvinists believe in Sola scriptura and interpret 1 Corinthians 13:8-10 NIV to mean that the ceasing of the prophetic happened at the end of the 1st century; so, they don't permit virgins and widows to teach. Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox don't believe that the prophetic ceased because Christ gave the Spirit of truth to be with the Church forever, according to Saint John in John 14:16-17. Anglicans practice ordination of women as priests. Lutheran deaconesses teach.

The practice of Christian modesty, in clothing and long hair, for women is mentioned in Holy Scripture, 1 Timothy 2:9 and 1 Corinthians 11:13-16. According to Holy Oral Tradition, the practice of Christian hair covering is commanded in Holy Scripture because if it's wrong to not wear a head covering for "praying and prophesying", then it is wrong to not wear a hair covering for modesty. According to Holy Oral Tradition, the practice of Christian face covering is a part of Christian modesty.

The majority of Biblical scholars have held that "verses 4-7 refer to a literal veil or covering of cloth" for "praying and prophesying" and verse 15 to refer to long hair of a woman for modesty. [8]

Eastern Orthodox Christians wear the head covering for praying and prophesying, and the hair covering for modesty, in public worship and at home. Oriental Orthodox Christians wore the Christian hair covering and Christian face covering, [9] which was mentioned by Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215), until the early 20th century with virgins wearing white and married wearing black.

Western Christians

While many Anabaptists, such as Amish, Mennonites, and General Baptists ( German Baptists and Russian Baptists), advocate the wearing of head coverings at all times, as a woman might pray or prophesy at any time, the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, Calvinist and Methodist teaching is that "praying and prophesying" refers to the activities taking place in public worship, as the Apostle Paul is dealing with public worship issues in 1st Corinthians, chapter 11. [10] [11] Anabaptists disagree saying that because Christians are commanded to "pray without ceasing", this means that the head covering is to be worn without ceasing since it is to be worn for prayer; they also mention Christ telling Christians to pray at home and not just in church. [10]

Early Church

Fresco of veiled Christian woman, 3rd century. Monuments of the early church (1901) (14596857218).jpg
Fresco of veiled Christian woman, 3rd century.

Christian head covering and the Christian hair covering was unanimously practiced by the women of the Early Church. This was attested by multiple writers throughout the first centuries of Christianity. Clement of Alexandria (150–215), an early theologian, wrote, “Woman and man are to go to church decently attired...for this is the wish of the Word, since it is becoming for her to pray veiled.” [12] Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215) writes about Christian hair covering and Christian face covering, “It has also been commanded that the head should be veiled and the face covered, for it is a wicked thing for beauty to be a snare to men. Nor is it appropriate for a woman to desire to make herself conspicuous by using a purple veil.” The early Christian writer Tertullian (150–220) explains that in his day, the Corinthian church was still practicing head covering. This is only 150 years after the Apostle Paul wrote 1 Corinthians. He said, “So, too, did the Corinthians themselves understand [Paul]. In fact, at this day the Corinthians do veil their virgins. What the apostles taught, their disciples approve.” [13] Another theologian, Hippolytus of Rome (170–236) while giving instructions for church gatherings said "...let all the women have their heads covered with an opaque cloth..." [14] “Early church history bears witness that in Rome, Antioch, and Africa the custom [of wearing the head covering] became the norm [for the Church].” [15] Origen of Alexandria (c. 184 – c. 253) wrote, "There are angels in the midst of our assembly...we have here a twofold Church, one of men, the other of angels...And since there are angels present... women, when they pray, are ordered to have a covering upon their heads because of those angels. They assist the saints and rejoice in the Church."

Later, in the 4th century, the church leader John Chrysostom (347–407) stated, “…the business of whether to cover one’s head was legislated by nature (see 1 Cor 11:14–15). When I say “nature,” I mean “God.” For he is the one who created nature. Take note, therefore, what great harm comes from overturning these boundaries! And don’t tell me that this is a small sin.” [16] Jerome (347–420) noted that the hair cap and the prayer veil is worn by Christian women in Egypt and Syria: “do not go about with heads uncovered in defiance of the apostle’s command, for they wear a close-fitting cap and a veil.” [17] Augustine of Hippo (354–430) writes about the hair covering, "It is not becoming, even in married women, to uncover their hair, since the apostle commands women to keep their heads covered." [18] Early Christian art also confirms that women wore headcoverings during this time period. [19]

Middle Ages and Early Modern Era

A wimple as shown in Portrait of a Woman, circa 1430-1435, by Robert Campin (1375/1379-1444), National Gallery, London. The cloth is 4-ply and the pins holding it in place are visible at the top of the head. RCampin.jpg
A wimple as shown in Portrait of a Woman, circa 1430-1435, by Robert Campin (1375/1379–1444), National Gallery, London. The cloth is 4-ply and the pins holding it in place are visible at the top of the head.

Until at least the 18th century, the wearing of a hair covering, both in the public and while attending church, was regarded as customary for Christian women in Mediterranean, European, Middle Eastern, and African cultures. [20] Women who did not wear hair coverings were interpreted to be "a prostitute or adultreress". [20] [21] In Europe, law stipulated that married women who uncovered their hair in public was evidence of her infidelity. [22]

Current practices

Styles

RegionHeadpiece worn as Christian HeadcoveringImage
Spain, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Russia mantilla [23]
Goya - Joven dama con mantilla y basquina.jpg
India, Pakistan dupatta [24]
Young Woman at Hazratbal Shrine - Srinagar - Jammu & Kashmir - India - 02 (26232603894).jpg
United States bonnet (among many Anabaptists and Conservative Quakers), wide brim hats (in the American South) [25]
Mother and child McKee's Half Falls Rest Area.jpg
DrDorothyHeight.jpg

Tradition

Eastern Christianity

Women of the Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church wearing headcoverings Te Deum Elizarovo Guslitsa 8484.jpg
Women of the Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church wearing headcoverings

Some Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches require women to cover their heads while in church; an example of this practice occurs in the Russian Orthodox Church. [26] In Albania, Christian women often wear white veils, although their eyes are visible; moreover, in that nation, in Orthodox Christian church buildings, women are separated from men by latticework partitions during the church service. [27]

In other cases, the choice may be individual, or vary within a country or jurisdiction. Among Eastern Orthodox women in Greece, the practice of wearing a head covering in church gradually declined over the course of the 20th century. In the United States, the custom can vary depending on the denomination and congregation, and the origins of that congregation. Catholics in South Korea still wear the headcovering. [6]

Eastern Orthodox clergy of all levels have head coverings, sometimes with veils in the case of monastics or celibates, that are donned and removed at certain points in the services. In U.S. churches they are less commonly worn.

Eastern Orthodox female monks wear a head covering called an apostolnik, which is worn at all times, and is the only part of the monastic habit which distinguishes them from Eastern Orthodox male monks.

Western Christianity

Painting of Martin Luther preaching (all women are depicted wearing a head covering). Martin Luther Preaching to Faithful (1561).jpg
Painting of Martin Luther preaching (all women are depicted wearing a head covering).
Headcovering in the Restored Reformed Church of Doornspijk Kerkdienst hhk doornspijk.jpg
Headcovering in the Restored Reformed Church of Doornspijk

In Western Europe and North America at the start of the 20th century, women in some mainstream Christian denominations wore head coverings during church services. [28] These included many Anglican, [29] Baptist, [30] Catholic, [31] Lutheran, [32] Methodist, [33] Presbyterian Churches. [34] [35] [36]

Head covering for women was unanimously held by the Latin Church until the 1983 Code of Canon Law came into effect. Historically, women were required to veil their heads when receiving the Eucharist following the Councils of Autun and Angers. [37] Similarly, in 585, the Synod of Auxerre (France) stated that women should wear a head-covering during the Holy Mass. [38] [39] The Synod of Rome in 743 declared that "A woman praying in church without her head covered brings shame upon her head, according to the word of the Apostle., [40] a position later supported by Pope Nicholas I in 866, for church services." [41] In the Middle Ages, Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) said that "the man existing under God should not have a covering over his to show he is immediately subject to God; but the woman should wear a covering to show that besides God she is naturally subject to another." [42] In the 1917 Code of Canon Law it was a requirement that women cover their heads in church. It said, "women, however, shall have a covered head and be modestly dressed, especially when they approach the table of the Lord." [43] Veiling was not specifically addressed in the 1983 revision of the Code, which declared the 1917 Code abrogated. [44] According to the new Code, former law only has interpretive weight in norms that are repeated in the 1983 Code; all other norms are simply abrogated. There is no provision made for norms that are not repeated in the 1983 Code. [45]

Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformer, encouraged wives to wear a veil in public worship. [46] The General Rubrics of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, as contained in "The Lutheran Liturgy", state in a section titled "Headgear for Women": "It is laudable custom, based upon a Scriptural injunction (1 Cor. 11:3-15), for women to wear an appropriate head covering in Church, especially at the time of divine service." [32]

John Calvin, the founder of the Reformed Churches and John Knox, the founder of the Presbyterian Church, both called for women to wear head coverings in public worship. [34] [35] [36] John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, held that women, "especially in a religious assembly", should "keep on her veil". [47] [48] [48]

In nations in regions such as Eastern Europe and the Indian subcontinent, nearly all Christian women wear head coverings during church services. [49] [50] In the United Kingdom, it is common for women to wear a Christian headcovering while attending formal religious services, such as church weddings. [51] [52] [53] At worship, in parts of the Western World, many women started to wear bonnets as their headcoverings, and later, hats became predominant. [54] [55] However, eventually, in North America and parts of Western Europe, this practice started to decline, [28] [56] with some exceptions including Christians who wear plain dress, such as Conservative Quakers and many Anabaptists (including Mennonites, Hutterites, [57] Old German Baptist Brethren, [58] Apostolic Christians and Amish). Moravian females wear a lace headcovering called a haube, especially when serving as dieners. [59] Traditionalist Catholics, as well as many Holiness Christians who practice the doctrine of outward holiness, also practice headcovering, [60] in addition to the Laestadian Lutheran Church, the Plymouth Brethren, and the more conservative Scottish and Irish Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed churches. Some female believers in the Churches of Christ cover too. Pentecostal Churches, such as the Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith, The Pentecostal Mission, the Christian Congregation, and Believers Church observe the veiling of women as well. [61] Female members of Jehovah's Witnesses may only lead prayer and teaching when no baptized male is available to, and must do so wearing a head covering. [62] [63]

Nuns of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican traditions often wear a veil as a part of their religious habit.

Oriental Christianity

Coptic Orthodox Christian woman wearing a hair covering and a face covering (1918). A Coptic woman of the Poorer Class. (1918) - TIMEA.jpg
Coptic Orthodox Christian woman wearing a hair covering and a face covering (1918).

Coptic women historically covered their head and face in public and in the presence of men. [9] During the 19th century, upper-class urban Christian and Muslim women in Egypt wore a garment which included a head cover and a burqa (muslin cloth that covered the lower nose and the mouth). [64] The name of this garment, harabah, derives from early Christian and Judaic religious vocabulary, which may indicate the origins of the garment itself. [64] Unmarried women generally wore white veils while married women wore black. [9] The practice began to decline by the early 20th century. [9]

Scriptural basis

Russian woman putting headscarf on before entering church. Russian woman putting headscarf.jpg
Russian woman putting headscarf on before entering church.
Women belonging to the Samoan Assemblies of God Church are seen wearing hats during worship. Women in ministry.jpg
Women belonging to the Samoan Assemblies of God Church are seen wearing hats during worship.

Christian Bible/Old Testament

Passages such as Genesis 24:65, Numbers 5:18 and Isaiah 47:2 indicate that some women chose to wear a hair covering during the Old Testament time period. However, no Old Testament passage contains a command from God for women to wear a hair covering. The hair covering is mentioned by Prophet Moses, "The priest shall stand the woman before the Lord, uncover the woman’s head, and put the offering for remembering in her hands” Numbers 5:18 NKJV The face covering is mentioned by Prophet Daniel, "Now Susanna was exceeding delicate, and beautiful to behold. But those wicked men commanded that her face should be uncovered, (for she was covered,) that so at least they might be satisfied with her beauty. Therefore her friends and all her acquaintance wept.Daniel 13:31-33 DRA

Christian Bible/New Testament

Amish women wearing a headcovering. Femmes-Amish.jpg
Amish women wearing a headcovering.

1 Corinthians 11:2–16 contains the only passage in the New Testament referring to the use of headcoverings for women (and the uncovering of the heads of men).

Paul introduces this passage by praising the Corinthian Christians for remembering the "teachings" (also translated as "traditions" [65] or "ordinances" [66] ) that he had passed on to them (verse 2).

Paul then explains the Christian use of head coverings using the subjects of headship, glory, angels, natural hair lengths, and the practice of the churches. What he specifically said about each of these subjects has led to differences in interpretation (and practice) among Bible commentators and Christian congregations.

Interpretive issues

There are several key sections of 1 Corinthians 11:2–16 that Bible commentators and Christian congregations have held differing opinions about, which have resulted in a diversity of practices regarding the use of headcoverings.

Interpretive conclusions and resulting practices

Due to various interpretive issues (such as those listed above), Bible commentators and Christian congregations have a diversity of conclusions and practices regarding headcovering. One primary area of debate is whether Paul's call for men to uncover their heads and women to cover their heads was intended to be followed by Christians outside of the First Century Corinthian church. While some Christian congregations continue to use headcoverings for female members, others do not.

See also

Related Research Articles

First Epistle to the Corinthians Book of the Bible (Letter)

The First Epistle to the Corinthians, usually referred to as First Corinthians or 1 Corinthians is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle and a co-author named Sosthenes, and is addressed to the Christian church in Corinth. Scholars believe that Sosthenes was the amanuensis who wrote down the text of the letter at Paul's direction. It addresses various issues that had arisen in the Christian community at Corinth.

Hijab veil worn by Muslim women

A hijab in common English usage is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest. The term can refer to any head, face, or body covering worn by Muslim women that conforms to Islamic standards of modesty. Hijab can also refer to the seclusion of women from men in the public sphere, or it may denote a metaphysical dimension, for example referring to "the veil which separates man or the world from God."

Veil any lightweight covering for the head or face or both

A veil is an article of clothing or hanging cloth that is intended to cover some part of the head or face, or an object of some significance. Veiling has a long history in European, Asian, and African societies. The practice has been prominent in different forms in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The practice of veiling is especially associated with women and sacred objects, though in some cultures it is men rather than women who are expected to wear a veil. Besides its enduring religious significance, veiling continues to play a role in some modern secular contexts, such as wedding customs.

Modesty mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid encouraging of sexual attraction in others

Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others. The word "modesty" comes from the Latin word modestus which means "keeping within measure". Standards of modesty are culturally and context dependent and vary widely. In this use, it may be considered inappropriate or immodest to reveal certain parts of the body. In some societies, modesty may involve women covering their bodies completely and not talking to men who are not immediate family members; in others, a fairly revealing but one-piece bathing costume is considered modest when other women wear bikinis. In some countries, exposure of the body in breach of community standards of modesty is also considered to be public indecency, and public nudity is generally illegal in most of the world and regarded as indecent exposure. For example, Stephen Gough a lone man attempting to walk naked from south to north Britain was repeatedly imprisoned. However, nudity is at times tolerated in some societies; for example by Digambara monks in India, who renounce clothing for ascetic reasons, and during a World Naked Bike Ride

Burqa Enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions

A burqa or burka, also known as a chadaree in Afghanistan or a paranja in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public, which covers the body and the face. The Arab version of the burqa is called the boshiya, and is usually black in color.

Tzniut describes both the character trait of modesty and discretion, as well as a group of Jewish laws pertaining to conduct. In modern times, the term has become more frequently used with regard to the rules of dress for women within Judaism. The concept is most important within Orthodox Judaism.

Islamic clothing clothing designed to be in accordance with some Islamic precept

Islamic clothing is clothing that is interpreted as being in accordance with the teachings of Islam. Muslims wear a wide variety of clothing, which is influenced not only by religious considerations, but also practical, cultural, social, and political factors. In modern times, some Muslims have adopted clothing based on Western traditions, while others wear modern forms of traditional Muslim dress, which over the centuries has typically included long, flowing garments. Besides its practical advantages in the climate of the Middle East, loose-fitting clothing is also generally regarded as conforming to Islamic teachings, which stipulate that body areas which are sexual in nature must be hidden from public view. Traditional dress for Muslim men has typically covered at least the head and the area between the waist and the knees, while traditional women's dress conceals the hair and the body from the ankles to the neck. Some Muslim women also cover their face. Islamic dress is influenced by two scriptural sources, the Quran and hadith. The Quran provides guiding principles believed to have come from God, while the body of hadith describes a human role model through the traditions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The branch of fashion industry influenced by Islamic principles is known as Islamic fashion.

Headscarf piece of cloth worn on ones head

A headscarf, or head scarf, is a scarf covering most or all of the top of a person's, usually women's, hair and head, leaving the face uncovered. A headscarf is formed of a triangular cloth or a square cloth folded into a triangle, with which the head is covered.

1 Corinthians 11 Chapter 11 of Pauls First Epistle to the Corinthians

1 Corinthians 11 is the eleventh chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It was authored by Paul the Apostle and Sosthenes in Ephesus. In this chapter, Paul writes on the conduct of Christians while worshiping together.

Outward holiness

Outward holiness, or external holiness, is a Wesleyan-Arminian doctrine emphasizing modest dress and sober speech. It is a testimony of a Christian believer's inward holiness. The doctrine is prevalent among denominations emerging during the revival movements, including the Lutheran Pietists and Methodists, as well as Pentecostals. It is taken from 1 Peter 1:15: "He which hath called you is Holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation."

Sheitel

Sheitel is a wig or half-wig worn by some Orthodox Jewish married women in order to conform with the requirement of Jewish law to cover their hair. Some Hasidic groups encourage sheitels, while others avoid them.

Tichel Jewish headscarf.

Tichel, also called a mitpachat, is the Yiddish word for the headscarf worn by many married Orthodox Jewish women in compliance with the code of modesty known as tzniut, which requires married women to cover their hair. Tichels can range from a simple plain color cotton kerchief tied in the back to elaborate head coverings using multiple fabrics and tying techniques.

Many Christians have followed certain dress codes during attendance at church. Customs have varied over time and between different Christian denominations.

The roles of women in Christianity can vary considerably today as they have varied historically since the third century New Testament church. This is especially true in marriage and in formal ministry positions within certain Christian denominations, churches, and parachurch organizations.

Plain dress

Plain dress is a practice among some religious groups, primarily some Christian churches in which people dress in clothes of traditional modest design, sturdy fabric, and conservative cut. It is intended to show acceptance of traditional gender roles, humility, readiness to work and serve, and to preserve communal identity and separation from the immodest, ever-changing fashions of the world.

Ghoonghat

A ghoonghat is a headcovering or headscarf, worn in the Indian subcontinent, by some married Hindu, Jain and Sikh women to cover their heads, and often their faces. Generally aanchal or pallu, the loose end of a sari is pulled over the head and face to act as a ghunghat. A dupatta is also commonly used as a ghungat. Today, facial veiling by Hindu women as part of everyday attire is now mostly limited to the Hindi Belt region of India, particularly Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Jewish religious clothing religious clothing of Jews

Jewish religious clothing is apparel worn by Jews in connection with the practice of the Jewish religion. Jewish religious clothing has changed over time while maintaining the influences of biblical commandments and Jewish religious law regarding clothing and modesty (tzniut). Contemporary styles in the wider culture also have a bearing on Jewish religious clothing, although this extent is limited.

Paul the Apostle and women

The relationship between Paul the Apostle and Women is an important element in the theological debate about Christianity and women because Paul was the first writer to give ecclesiastical directives about the role of women in the Church. However, there are arguments that some of these writings are post-Pauline interpolations.

Headgear any covering for the head; element of clothing which is worn on ones head

Headgear, headwear or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing which is worn on one's head.

Modest fashion

The term modest fashion or modest dressing refers to a fashion trend in women of wearing less skin-revealing clothes, especially in a way that satisfies their spiritual and stylistic requirements for reasons of faith, religion or personal preference. The exact interpretation of 'modest' varies across cultures and countries. There is no unambiguous interpretation as it is influenced by socio-cultural characteristics of each country. Beyond the various interpretations, all agree on the idea that modest fashion means loose clothing, comfortable dressing and covering of the body according to person's own comfort.

References

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  2. Hole, Frank Binford. "F. B. Hole's Old and New Testament Commentary". StudyLight. Retrieved 6 February 2016. “There is no contradiction between 1 Corinthians 11:5 of our chapter and 1 Corinthians 14:34, for the simple reason that there speaking in the assembly is in question, whereas in our chapter the assembly does not come into view until verse 1 Corinthians 11:17 is reached. Only then do we begin to consider things that may happen when we “come together.” The praying or prophesying contemplated in verse 1 Corinthians 11:5 is not in connection with the formal assemblies of God’s saints.”
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  22. Weitz, Rose (12 January 2005). Rapunzel's Daughters: What Women's Hair Tells Us About Women's Lives. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 20. ISBN   9781429931137.
  23. The Pacific, Volume 50. J.W. Douglas. 1901. p. 227.
  24. Flinn, Isabella (1 May 2014). Pinpricks in the Curtain: India Through the Eyes of an Unlikely Missionary. WestBow Press. p. 234. ISBN   9781490834313.
  25. "What are Church Hats?". Southern Living . Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  26. Gdaniec, Cordula (1 May 2010). Cultural Diversity in Russian Cities: The Urban Landscape in the Post-Soviet Era. Berghahn Books. p. 161. ISBN   9781845456658 . Retrieved 27 October 2012. According to Russian Orthodox tradition women cover their heads when entering a church.
  27. Edwin E. Jacques (1995). The Albanians: An Ethnic History from Prehistoric Times to the Present. McFarland. p. 221. ISBN   978-0899509327 . Retrieved 27 October 2012. Poujade (1867, 194) noted that Christian women frequently used white veils. Long after independence from Turkey, elderly Orthodox women in Elbasan could be seen on the street wearing white veils, although usually their eyes were visible. Turkish influence upon the Christian community is seen also in latticework partitions in the rear of the Orthodox churches, the women being kept behind the screen during mass.
  28. 1 2 Kraybill, Donald B. (5 October 2010). Concise Encyclopedia of Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, and Mennonites. JHU Press. p. 103. ISBN   9780801896576 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. During the 20th century, the wearing of head coverings declined in more assimilated groups, which gradually interpreted the Pauline teaching as referring to cultural practice in the early church without relevance for women in the modern world. Some churches in the mid-20th century had long and contentious discussions about wearing head coverings because proponents saw its decline as a serious erosion of obedience to scriptural teaching.
  29. Muir, Edward (18 August 2005). Ritual in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN   9780521841535 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. In England radical Protestants, known in the seventeenth century as Puritans, we especially ardent in resisting the churching of women and the requirement that women wear a head covering or veil during the ceremony. The Book of Common Prayer, which became the ritual handbook of the Anglican Church, retained the ceremony in a modified form, but as one Puritan tract put it, the "churching of women after childbirth smelleth of Jewish purification."
  30. Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 2012. Abingdon Press. 2012-04-01. p. 131. ISBN   9781426746666 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. The holy kiss is practiced and women wear head coverings during prayer and worship.
  31. Henold, Mary J. (2008). Catholic and Feminist: The Surprising History of the American Catholic Feminist Movement. UNC Press Books. p. 126. ISBN   9780807859476 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. At that time, official practice still dictated that Catholic women cover their heads in church.
  32. 1 2 The Lutheran Liturgy: Authorized by the Synods Constituting The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House. 1941. p. 427.
  33. Morgan, Sue (2010-06-23). Women, Gender and Religious Cultures in Britain, 1800–1940. Taylor & Francis. p. 102. ISBN   9780415231152 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. Several ardent Methodist women wrote to him, asking for his permission to speak. Mar Bosanquet (1739–1815) suggested that if Paul had instructed women to cover their heads when they spoke (1. Cor. 11:5) then he was surely giving direction on how women should conduct themselves when they preached.
  34. 1 2 John Knox, "The first blast of the trumpet against the monstruous regiment of women", Works of John Knox, David Laing, ed. (Edinburgh: Printed for the Bannatyne Club), IV:377[ non-primary source needed ]
  35. 1 2 Seth Skolnitsky, trans., Men, Women and Order in the Church: Three Sermons by John Calvin (Dallas, TX: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1992), pp. 12,13.[ non-primary source needed ]
  36. 1 2 Commentary on 1 Corinthians 11:2–16 (and related passages) Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine [ self-published source? ]
  37. McClintock, John; Strong, James (1891). Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper & Bros. p. 739. A white veil or coif, called velamen dominicale, was worn by females at the time of receiving the eucharist during the 5th and 6th centuries These veils were ordered by the councils of Autun 578 and Angers.
  38. "The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church". The Church Quarterly Review. 10: 78. 1880.
  39. Schmidt, lvin (1989). Veiled and Silenced. Mercer University Press. p. 136.
  40. Synod of Rome (Canon 3). Giovanni Domenico Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio (Page 382)
  41. Schmidt, Alvin (1989). Veiled and Silenced. Mercer University Press. p. 136.
  42. Aquinas, Thomas. "Super I Epistolam B. Pauli ad Corinthios lectura". Dominican House of Studies. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  43. Peters, Edward (2001). The 1917 Pio-Benedictine Code of Canon Law. Ignatius Press. p. 427.
  44. Canon 6 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law [ non-primary source needed ]
  45. Canon 6, section 2 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law [ non-primary source needed ]
  46. Susan C. Karant-Nunn, Merry E. Wiesner (ed.). Luther on Women: A Sourcebook. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. Otherwise and aside from that, the wife should put on a veil, just as a pious wife is duty-bound to help bear her husband's accident, illness, and misfortune on account of the evil flesh.
  47. Wesley, John. Wesley's Notes on the Bible. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. p. 570. ISBN   9781610252577. Therefore if a woman is not covered — If she will throw off the badge of subjection, let her appear with her hair cut like a man's. But if it be shameful far a woman to appear thus in public, especially in a religious assembly, let her, for the same reason, keep on her veil.
  48. 1 2 Dunlap, David (1 November 1994). "Headcovering-A Historical Perspective". Uplook Ministries. Retrieved 24 June 2019. Although women were allowed to preach in the Methodist ministry, the veil covering a woman’s head was required as a sign of her headship to Christ. Concerning the theological significance of the veil, Wesley wrote, “For a man indeed ought not to veil his head because he is the image and glory of God in the dominion he bears over the creation, representing the supreme dominion of God, which is his glory. But the woman is a matter of glory to the man, who has a becoming dominion over her. Therefore she ought not to appear except with her head veiled as a tacit acknowledgement of it.”
  49. Reagan, David R. (1 January 1994). Trusting God: Learning to Walk by Faith. Lamb & Lion Ministries. p. 164. ISBN   9780945593034. One thing that fascinated me about the Eastern European churches was the "sea of white" that I saw every time I got up to preach. This was due to the fact that most of the churches practiced head covering for women.
  50. Haji, Nafisa (2011-05-17). The Sweetness of Tears. HarperCollins. p. 316. ISBN   9780061780103 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. I went to church, something I'd never expected to do in Pakistan. Sadiq told me that his grandfather's nurse, Sausan, was Christian. Presbyterian. My second Sunday in Karachi, I went to services with her. I was glad of the clothese that Haseena Auntie had helped me shop for, because all the women in church covered their heads, just like Muslim women, with their dupattas.
  51. Barrett, Colleen (21 February 2011). "Why Do British Women Wear Hats to Weddings?". PopSugar . Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  52. Cathcart, Laura (25 May 2017). "A milliner's guide to wearing hats in church". The Catholic Herald. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  53. Hodgkin, Emily (29 January 2018). "Kate Middleton to be forced to do this at Meghan Markle and Prince Harry's wedding?". Daily Express . Retrieved 20 May 2018. However, as the Royal Family are known to be sticklers for tradition, hats will no doubt be required for Harry’s wedding. The wearing hats to church by all women is traditionally a requirement of the Anglican church. This is due to the writing of St Paul in Corinthians, where he has some pretty strong feelings about women wearing hats. In 1 Corinthians 11:1-34 he said: “I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ, the head of a wife is her husband, and the head of Christ is God. “Every man who prays or prophesies with his head covered dishonours his head, but every wife who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonours her head, since it is the same as if her head were shaven.”
  54. Courtais, Georgine De (1 February 2006). Women's Hats, Headdresses And Hairstyles: With 453 Illustrations, Medieval to Modern. Courier Dover Publications. p. 130. ISBN   9780486448503 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. Although hats were not considered sufficiently respectable for church wear and very formal occasions they were gradually taking the place of bonnets, at least for younger women.
  55. Mark, Rebecca; Vaughan, Robert C. (2004). The South. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 175. ISBN   9780313327346 . Retrieved 13 November 2012. The red and orange turban described by the anonymous observer also looks forward to the flamboyant Sunday hats worn by African American middle-class women into the twenty-first century, hats celebrated stunningly by Michael Cunningham and Graig Marberry in Crowns: Portraits of Black Women in Church Hats.
  56. Elisabeth, Hallgren Sjöberg, (24 September 2017). "Såsom en slöja : Den kristna slöjan i en svensk kontext".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  57. Hostetler, John (1997). Hutterite Society. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 105. ISBN   978-0-8018-5639-6.
  58. Thompson, Charles (2006). The Old German Baptist Brethren: Faith, Farming, and Change in the Virginia Blue Ridge. University of Illinois Press. p. 33. ISBN   978-0-252-07343-4.
  59. Crump, William D. (30 August 2013). The Christmas Encyclopedia, 3d ed. McFarland. p. 298. ISBN   9781476605739.
  60. DeMello, Margo (14 February 2012). Faces around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 303. ISBN   9781598846188 . Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  61. "About Believers Church: Practical Distinctives". Gospel for Asia . Retrieved 31 July 2016. In our church services, you will see that the women wear head coverings as is mentioned in 1 Corinthians 11:2–16. In the same way, we adhere to the practice of baptism as commanded in Matthew 28:19, and Holy Communion, which is given to us in 1 Corinthians 11:23–26. These are all part of the traditions of faith of Believers Church.
  62. "Head Coverings—When and Why?". Keep Yourselves in God's Love. Watch Tower. 2008. pp. 209–12.
  63. "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, July 15, 2002, page 27.
  64. 1 2 El Guindi, Fadwa; Sherifa Zahur (2009). Hijab. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN   9780195305135.
  65. "Paradosis – New Testament Lexicon". Paradosis – New Testament Lexicon – New American Standard. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  66. "1 Corinthians 11:2 – KJV". 1 Corinthians 11:2 – KJV. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  67. MacDonald, William (1995). Believer's Bible Commentary. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers. p. 1786. ISBN   9780840719720. Paul teaches the subordination of the woman to man by going back to creation. This should forever lay to rest any idea that his teaching about women's covering was what was culturally suitable to his day but not applicable to us today.
  68. Merkle, Ben. "Headcoverings and Modern Women". Archived from the original on January 3, 2011.
  69. Bushnell, Katharine (1921). God's Word to Women. Minneapolis, MN: Christians for Biblical Equality. ISBN   978-0-9743031-0-9.[ page needed ]

Further reading