Christine of France

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Christine of France
Portrait of Christine of France, Duchess of Savoy in 1633 by an anonymous artist.jpg
Christine in 1633 holding onto the Savoyard Coronet; in the background is the Castello del Valentino where she lived from 1630
Duchess consort of Savoy
Tenure26 July 1630 – 7 October 1637
Born(1606-02-10)10 February 1606
Palais du Louvre, Paris, France
Died27 December 1663(1663-12-27) (aged 57)
Palazzo Madama, Turin, Savoy
Burial
Spouse
Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy
(m. 1619;died 1637)
Issue
Detail
Full name
Christine Marie de France
House Bourbon
Father Henry IV of France
Mother Marie de' Medici
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Signature of Christine of France, Duchess of Savoy in 1630.jpg

Christine of France (10 February 1606 – 27 December 1663) was the sister of Louis XIII and the Duchess of Savoy by marriage. At the death of her husband Victor Amadeus I in 1637, she acted as regent of Savoy between 1637 and 1648.

Contents

Daughter of France

Christine was born in the Palais du Louvre in Paris, she was the third child and second daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second wife, the Italian Marie de' Medici. As a daughter of the king, she was a Daughter of France. She was a younger sister of Louis XIII of France and Elisabeth of France. She was also an older sister of Nicholas Henri, Duke of Orléans, Gaston, Duke of Orléans and Henrietta Maria of France. Christine was a sister-in-law of Philip IV of Spain through Élisabeth and of Charles I of England through Henrietta Maria. As a child, she was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat.

Paris Capital city of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.

Henry IV of France first French monarch of the House of Bourbon

Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.

Marie de Medici Queen of France, second wife of King Henry IV of France

Marie de' Medici was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She was a member of the wealthy and powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until 1617, when he came of age. She was noted for her ceaseless political intrigues at the French court and extensive artistic patronage.

After the marriage of her older sister Elisabeth in 1615 to the future Philip IV of Spain, Christine took on the honorary title of Madame Royale indicating her status as the eldest and most senior unmarried daughter at the court of her father. After her marriage, the style went to her younger sister Henrietta Maria of France.

Philip IV of Spain King of Spain

Philip IV was King of Spain and Portugal. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War.

<i>Fils de France</i>

Fils de France was the style and rank held by the sons of the kings and dauphins of France. A daughter was known as a fille de France.

Henrietta Maria of France queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I

Henrietta Maria of France was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II and VII.

Princess of Piedmont

She married Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, on 10 February 1619 at the Louvre in the capital. From 1619 till her husband's accession, she was known as the Princess of Piedmont. He was a son of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, and Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain. Caterina Micaela was in turn a daughter of Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois. Elisabeth was a daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. She was said to be volatile and frivolous. Educated at the French court, she introduced French culture to the court of Savoy; she later lived at the Palazzo Madama which she had rebuilt. She was also the driving force for the reconstruction of the Castello del Valentino as well as the additions to the Royal Palace of Turin. She would also later own Vigna di Madama Reale , old residence of her brother in law Maurice of Savoy.

Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy Duke of Savoy

Victor Amadeus I was the Duke of Savoy from 1630 to 1637. He was also known as the Lion of Susa.

Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy Italian noble

Charles Emmanuel I, known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was nicknamed Testa d'feu for his rashness and military aggression.

She did as much as she could to ensure that her court rivalled in splendour that of her sister Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I of England. The sisters would have somewhat of a rivalry. In spite of this, the two sisters maintained an avid correspondence throughout their life which showed their close relationship. She was a confidant to the exiled Queen Henrietta who often wrote to her about her experiences during the English Civil War and her son's restoration. Christine encouraged her husband to claim his right to the rather empty title of King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, a 'kingdom' which led to him being tagged as 'a king without a crown'. She did not keep it a secret that she would rather be a queen than a duchess; she also wanted to transform the minor Duchy of Savoy into a little France.

Charles I of England 17th-century monarch of kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

Duchess and Regent of Savoy

Victor Amadeus became Duke after the death of his father on 26 July 1630. When her husband died in 1637, she was created regent in the name of her son Francis Hyacinth. At the death of Francis Hyacinth in 1638, her second son Charles Emmanuel II succeeded and Christine retained the regency. Both Prince Maurice and his younger brother Prince Thomas of Savoy disputed the power of their sister-in-law and her French entourage. When the first heir Francis Hyacinth died in 1638, both brothers started the Piedmontese Civil War, with Spanish support. The two parties were called "principisti" (supporters of the Princes) and "madamisti" (supporters of Madama Reale). Christine was notorious as much for her capricious rule as for her many lovers, a trait from her father Henry IV who was famed for his many lovers also. [1]

Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy Duke of Savoy

Francis Hyacinth was the Duke of Savoy from 1637 to 1638 under regency of his mother Christine Marie.

Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy Duke of Savoy from 1638 to 1675

Charles Emmanuel II ; 20 June 1634 – 12 June 1675) was the Duke of Savoy from 1638 to 1675 and under regency of his mother Christine of France until 1648. He was also Marquis of Saluzzo, Count of Aosta, Geneva, Moriana and Nice, as well as claimant king of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia. At his death in 1675 his second wife Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours acted as Regent for their nine-year-old son.

Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano Founder of the Savoy-Carignano branch of the House of Savoy

Thomas Francis of Savoy, Prince of Carignano was an Italian military commander and the founder of the Carignano branch of the House of Savoy, which reigned as kings of Sardinia from 1831 to 1861, and as kings of Italy from 1861 until the dynasty's deposition in 1946.

After four years of fighting, Christine was victorious, thanks to French military support. Not only did she keep the Duchy for her son, she also prevented France getting too much power in the Duchy. When peace was concluded in 1642, Maurice married his fourteen-year-old niece Louise Christine, abandoning the title of cardinal and asking dispensation from Pope Paul V. Maurice became governor of Nice. Christine of France stayed in firm control of the Duchy of Savoy, until her son could follow in her footsteps; her formal regency ended in 1648, but she remained in charge at his invitation until her death. [2]

She lived an uninhibited private life and had relationships with the French Ambassador, Marini, her brother-in-law, Maurizio, and Count Filippo d'Aglié, a handsome learned and courageous man who remained faithful to her all her life. She encouraged her son Charles Emmanuel to marry her niece Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans, the youngest surviving daughter of Gaston, Duke of Orléans, her youngest brother. They married 3 Apr 1663. [2]

Christine died at the Palazzo Madama, Turin on 27 Dec 1663 [3] at the age of 57 and was buried at the Basilica of Sant'Andrea. She had outlived 4 of her seven children.

Françoise Madeleine died in January 1664 and her son later married another cousin, Marie Jeanne of Savoy. [4] Marie Jeanne would give birth to Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia who would later marry another French Princess (and member of the House of Orléans) Anne Marie d'Orléans. 17 years after her death, in 1680, her granddaughter Victoria of Bavaria via her third daughter Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy, would marry her older brother's grandson Louis de France known as 'the Fat' and Monseigneur . Christine thus became a direct ancestress of the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon via Victoria's second son Philip V of Spain. [5]

It was revealed on NBC's Who Do You Think You Are? that one of her descendants is model/actress Brooke Shields. [6] Princess Michael of Kent, born Baroness Marie Christine, is also a descendant by Christine's son, Charles Emmanuel. [7]

Issue

  1. Stillborn son (1621)
  2. Prince Louis Amadeus of Savoy (1622–1628)
  3. Princess Luisa Christina of Savoy (27 July 1629 – 14 May 1692) married Prince Maurice of Savoy no issue.
  4. Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy (14 September 1632 – 4 October 1638), Duke of Savoy
  5. Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy (20 June 1634 – 12 June 1675) married Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans and had no issue; secondly married Marie Jeanne of Savoy and had issue.
  6. Princess Margaret Yolande of Savoy (15 November 1635 – 29 April 1663) married Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma and died in childbirth.
  7. Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy (6 November 1636 – 18 March 1676) married Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria and had issue.
  8. Princess Catherine Beatrice of Savoy (6 November 1636 – 26 August 1637) died in infancy.

Ancestors

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References

  1. Christine Marie, Princesse de France, Regent of Savoie 1637-1648, Genealogics - Leo van de Pas © 1990–2012.
  2. 1 2 Oresko 2004, p. 20.
  3. Oresko 2004, p. 21.
  4. Oresko 2004, p. 21-23.
  5. Oresko 2004, p. 18.
  6. Participant: Brooke Shields; Director: Harvey Lilley; Executive Producer: Lucy Carter (4 July 2010). "Brooke Shields". Who Do You Think You Are? - USA. Episode 2. United Kingdom. BBC. BBC One. Back in New York, Brooke sets out on the trail of her very different paternal ancestry, the family of her paternal grandmother, the glamour heiress Marina Torlonia. Her journey takes her to Rome where she discovers that as bankers to the Vatican, the Torlonia family became one of the wealthiest and most influential families in 19th-century Italy. But it doesn't end there - on the trail of yet another illustrious ancestor, the mysteriously titled 'Madame Royale', Brooke heads to Paris and the very heart of French nobility.
  7. Princess Michael of Kent. The Serpent and the Moon: Two Rivals for the Love of a Renaissance King, Simon and Schuster, Sep 13, 2005. Index. Princess Michael Descent Chart
  8. Robert Knecht, Renaissance France, genealogies; Baumgartner, genealogical tables.
Christine of France
Born: 10 February 1606 Died: 27 December 1663
French nobility
Preceded by
Elisabeth of France
Madame Royale
25 November 1615 10 February 1619
Succeeded by
Henrietta Maria of France
Italian royalty
Preceded by
Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain
Duchess of Savoy
26 July 1630 7 October 1637
Succeeded by
Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans