|Christmas in Romania|
|Official name||Crăciunul în România|
|Significance||in memory of the birth of Jesus|
|Celebrations||Christmas tree decorations, church services|
|Next time||25 December 2019|
Christmas in Romania (Romanian : Crăciunul în România) is a major annual celebration, celebrated on 24/25 of December, as in most countries of the Christian world. The observance of Christmas was introduced once with the Christianization of Romania but it was then interrupted during the Communist period (1948—1989), as concepts as religion, Jesus Christ or the Church were banned. In the post-communist Romania, Christmas started being celebrated again more festively.
Romanian is a Balkan Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It is an official and national language of each of Romania and Moldova. In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.
Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.
The Christian Church, also called the holy catholic church, is a Christian ecclesiological concept of a church invisible comprising all Christians. In this understanding, "Christian Church" or "catholic church" does not refer to a particular Christian denomination but to the "body" of all "believers", both defined in various ways. Other Christian traditions believe that these terms apply only to a specific concrete Christian institution, such as the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, or the Assyrian Church of the East; or to a group of institutions, as in the branch theory taught by some Anglicans.
The Christmas and holiday season starts officially on November 30, on Saint Andrew's day and ends on January 7, with the celebration of Saint John. Other major holidays in this period are Great Union Day, Saint Nicholas' Day, Saint Ignatius' Day, Christmas Eve (Ajunul Craciunului in Romanian), Christmas Day (Craciun in Romanian), Saint Stephen's day, New Year's Eve (Revelion in Romanian), and the Epiphany.
The Christmas season, also called the holiday season, or the festive season, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January. It is defined as incorporating at least Christmas, and usually New Year, and sometimes various other holidays and festivals. It also is associated with a period of shopping which comprises a peak season for the retail sector, and a period of sales at the end of the season. Christmas window displays and Christmas tree lighting ceremonies when trees decorated with ornaments and light bulbs are illuminated are traditions in many areas.
John the Baptist was a Jewish itinerant preacher in the early first century AD. Other titles for John include John the Forerunner in Eastern Christianity, John the Immerser in some Baptist traditions and "the prophet John (Yaḥyā)" in Islam. He is sometimes alternatively called John the Baptizer.
Great Union Day is a national holiday in Romania, celebrated on 1 December, marking the unification of Transylvania, Bessarabia, and Bukovina with the Romanian Kingdom in 1918. This holiday was declared after the Romanian Revolution and commemorates the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia, which declared the Union of Transylvania with Romania.
The seven-week Advent season in anticipation of Jesus Christ's birth is obligatory for all Eastern Christian Romanians. It starts on November 14 yearly and ends up on Christmas Day.November 14, the first day of advent is traditionally called Lăsata secului (literally the day the abstinence begins). Any kind of products obtained from animal sources are prohibited. Also, on Wednesdays and on Fridays, oil among other products is not to be eaten. Some special days (for example Saint Ignatius Day or Great Union Day) occur during the period when Christians are allowed to eat fish or dairy. The Christmas Eve should be a day of total abstinence to thank God for sending The Savior. All said, there are forty days of advent (seven to nine of them being exceptions), this being the second abstinence period as length during the Romanian religious year, after the Easter advent.
Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for both the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas and the return of Jesus at the Second Coming. The term is a version of the Latin word meaning "coming". The term "Advent" is also used in Eastern Orthodoxy for the 40-day Nativity Fast, which has practices different from those in the West.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are usually flammable and surface active.
Ignatius of Antioch, also known as Ignatius Theophorus or Ignatius Nurono, was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch. En route to Rome, where he met his martyrdom, Ignatius wrote a series of letters. This correspondence now forms a central part of the later collection known as the Apostolic Fathers, of which he is considered one of the three chief ones together with Pope Clement I and Polycarp. His letters also serve as an example of early Christian theology. Important topics they address include ecclesiology, the sacraments, and the role of bishops.
During this season, the Christmas holiday season in Romania starts with Saint Andrew's feast day on November 30. [ clarification needed ] and spells away from their home. Strigoi or vampires (such as geani) may appear during the night between November 29 and November 30 as this night is popularly known as Noaptea lupului (Night of the wolf).Customs say everyone should hang plenty of garlic and a crucifix next to all doors and windows on the mansion, to keep evil spirits, geani,
Garlic is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and Chinese onion.
A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus.
The next day, December 1, is the Great Union Day (Ziua Marii Uniri), the National Day of Romania. [ citation needed ] Free music concerts and street festivals are organised annually in every Romanian city. There are also numerous Television specials, most notably ones broadcast by Pro TV, which bring famous or important Romanians into the spotlight. The day usually ends with fireworks.It is celebrated by all Romanians. In Bucharest and Alba Iulia Romanian Armed Forces have parades, showing their Land and Air vehicles and performing the Romanian national anthem "Deșteaptă-te, române!", written especially for the Union back in 1918. People are given free Mici and Fasole cu cârnaţi while they party into the night.
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border.
Alba Iulia, is a city that serves as the seat of Alba County in the west-central part of Romania. Located on the Mureș River in the historical region of Transylvania, it has a population of 63,536.
The Land Forces, Air Force and Naval Forces of Romania are collectively known as the Romanian Armed Forces. The current Commander-in-chief is General Nicolae Ionel Ciuca who is managed by the Minister of National Defence while the president is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces during wartime.
At the beginning of December, the Christmas lights are turned on all over the streets. The same night, Moş Nicolae comes and gives children presents.Children receive their gifts early in the morning of December 6 or late at night on December 5; traditionally, the gifts are put in their laced up boots. Children are usually given sweets or books; if they have been naughty, they get wooden sticks.
Christmas lights are lights used for decoration in celebration of Christmas, often on display throughout the Christmas season including Advent and Christmastide. The custom goes back to when Christmas trees were decorated with candles, which symbolized Christ being the light of the world. This custom was borrowed from pagan yule rituals that celebrate the return of the light of the sun as the days grow longer after solstice: the evergreen trees symbolising the renewal and continuance of life in dark times. The Christmas trees were brought by Christians into their homes in early modern Germany.
Saint Nicholas of Myra, also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of the ancient Greek maritime city of Myra in Asia Minor during the time of the Roman Empire. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, and students in various cities and countries around Europe. His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas.
As a physical object, a book is a stack of usually rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and then bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier, relatively inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page.
On December 20, Saint Ignatius Day, Romanians start last preparations for Christmas. On this date, they cut pigs for the Christmas Eve supper.Around this date, people usually buy their Christmas trees from public markets or supermarkets.
On December 24, it is Noaptea de ajun, the day children usually start caroling their neighbours.On the same date, women bake traditional cookies to give children for their caroling. By that time, the Christmas tree must usually be already decorated.
Music is an important part of Christmas celebration all over Romania. There is a special genre of music, related to Christmas carols but with more traditional / Christian lyrics. These are named colindă. Although the text of all colinde is concerned with the events of the Nativity, certain elements of the folk rituals performed around Christmas are probably pre-Christian in origin, having their roots in the Roman Saturnalia and pagan rituals related to the winter solstice and soil fertility. Colinde are performed in all parts of Romania (including Moldova), with regional variations in terms of number of participants, exact timing of different melodies and lyrics.
In traditional Romanian rural society, preparations for colinde started well in advance (sometimes weeks) before Christmas. The village youth (usually boys) would begin to form groups in different places and designate a leader in order to practice singing in unison. These groups are called cete de colindători, and their numbers vary from region to region.
Then, starting on Christmas Eve, the groups would go to different houses and begin singing. In some villages, they go first to the mayor's house, followed by the teacher's house, whereas in other parts there is no pre-established order. The families would then invite them into the house, and give them different small gifts such as nuts, dried fruits and pretzels. There are also adaptations from international hit carols into Romanian, for example "Noapte de vis" (from "Silent Night") or "O, brad frumos!" (from "O Tannenbaum").
Examples of colinde with religious subject are "Astăzi s-a născut Hristos" (Today Christ Was Born), " O, ce veste minunată! " (Oh, What Wonderful News!), "Trei păstori" (Three Shepherds), "Trei crai de la rărărit", "Steaua" (The Star) or "Sus la poarta Raiului" (Up at Heaven's Gate). The first two ones talk about the Nativity of Jesus. The first one indicates people to pray for Jesus and thank him for being born while the other one informs us how Christ was born and praises Mary. The other ones tell the stories of the Three shepherds, Three Magi and of the Christmas star. The latter one, "Sus la poarta Raiului" is a portrait of the Manger during Jesus' nativity.
Apart from the religious songs, there are also many other original colinde about subjects like Joy, Prosperity or Caroling itself. For example "Moş Crăciun cu plete dalbe" (White-Haired Santa Claus), "Colindiţa", "Pluguşorul" or "Scoală gazdă" (Awaken, Host). The first one talks us about Moş Crăciun (literary Old Father Christmas, who is in fact Santa Claus) and his act of bringing nice children presents on Christmas day. The third and fourth ones are about specific Romanian customs to provide and maintain health or prosperity. They count some reasons for Caroling. The last one tells the story of a family where the mother wasn't able to cook colăcuț (special Christmas pastry). They ask the host to whom they perform the colind to give them a colăcuț, claiming their mother didn't have the tools and ingredients to make it. As we can figure out, the song was originally performed after New Year, as they claim that "When the oven started working, the New Year had already arrived! [ sic ]"
Many folklore musicians covered, re-mastered or did renditions to those songs, some of them being well-known artists such as Maria Tănase. Beyond traditional music, mainstream artists have also involved themselves in Christmas culture. One example is Madrigal choir who covered over 20 carols. Ştefan Hruşcă is another Christmas music alumni who kicks off Christmas nationwide tours in late November yearly. He had also covered hundreds of songs and put them on at least three Christmas albums. Rock & Roll singer-songwriter and actor Ştefan Bănică, Jr. has a now-traditional concert series to honor Christmas, ever since 2002. They are called Împreună de Crăciun / Concert extraordinar de Craciun and take place at Sala Palatului in Bucharest. He also released a Christmas album including top ten smash hit "Doar o dată e Crăciunul" (Christmas Is Only Once).
Singer Paula Seling also has two Christmas compilations — "Colinde şi cântece sfinte" (out 1998), "Albumul de Craciun" (out 2002), "De Sărbători" (out 2006) and more lately "A mai trecut un an" (Another Year Over) (out 2010). She released three music videos to promote the albums for the songs "O, ce veste minunată!", "Trei păstori" and "A mai trecut un an".
R&B singer Andra also released a Christmas album in 2007, entitled "Vis de iarnă" (Winter Dream). The title single benefited of a music video in which Andra is travelling to home to gather with her family for Christmas. Singer Elena Gheorghe also covered the song "Silent Night, and alonside band Mandinga released a Christmas album "De Craciun".
Pop music duo André also released a Christmas EP in late 2000. It is entitled "Noapte de Vis" and it contains both Christmas-related song and other songs. The title single is also known as "Moşule, ce tânăr eşti!" (How you are, Santa!) was described more as a dance-pop club hit than as a Christmas song even peaking at number-one on the Romanian Top 100.
In late 2009, Bănică, Jr starred in a Christmas movie — "Ho, Ho, Ho!". Its soundtrack was released the same year and it featured Christmas-related songs, including a Top 100 single "Ho, Ho, Ho!". It was released under MediaPro Music. Label fellow Horia Brenciu also had some Christmas hits in the Airplay Chart, as for example "Noapte de Crăciun". Also in 2009, worldwide house sensation Inna released an A Side / B side digital single containing a cover of " O, ce veste minunată! " and an original recording, "I Need You for Christmas". The latter one became the only Romanian Christmas songs to break the borders as it entered the Russian Airplay Chart and the UK Singles Chart as well as the Romanian Top 100. In 2011 LaLa Band premiered a Christmas album on December 1.
A lot of compilations have been released for Christmas in Romania, for example the "I Need You for Christmas" series. Radio station Magic FM only broadcasts Christmas songs exclusively from December 5 to January 5 starting 2008. They name themselves "Santa Claus' Radio Station".
Starting in 2010, a special Airplay Chart started being shown yearly - Holiday Airplay Chart. Moreover, as a result to season's conjunction, Mariah Carey scored four entries the same week in December 2010 on the Romanian Top 100 with "Silent Night", "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town", "All I Want for Christmas Is You" and "Oh Santa!" all charted simultaneously (the record was previously held by Michael Jackson after his death in 2009 but it was once again broken in 2011 by Rihanna (with five entries). Christmas albums are also record-breakers. In 2010 Carey's album "Merry Christmas II You" broke all records by selling over 10,000 albums in one week. The record was then broken by Lady Gaga's "Born This Way" just to be broken once again by another Christmas album in 2011 when Justin Bieber's "Under the Mistletoe" sold over 12,000 units in one week. It was later on broken by yet another Christmas album by Michael Bublé simply entitled "Christmas" album that sold over 15,000 copies in a singular week. By now it is one of this year's biggest-selling albums with over 30,000 units sold in less than a month and a half.
During Christmas, Romanians bake or buy various special dishes, including desserts and sweets. Romanians most usually bake Cozonac (spongecake), a kind of Panetone made of flour, yolks, yeast and many other ingredients, flavors, condiments and additions. There are several types of spongecakes, with hundreds of recipes. You can either knead it for hours to be ready in 6 hours, or you can let it rise for 12 hours to avoid kneading it. You can fill the spongecake with walnuts, cocoa, raisins, Turkish delight and in Transylvania: poppy seed paste (cozonac cu mac). Plates heaped with small pastries and cakes (corni și baclava) are prepared to serve to carollers when they call.
A molded vegetable and chicken salad held together with mayonnaise and decorated with olives and boiled eggs is often prepared. It is called Salată de boeuf from the French, although it usually does not contain beef.
Other Christmas dishes include piftie, sarmale, and pork dishes.
A Christmas carol is a carol whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the surrounding holiday season. Christmas carols may be regarded as a subset of the broader category of Christmas music.
Christmas music comprises a variety of genres of music normally performed or heard around the Christmas season. Music associated with Christmas may be purely instrumental, or in the case of many carols or songs may employ lyrics whose subject matter ranges from the nativity of Jesus Christ, to gift-giving and merrymaking, to cultural figures such as Santa Claus, among other topics. Performances of Christmas music at public concerts, in churches, at shopping malls, on city streets, and in private gatherings is an integral staple of the Christmas holiday in many cultures across the world.
Christmas themes have long been an inspiration to artists and writers. Moviemakers have picked up on this wealth of material, with both adaptations of literary classics and new stories.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country. Christmas celebrations for many nations include the installing and lighting of Christmas trees, the hanging of Advent wreaths, Christmas stockings, candy canes, setting out cookies and milk, and the creation of Nativity scenes depicting the birth of Jesus Christ. Christmas carols may be sung and stories told about such figures as the Baby Jesus, St Nicholas, Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Christkind or Grandfather Frost. The sending and exchange of Christmas card greetings, observance of fasting and special religious observances such as a midnight Mass or Vespers on Christmas Eve, the burning of a Yule log, and the giving and receiving of presents. Along with Easter, Christmas is one of the most important periods on the Christian calendar, and is often closely connected to other holidays at this time of year, such as Advent, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, St Nicholas Day, St. Stephen's Day, New Year's, and the Feast of the Epiphany.
Ștefan Bănică Jr. is a Romanian entertainer, of Romani origin from his father's side, TV presenter, one of the most important Romanian TV personalities, and the son of actor Ștefan Bănică Sr. In his early career he starred in a couple of successful romantic films. He is well known in Romania for presenting the Romanian version of “Dancing with the Stars”, the most long-lived dance competition ever aired in Romania, broadcast on Pro TV and for his role as a talent judge on The X Factor.
Cargo is a Romanian Heavy Metal band from Arad, founded by the guitarist Adrian Bărar in 1985. Throughout the years, the band has undergone numerous line-up changes, most notably when lead vocalist Ovidiu "Kempes" Ioncu was replaced by Adrian Igrișan.
Cleopatra Stratan is a Moldovan singer, the youngest person ever to score commercial success, with her 2006 album La vârsta de trei ani. She holds the record for the highest paid young artist, the youngest artist to receive an MTV award and the youngest artist to score a No.1 hit in a country. As of late 2011, Cleopatra and her family have relocated and are living in Pipera in the capital of Romania, Bucharest.
"Up on the House Top" is a Christmas song written by Benjamin Hanby in 1864. It has been recorded by a multitude of singers, most notably Gene Autry in 1953.
Colindă are traditional Romanian and Moldavian Christmas carols.
O, ce veste minunată is a Christmas carol, sung primarily in Romanian-speaking communities and countries. Like many other traditional songs, there are many versions of it. E.g. some have "Viflaim" for Bethlehem, some have "S-a nascut Mesia". It is attributed to Dumitru Kiriac-Georgescu (1866-1928) who founded the Romanian traditional music.
Paula Seling is a Romanian singer, songwriter, record producer, DJ, and television personality. Raised in Baia Mare, she attended Gheorghe Șincai National College and later moved to Bucharest to pursue a career in music.
Anca Parghel was a Romanian jazz singer, composer, arranger, pianist, choir conductor and music teacher. As a jazz vocalist, she excelled in scat, vocal percussion and improvisation. Her voice had a four octave range, this being one of the reasons she was compared with Yma Sumac in the Romanian music press. She had an exceptional ability to interpret songs in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish or Portuguese.
Ho Ho Ho is a Romanian Christmas-themed family comedy film starring Romanian music and TV icon Ştefan Bănică, Jr., directed by Jesus del Cerro, and produced by MediaPro Pictures as the first Romanian comedy film about Christmas.
The Andy Williams Christmas Album is the first Christmas holiday album released by singer Andy Williams and his twelfth studio album overall. It was issued by Columbia Records in 1963, and it would prove to be the first of eight Christmas albums released by Williams. Though it was also the album that introduced Williams' perennial holiday classic "It's the Most Wonderful Time of the Year", Columbia instead opted to release Williams' cover of "White Christmas" as the album's promotional single at the time.
Moș Gerilă is the name of a character from Romanian folklore and communist propaganda.
Romanian Christmas Carols, Sz, 57, BB 67 is a set of little colinde, typical Christmas songs from Romanian villages, habitually sung by small groups of children, adapted in 1915 by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók to be played on the piano after hearing them sung in the below villages.
Kamasutra is a Romanian chocolate shaped like kamasutra positions. The Kamasutra chocolate was invented in 2007 by Florin Balan and distributed by the chocolate factory SC Pralin SRL at Cisnădie in Sibiu County. It is most often consumed in Romania during Saint Valentine day. Chocolate Kamasutra was inspired by Khajurajo temple and is available in four sizes 40g, 70g, 200g and 350g. Kamasutra chocolates are being marketed as a mood enhancing gift for a partner. It is suggested by creators to be used as a romantic way of suggesting new sexual experiences which can lead to healthier relationship.
Christmas traditions in Australia and New Zealand have many similarities to British, Irish, American and Canadian traditions, including traditional Christmas symbols featuring winter iconography. This means a red fur-coated Santa Claus riding a sleigh, songs such as "Jingle Bells", and various Christmas scenes on Christmas cards and decorations. However, the timing of Christmas occurring during the Southern Hemisphere's summer season has resulted in the development of some local traditions as a result of the warmer weather.
Koliada or Koleda is a Slavic mythological deity, that personalizes the newborn winter infant Sun and impersonates the New Year's cycle. It is connected with the solar cycle, passing through the four seasons and from one substantial condition into another.
Florin Moldovan, professionally known as Naomy or Naomi is a Romanian recording artist, songwriter and actress. She came to native attention when entering the Romanian preselection for the Eurovision Song Contest 2014 with her song "Dacă tu iubeşti", where she finished in 10th place, scoring 3 points. Moldovan has won the most awards at inter-county and national festivals of light music in Romania, holding a national record of 75 awards in 103 appearances, confirmed by Radio România Actualități in 1998 by Andrei Titus.