Christopher Thomas Allmand FSA (18 April 1936 – 16 November 2022) was an English historian, who specialised in the Late Middle Ages in England and France. His particular research and teaching interests lay in the Hundred Years' War. He spent most of his teaching career at the University of Liverpool, becoming Professor of Medieval History, until his retirement in 1998. Among many publications, he produced a much-used monograph on the Hundred Years' War and the leading biography of King Henry V.
Allmand was born into a Catholic family and raised in Hampstead, London. He was educated at Ampleforth College, following in the footsteps of his brother Michael. Allmand attended Oriel College, Oxford and completed his PhD on the church in Normandy in the fifteenth century, supervised by E.F.Jacob.
Allmand taught at the University of Bangor before moving to take up a lectureship at the University of Liverpool, where he remained for the rest of his academic career. He became a Senior Lecturer, Reader and finally Professor of History until his retirement in 1998. During this time he also served as Head of Department.
Allmand played a major role in supporting history at a national level, serving as Associate Literary Director (1974–77) and then Literary Director (1977–82) of the Royal Historical Society, of which he also became a Council Member (1985–89).
Allmand was elected a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society in 1965 and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1976.
After retirement he conducted an exhaustive survey of every known manuscript of the influential Roman work of military history by Vegetius, the De Rei Militari. This involved visiting libraries and archive collections across Europe.
Allmand's father was A.J. Allmand, who held a Chair in Chemistry at King's College, London until 1950, having early in his career during World War I carried out important work on the use of gas. He and his French wife had three children. Michael Allmand (1923–1944), Christopher's much older brother, attended Ampleforth College and read history at Oxford. He joined the British Indian Army in 1942 and was attached to the 6th Gurkha Rifles. He was killed at the age of 20 leading an assault on heavily defended positions, and was posthumously awarded a Victoria Cross. Allmand and his sister were able to present this medal to the Gurkha Regiment in 1991 and it is now held in the Gurkha Museum in Winchester. His sister Marguerite read Modern Languages at the University of London and went on to work at Bletchley Park during World War 2.
Allmand was devoted to his wife, Bernadette, who predeceased him by nine months. As a lifelong Catholic, he attended and served Bishop Iton Church in Woolton, Liverpool, acting as sacristan in later years. He died on 16 November 2022, at the age of 86. 
Allmand's pioneering work on the social history of the Hundred Years' War opened up new avenues of interest and research. Bilingual by virtue of a French mother, his comprehensive knowledge of French national and departmental archives, not to mention libraries and archives across Europe, enabled him to find and explore sources little-known or used by other scholars. For example, his knowledge of the archives of the Caen chambre des comptes and its chequered history opened up a key source for others.
Indeed, Allmand never strayed far from sources, whether printed or archival, and this familiarity with their uses and abuses made him, among much else, an expert editor of the work of others, most notably volume 7 of the New Cambridge Medieval History. He edited several collections of essays in meticulous but supportive fashion. His own published interests were eclectic: spies and spying, civil lawyers, medieval Cheshire, diplomacy and military strategy were just a few.
Perhaps his best-known work is a magisterial biography of Henry V, published as part of the authoritative Yale English Monarchs series. This work goes far beyond the orthodox Shakespeare-dominated image of a king at war and places this complex monarch in an appropriate context of, for example, wide-ranging respect from chroniclers and contemporaries for the good governance and law and order considered essential to successful medieval kingship.
Among other aspects of his research interest were concerns for the non-combatant, and in particular, taking a lead from H J Hewitt's innovative The Organisation of War under Edward III in what might be termed the logistics and practicalities of how medieval warfare were conducted and changed across two centuries.
Allmand's generous scholarship and bilingualism enabled him to work closely with leading French historians of the Hundred Years' War, including Professor Philippe Contamine and Professor Jean-Philippe Genet. His kindness towards and encouragement of younger scholars were, to deploy an overused term, legendary, and his wisdom is regularly cited by many historians with an interest in Anglo-Norman and Anglo-French themes such as Professor Anne Curry. He presented regularly at conferences in Normandy and France and published numerous articles in French. His final collection of articles, brought together as Aspects of War in the Late Middle Ages , included a number of pieces translated by Allmand from French to English.
Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. Technological, cultural, and social advancements had forced a severe transformation in the character of warfare from antiquity, changing military tactics and the role of cavalry and artillery. In terms of fortification, the Middle Ages saw the emergence of the castle in Europe, which then spread to the Holy Land.
Henry V, also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in Shakespeare's "Henriad" plays, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the greatest warrior-kings of medieval England.
PubliusVegetius Renatus, known as Vegetius, was a writer of the Later Roman Empire. Nothing is known of his life or station beyond what is contained in his two surviving works: Epitoma rei militaris, and the lesser-known Digesta Artis Mulomedicinae, a guide to veterinary medicine. He identifies himself in the opening of his work Epitoma rei militaris as a Christian.
John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford KG was a medieval English prince, general and statesman who commanded England's armies in France during a critical phase of the Hundred Years' War. Bedford was the third son of King Henry IV of England, brother to Henry V, and acted as regent of France for his nephew Henry VI. Despite his military and administrative talent, the situation in France had severely deteriorated by the time of his death.
De re militari, also Epitoma rei militaris, is a treatise by the Late Latin writer Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus about Roman warfare and military principles as a presentation of the methods and practices in use during the height of the Roman Empire and responsible for its power. The extant text dates to the 5th century.
John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, 1st Earl of Waterford, 7th Baron Talbot, KG, known as "Old Talbot", was an English nobleman and a noted military commander during the Hundred Years' War. He was the most renowned in England and most feared in France of the English captains in the last stages of the conflict. Known as a tough, cruel, and quarrelsome man, Talbot distinguished himself militarily in a time of decline for the English. Called the "English Achilles" and the "Terror of the French", he is lavishly praised in the plays of Shakespeare. The manner of his death, leading an ill-advised charge against field artillery, has come to symbolize the passing of the age of chivalry. He also held the subsidiary titles of 10th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 6th Baron Furnivalljure uxoris.
Michael Allmand VC was an English Second World War recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Château Gaillard is a medieval castle ruin overlooking the River Seine above the commune of Les Andelys, in the French department of Eure, in Normandy. It is located some 95 kilometres (59 mi) north-west of Paris and 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Rouen. Construction began in 1196 under the auspices of Richard the Lionheart, who was simultaneously King of England and feudal Duke of Normandy. The castle was expensive to build, but the majority of the work was done in an unusually short period of time. It took just two years and, at the same time, the town of Petit Andely was constructed. Château Gaillard has a complex and advanced design, and uses early principles of concentric fortification; it was also one of the earliest European castles to use machicolations. The castle consists of three enclosures separated by dry moats, with a keep in the inner enclosure.
The Battle of Castillon between the forces of England and France took place on 17 July 1453 in Gascony near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne. Historians regard this decisive French victory as marking the end of the Hundred Years' War.
The siege of Calais occurred at the conclusion of the Crécy campaign, when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England successfully besieged the French town of Calais during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
The first phase of the Hundred Years' War between France and England lasted from 1337 to 1360. It is sometimes referred to as the Edwardian War because it was initiated by King Edward III of England, who claimed the French throne in defiance of King Philip VI of France. The dynastic conflict was caused by disputes over the French feudal sovereignty over Aquitaine and the English claims over the French royal title. The Kingdom of England and its allies dominated this phase of the war.
William Worcester, also called William of Worcester, William Worcestre or William Botoner was an English topographer, antiquary and chronicler.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from AD 1300 to 1500. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern period.
The Battle of Blanchetaque was fought on 24 August 1346 between an English army under King Edward III and a French force commanded by Godemar du Fay. The battle was part of the Crécy campaign, which took place during the early stages of the Hundred Years' War. After landing in the Cotentin Peninsula on 12 July, the English army had burnt a path of destruction through some of the richest lands in France to within 20 miles (32 km) of Paris, sacking a number of towns on the way. The English then marched north, hoping to link up with an allied Flemish army which had invaded from Flanders. They were outmanoeuvred by the French king, Philip VI, who garrisoned all of the bridges and fords over the River Somme and followed the English with his own field army. The area had previously been stripped of food stocks by the French, and the English were essentially trapped.
In medieval and early modern France, the arrière-ban was a general proclamation whereby the king summoned to war all the vassals of his vassals. The term is a folk-etymological correction of Old French herban, from Germanic here (army) and ban (proclamation); compare German Heerbann.
The Battle of Caen was an assault conducted on 26 July 1346 by forces from the Kingdom of England, led by King Edward III, on the French-held town of Caen and Normandy as a part of the Hundred Years' War.
Louis of Luxembourg;. Bishop of Therouanne 1415–1436, Archbishop of Rouen, 1436, Bishop of Ely 1437, Cardinal.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of England and France during the Late Middle Ages. It originated from disputed claims to the French throne between the English House of Plantagenet and the French royal House of Valois. Over time, the war grew into a broader power struggle involving factions from across Western Europe, fuelled by emerging nationalism on both sides.
The Battle of Pontvallain, part of the Hundred Years' War, took place in the Sarthe region of north-west France on 4 December 1370, when a French army under Bertrand du Guesclin heavily defeated an English force which had broken away from an army commanded by Sir Robert Knolles. The French numbered 5,200 men, and the English force was approximately the same size.
English offensives in 1345–1347, during the Hundred Years' War, resulted in repeated defeats of the French, the loss or devastation of much French territory and the capture by the English of the port of Calais. The war had broken out in 1337 and flared up in 1340 when the king of England, Edward III, laid claim to the French crown and campaigned in northern France. There was then a lull in the major hostilities, although much small-scale fighting continued.