Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle

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His Grace
The Duke of Albemarle
KG PC
ChristopherMonck 2ndDukeOfAlbemarle TrinityCollege Cambridge.jpg
Portrait by unknown artist in collection of Trinity College, Cambridge, purchased 1691.
In office
1667 3 January 1670
Preceded by Sir Hugh Pollard, Bt
Succeeded by Sir Coplestone Bampfylde, Bt
Member of the House of Lords
Hereditary peer
In office
3 January 1670 6 October 1688
Personal details
Born(1653-08-14)14 August 1653
Died 6 October 1688(1688-10-06) (aged 35)
Jamaica
Resting place 4 July 1689
Westminster Abbey
51°29′58″N00°07′39″W / 51.49944°N 0.12750°W / 51.49944; -0.12750 Coordinates: 51°29′58″N00°07′39″W / 51.49944°N 0.12750°W / 51.49944; -0.12750
Nationality English
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Monck (m. 1669)
Mother Anne Clarges
Father General George Monck
Education Gray's Inn
Other titles Earl of Torrington
Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle 2ndDukeOfAlbemarle.jpg
Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle

Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle KG PC (14 August 1653 – 6 October 1688) was an English soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1667 to 1670 when he inherited the Dukedom and sat in the House of Lords.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

House of Commons of England parliament of England up to 1707

The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Contents

Origins

Monck was the son and heir of George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle (1608–1670) by his wife Anne Clarges (d.1700), a daughter of John Clarges, "Farrier in the Savoy", [1] of Drury Lane, Westminster. Anne's brother was Sir Thomas Clarges (c. 1618–1695), MP, who greatly assisted his brother-in-law, then before his elevation to the dukedom, General George Monck, in bringing about the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660. She was the presumed widow of Thomas Radford, milliner, of New Exchange, Strand, Westminster, although it was said that her husband was still alive when her son was born. This left a question concerning Monck's legitimacy.

George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle English soldier and politician

George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG was an English soldier and politician, and a key figure in the Restoration of the monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.

Savoy Palace the residence of John of Gaunt until it was destroyed in the Peasants Revolt of 1381

The Savoy Palace, considered the grandest nobleman's townhouse of medieval London, was the residence of John of Gaunt until it was destroyed in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. It lay between the Strand and the River Thames – the present Savoy Theatre and Savoy Hotel were named in its memory. In the locality of the palace the administration of law was by a special jurisdiction apart from the rest of the county of Middlesex, known as the Liberty of the Savoy.

Drury Lane street in Camden and Westminster in central London, England

Drury Lane is a street on the eastern boundary of the Covent Garden area of London, running between Aldwych and High Holborn. The northern part is in the borough of Camden and the southern part in the City of Westminster.

Youth

Monck was educated privately and entered Gray's Inn in 1662. [2] From 1660 until his father's death ten years later in 1670, he was known by the courtesy title of Earl of Torrington, one of his father's subsidiary titles.

Grays Inn one of the four Inns of Court in London, England

The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court in London. To be called to the bar and practise as a barrister in England and Wales, a person must belong to one of these Inns. Located at the intersection of High Holborn and Gray's Inn Road in Central London, the Inn is both a professional body and a provider of office accommodation (chambers) for many barristers. It is ruled by a governing council called "Pension", made up of the Masters of the Bench, and led by the Treasurer, who is elected to serve a one-year term. The Inn is known for its gardens, or Walks, which have existed since at least 1597.

A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children of members of the nobility.

The title of Earl of Torrington was created twice in the Peerage of England. The first creation was in 1660 as a subsidiary title of the Duke of Albemarle. Following the extinction of this title in 1688, the title was created anew in 1689, but became extinct upon the death of the first earl in 1716.

Career

At the age of 13, Monck entered politics, having been elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Devon in January 1667. In 1670 he was elevated to the peerage and thus entered the House of Lords, following the death of his father, and thereby also inherited his father's peerage titles. He became a Gentleman of the Bedchamber and inherited his father's great feudal title, Lord of Bowland. He was created a Knight of the Garter, a Privy Councillor and in 1675 Lord Lieutenant of Devon, in which latter role he served for ten years. He became a titular colonel of several horse regiments of the English Army. [2]

Devon was a parliamentary constituency covering the county of Devon in England. It was represented by two Knights of the Shire, in the House of Commons of England until 1707, then of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and finally the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. Elections were held using the bloc vote system of elections.

A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.

House of Lords upper house in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is granted respectively ruled by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.

In 1673 he raised a regiment as part of the Blackheath Army under Marshal Schomberg. It was intended for service in the Dutch Republic, but was disbanded following the Treaty of Westminster before seeing any action.

The Blackheath Army was a contingent of the English Army assembled at Blackheath in Kent during the summer of 1673. The army consisting of old and newly-raised regiments were placed under the command of the French Huguenot Frederick Schomberg. It was intended to use the Blackheath Army to attack the Dutch coastal province of Zealand, as part of the English contribution to the Third Anglo-Dutch War. However the Zealand Expedition was abandoned following the defeat of the Royal Navy at the Battle of Texel. The newly-raised regiments were disbanded and the army returned to its smaller pre-war size.

Dutch Republic Republican predecessor state of the Netherlands from 1581 to 1795

The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first Dutch nation state.

The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Signed by the Netherlands and England, it provided for the return of the colony of New Netherland to England and renewed the Treaty of Breda of 1667. It also provided for a mixed commission for the regulation of commerce, particularly in the East Indies.

From 1682 until his death, Monck was Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. [3] In 1685 he resigned the Lord Lieutenancy of Devon to fight against the Monmouth Rebellion, but was largely unsuccessful as a military leader. In 1686, Monck was a major investor in a treasure-seeking expedition headed by William Phips, who had located the wreck of the Spanish treasure ship Nuestra Señora de la Concepción in February 1687. Phips returned to London with more than £200,000 worth of treasure, of which Monck received a 25 percent share. After serving in a few more minor positions, in 1687, Monck was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica.

Monmouth Rebellion

The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as The Revolt of the West or The West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II. Prince James, Duke of York, had become King of England, Scotland, and Ireland upon the death of his elder brother Charles II on 6 February 1685. James II was a Roman Catholic and some Protestants under his rule opposed his kingship. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II, claimed to be rightful heir to the throne and attempted to displace James II.

William Phips 17th-century royal governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay

Sir William Phips was born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was a shepherd boy, a shipwright, a ship's captain, a treasure hunter, a major general, and the first royally appointed governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. He is perhaps best remembered for establishing the court associated with the infamous Salem Witch Trials, which he grew unhappy with, and forced to prematurely disband after five months.

Boxing pioneer

On 6 January 1681, Monck arranged a boxing match between his butler and his butcher. This was the first recorded boxing match in England. The butcher won the match. [ citation needed ]

Residences

Potheridge, Devon

Arms of Monk of Potheridge, Devon: Gules, a chevron between three lion's heads erased argent Monck arms.svg
Arms of Monk of Potheridge, Devon: Gules, a chevron between three lion's heads erased argent

His Devonshire seat was Potheridge, 3 miles south-east of Great Torrington, a grand mansion re-built by his father circa 1660 [5] on the site of the former manor house occupied by his family since at the latest 1287. [6] It was mostly demolished after the death of the 2nd duchess in 1734 and the surviving section forms the present Great Potheridge farmhouse, inside which however some remnants of the former mansion remain, including two massive 17th-century classical-style doorcases, a colossal overmantel with carved putti and trophies, and a grand staircase. [7]

Clarendon House, London

Clarendon House, circa 1680. Inscribed below: Prospectus Celeberrimae Domus Illustrissimi Ducis ab Albemarle ("Prospect of the most famous house of the illustrious Duke of Albemarle"). Engraving by William Skillman (fl.1660-1685) from painting by Johann Spilberg II (1619-1690) ClarendonHouse Circa1680Engraving ByWmSkillmam.jpg
Clarendon House, circa 1680. Inscribed below: Prospectus Celeberrimae Domus Illustrissimi Ducis ab Albemarle ("Prospect of the most famous house of the illustrious Duke of Albemarle"). Engraving by William Skillman (fl.1660–1685) from painting by Johann Spilberg II (1619–1690)

In 1675 Monck purchased for £26,000 the very grand London townhouse Clarendon House from the heirs of its builder, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (1609–1674). In 1683 he resold it to a consortium of investors led by Sir Thomas Bond, who demolished it and built on its site Albemarle Street, Bond Street and Dover Street.

Marriage and succession

At the royal palace of Whitehall in London on 30 December 1669, shortly before his father's death, Monck married Lady Elizabeth Cavendish (d.1734), eldest daughter and co-heiress of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle. She gave birth to a son who died soon after his birth, and Monck left no further surviving children. In 1692 his widow remarried to Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu (1638 – c. 1709). She was buried in Westminster Abbey on 11 September 1734. [8]

Death and succession

Monck died in Jamaica [2] on 6 October 1688, age 35. He was buried in Westminster Abbey on 4 July 1689. [9] As the Duke left no children, all his titles became extinct on his death. [2]

Titles, styles and arms

Titles and styles

Arms

Quartered of arms of Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, KG, PC Coat of arms of Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, KG.png
Quartered of arms of Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, KG, PC

Related Research Articles

The Dukedom of Albemarle has been created twice in the Peerage of England, each time ending in extinction. Additionally, the title was created a third time by James II in exile and a fourth time by his son the Old Pretender, in the Jacobite Peerage. The name Albemarle is derived from the Latinised form of the French county of Aumale in Normandy, other forms being Aubemarle and Aumerle. It arose in connection with the ancient Norman Counts of Aumale of Aumale in Normandy. See also Earl of Albemarle.

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The Office of the Lord Lieutenant was created during the reign of Henry VIII (1509–1547), taking over the military duties of the Sheriffs and control of the military forces of the Crown. From 1569 there was provision for the appointment of Deputy Lieutenants, and in 1662 the Lord-Lieutenant was given entire control of the militia. The Forces Act of 1871 transferred this function back to the Crown, and in 1921, the office lost its power to call upon men of the County to fight in case of need. Since 1711 all the Lord Lieutenants have also been Custos Rotulorum of Devon.

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Potheridge human settlement in the United Kingdom

Potheridge, in the parish of Merton, in the historic hundred of Shebbear, 3 miles south-east of Great Torrington, Devon, England, is a former Domesday Book estate and the site of the former grand mansion house re-built by George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle (1608–1700) circa 1660 on the site of the former manor house occupied by his family since at the latest 1287. It was mostly demolished in 1734 after the death of the widow of his son Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle and the surviving section forms the present Great Potheridge farmhouse, a Grade I listed building, inside which however some remnants of the former mansion remain, including a grand staircase, two massive 17th-century classical-style doorcases and a colossal relief-sculpted wooden overmantel. The latter depicts within a wreath of flowers, against a background of an elaborate antique trophy of arms, five putti, two of which, in flight, hold between them a crown, an allusion to Monck's central role in the Restoration of the Monarchy. The chapel "of Grecian architecture", i.e. classical, was in ruins in 1770 and was almost entirely demolished before 1822, with only the west wall left standing. In 1879 the stables, however, were still standing and were said to "give the visitor some idea of the magnificence of the ancient building". In 2014 Great Potheridge with 6 acres of land remaining of the former estate is used as an outdoor activity centre for young people operated by Encompass Training. It is today known as "Great Potheridge" to distinguish it from the nearby house, formerly on the estate, known as "Little Potheridge".

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John Killigrew (died 1605) politician

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John Malet (died 1570) English politician

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Woolleigh, Beaford

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References

  1. Vivian, p.569
  2. 1 2 3 4 History of Parliament Online – Monck, Christopher
  3. "Monck, Christopher (Duke of Albemarle) (MNK681CD)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  4. Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.568, pedigree of Monk of Potheridge
  5. Pevsner, Nikolaus & Cherry, Bridget, The Buildings of England: Devon, London, 2004, p.459
  6. Regnal year 16 Edward I per Pole, Sir William (d.1635), Collections Towards a Description of the County of Devon, Sir John-William de la Pole (ed.), London, 1791, p.382
  7. Pevsner, pp.459–60
  8. Vivian, Lt.Col. J.L., (Ed.) The Visitations of the County of Devon: Comprising the Heralds' Visitations of 1531, 1564 & 1620, Exeter, 1895, p.570, pedigree of Monk of Potheridge
  9. Vivian, p.570
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Sir Hugh Pollard, Bt
Sir John Rolle
Member of Parliament for Devon
1667–1670
With: Sir John Rolle
Succeeded by
Sir John Rolle
Sir Coplestone Bampfylde
Military offices
New title Colonel of the Queen's Regiment of Horse
1678–1679
Regiment disbanded
Preceded by
The Duke of Monmouth
Captain and Colonel of
His Majesty's Own Troop of Horse Guards

1679–1685
Succeeded by
The Earl of Feversham
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Bath
Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of Devon
1675–1685
Succeeded by
The Earl of Bath
Preceded by
The Earl of Oxford
Lord Lieutenant of Essex
jointly with The Earl of Oxford

1675–1687
Succeeded by
The Lord Petre
Government offices
Preceded by
Hender Molesworth
Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica
1687–1688
Succeeded by
Hender Molesworth, acting
Peerage of England
Preceded by
George Monck
Duke of Albemarle
1670–1688
Extinct