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A chronicle (Latin : chronica, from Greek χρονικάchroniká, from χρόνος, chrónos – "time") is a historical account of events arranged in chronological order, as in a time line. Typically, equal weight is given for historically important events and local events, the purpose being the recording of events that occurred, seen from the perspective of the chronicler. A chronicle which traces world history is a universal chronicle. This is in contrast to a narrative or history, in which an author chooses events to interpret and analyze and excludes those the author does not consider important or relevant.
The information sources for chronicles vary. Some are written from the chronicler's direct knowledge, others from witnesses or participants in events, still others are accounts passed down from generation to generation by oral tradition.Some used written material, such as charters, letters, and earlier chronicles. Still others are tales of unknown origin that have mythical status. Copyists also changed chronicles in creative copying, making corrections or in updating or continuing a chronicle with information not available to the original chronicler. Determining the reliability of particular chronicles is important to historians.
Many newspapers and other periodical literature have adopted "chronicle" as part of their name. Various fictional stories have also adopted "chronicle" as part of their title, to give an impression of epic proportion to their stories.
Scholars categorize the genre of chronicle into two subgroups: live chronicles, and dead chronicles. A dead chronicle is one where the author gathers his list of events up to the time of his writing, but does not record further events as they occur. A live chronicle is where one or more authors add to a chronicle in a regular fashion, recording contemporary events shortly after they occur. Because of the immediacy of the information, historians tend to value live chronicles, such as annals, over dead ones.
The term often refers to a book written by a chronicler in the Middle Ages describing historical events in a country, or the lives of a nobleman or a clergyman, although it is also applied to a record of public events. The earliest medieval chronicle to combine both retrospective (dead) and contemporary (live) entries, is the Chronicle of Ireland, which spans the years 431 to 911.
Chronicles are the predecessors of modern "time lines" rather than analytical histories. They represent accounts, in prose or verse, of local or distant events over a considerable period of time, both the lifetime of the individual chronicler and often those of several subsequent continuators. If the chronicles deal with events year by year, they are often called annals. Unlike the modern historian, most chroniclers tended to take their information as they found it, and made little attempt to separate fact from legend. The point of view of most chroniclers is highly localised, to the extent that many anonymous chroniclers can be sited in individual abbeys.
It is impossible to say how many chronicles exist, as the many ambiguities in the definition of the genre make it impossible to draw clear distinctions of what should or should not be included. However, the Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle lists some 2,500 items written between 300 and 1500 AD.
Entries in chronicles are often cited using the abbreviation s.a., meaning sub anno (under the year), according to the year under which they are listed. For example, "ASC MS A, s.a. 855" means the entry for the year 855 in manuscript A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The same event may be recorded under a different year in another manuscript of the chronicle, and may be cited for example as "ASC MS D, s.a. 857".
The most important English chronicles are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , started under the patronage of King Alfred in the 9th century and continued until the 12th century, and the Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (1577–87) by Raphael Holinshed and other writers; the latter documents were important sources of materials for Elizabethan drama.Later 16th century Scottish chronicles, written after the Reformation, shape history according to Catholic or Protestant viewpoints.
Miecław was a cup-bearer of king Mieszko II Lambert, who in c. 1038 had proclaimed independence of his state from Duchy of Poland, beginning the rebellion that lasted until his death in 1047.
Historians in England during the Middle Ages helped to lay the groundwork for modern historical historiography, providing vital accounts of the early history of England, Wales and Normandy, its cultures, and revelations about the historians themselves.
Rzepicha was the wife of the semi-legendary Piast the Wheelwright and the mother of Siemowit. She is mentioned in Gallus Anonymus' Polish Chronicle, where her name is explicitly referred to twice.
A number of Irish annals, of which the earliest was the Chronicle of Ireland, were compiled up to and shortly after the end of the 17th century.
The Battle of Hundsfeld or Battle of Psie Pole was said to be fought on 24 August 1109 near the Silesian capital Wrocław between the Holy Roman Empire in aid of the claims of the exiled Piast duke Zbigniew against his ruling half-brother, Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland. It was recorded by the medieval Polish chronicler Bishop Wincenty Kadłubek of Kraków in his Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae several decades later.
Chościsko is a legendary figure in a Polish prehistory, father of Piast the Wheelwright, the founder of the Piast dynasty. His name occurs in the first Polish chronicle, Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum by Gallus Anonymus, where the author refers three times to Piast as the son of Chościsko. This could be a spelling of Kościuszko.
The Gesta principum Polonorum is the oldest known medieval chronicle documenting the history of Poland from the legendary times until 1113. Written in Latin by an anonymous author, it was most likely completed between 1112 and 1118, and its extant text is present in three manuscripts with two distinct traditions. Its anonymous author is traditionally called Gallus, a foreigner and outcast from an unknown country, who travelled to the Kingdom of Poland via Hungary. Gesta was commissioned by Poland's then ruler, Boleslaus III Wrymouth; Gallus expected a prize for his work, which he most likely received and of which he lived the rest of his life.
Gesta may refer to:
Lechites, also known as the Lechitic tribes, is a name given to certain West Slavic tribes who inhabited modern-day Poland and were speakers of the Lechitic languages. Distinct from the Czech–Slovak subgroup, they are the closest ancestors of ethnic Poles and the Pomeranians and Polabians.
Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae, short name Chronica Polonorum, is a Latin history of Poland written by Wincenty Kadłubek between 1190 and 1208 CE. The work was probably commissioned by Casimir II of Poland. Consisting of four books, it describes Polish history.
Sieciech was a medieval Polish magnate and statesman.
Mieszko Bolesławowic was the only son of Bolesław II the Generous, King of Poland. Mieszko was Prince of Cracow from 1086 until his death in 1089.
Gyula III, also Iula or Gyula the Younger, Geula or Gyla, was an early medieval ruler who ruled in Transylvania. Around 1003, he and his family were attacked, dispossessed and captured by King Stephen I of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). The name "Gyula" also means a title. "Gyula" meant the second highest title in Hungarian tribal confederation.
Selencia was an early 12th-century entity at or near the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, mentioned only in the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus, who listed it as one of three northern neighbors of Piast Poland around 1115 (the other ones being "Pomorania" and "Pruzia." It has been proposed that Selencia was a misspelling of Luticia, or that Selencia was a short-lived state centered on the Oder estuary, probably destroyed when in 1122 Boleslaw III Wrymouth of Poland defeated, according to the annals of Cracow, a "Zuetopolc dux Odrensis."
The Wielkopolska Chronicle is an anonymous medieval chronicle describing supposed history of Poland from legendary times up to the year 1273. It was written in Latin at the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century.
Chronica Polonorum or Cronica Polonorum may refer to:
Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum or simply Chronicon Polonorum is a medieval Polish chronicle based on Wincenty Kadłubek's Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae and the anonymous poem Carmen Mauri, with additional information on the history of Silesia. The date of its creation is uncertain and estimated at late 13th century, circa 1280 or at the turn of the century. The unknown author might have been a Cistercian monk from the Lubiąż Abbey.
The Historia Francorum Senonensis is a short anonymous Latin chronicle of the Frankish kings from 688 down to 1015. It was written at Sens before 1034 and is hostile towards the Capetian dynasty that had taken the throne of West Francia in 987. It was a popular and widely used text, and its anti-Capetian view is largely responsible for the questions raised by many later authors concerning the dynasty's legitimacy.
The Kingdom of Poland was a kingdom in Central Europe with patrimonial monarchy system. Its capital was Kraków. The state was reformed on 26 December 1076 from the Duchy of Poland, following the coronation of the duke Bolesław II the Generous as king. It existed until 1079 when Bolesław was forced to leave the country by the mutiny of the nobility, and succeeded by his brother, duke Władysław I Herman, reforming the state into the Duchy of Poland.
Miecław's Rebellion was a military conflict fought from c. 1037 to 1047, between the Duchy of Poland lead by Casimir I the Restorer and its ally, Kievan Rus' lead by Yaroslav the Wise, against forces of Miecław, the self-proclaimed leader of his state, and allied with him the Duchy of Pomerelia and Yotvingians. The war had begun with the declaration of independence of Miecław's State in Masovia from the Duchy of Poland, in c. 1037. The war had ended in 1047 with the state being reconquered by Poland and the death of its leader, Miecław.