The church of Our Lady of the Snows (Czech : Panny Marie Sněžné) is located near Jungmann Square in Prague, Czech Republic. This church has one of the highest vaults in Prague (34 metres (112 ft)). It was supposed to be the second biggest church in Prague (after St. Vitus Cathedral), but it was not completed. The current form consists only of the presbytery of the church.
Czech, historically also Bohemian, is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin and German.
| mapsize = 230px | pushpin_map_caption = Location within the Czech Republic##Location within Europe | pushpin_map = Czech Republic#Europe | pushpin_relief = 1 | coordinates =
35.2% Other / undefined | population_total = 1301132 | population_as_of = 2018 | population_footnotes = | population_density_km2 = 4,600 | population_metro = 2,619,490 | population_demonym = Praguer | postal_code_type = Postal code | postal_code = 100 00 – 199 00 | area_code = | area_code_type = ISO 3166-2 | iso_code = CZ-10 | registration_plate = A | website = praha.eu | elevation_max_m = 399 | timezone = CET | utc_offset = +1 | timezone_DST = CEST | utc_offset_DST = +2 | blank_name = GDP (nominal) | blank_info = 2017 | blank1_name = – Total | blank1_info = €49 billion
PPP: $93 billion | blank2_name = – Per capita | blank2_info = €37,900
PPP: $72,000 | blank3_name = HDI (2017) | blank3_info = 0.956 – very high }} Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters.
In architecture, a vault is a self-supporting arched form, usually of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof. The simplest kind of vault is the barrel vault, which is generally semicircular in shape. The barrel vault is a continuous arch, the length being greater than its diameter. As in building an arch, a temporary support is needed while rings of voussoirs are constructed and the rings placed in position. Until the topmost voussoir, the keystone, is positioned, the vault is not self-supporting. Where timber is easily obtained, this temporary support is provided by centering consisting of a framed truss with a semicircular or segmental head, which supports the voussoirs until the ring of the whole arch is completed. With a barrel vault, the centering can then be shifted on to support the next rings.
The church along with a monastery of the Carmelite order was founded in 1347 on the occasion of the coronation of Charles IV and his wife Blanche of Valois. The Carmelites were a mendicant order since 1245, which meant that they were not allowed to own any land. They therefore had no sources for building the church. Charles IV donated them a large plot, which they could partly rent, and the wood which had been used to build his coronation hall. This, along with contributions from the citizens of Prague, was enough to construct the currently visible part of the building. The construction of the church was delayed because of the problems with funds.
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites is a Roman Catholic mendicant religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites. However, historical records about its origin remain very uncertain. Berthold of Calabria has traditionally been associated with the founding of the order, but few clear records of early Carmelite history have survived.
Charles IV, born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side; he emphasized the latter due to his lifelong affinity for the Czech side of his inheritance, and also because his direct ancestors in the Přemyslid line included two saints.
Blanche of Valois was a Queen consort of Germany and Bohemia by her marriage to King and later Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. She was the youngest daughter of Charles of Valois and his third wife Mahaut of Châtillon.
During the Hussite Wars the construction was interrupted, the church was heavily damaged, and the local monks left the monastery. The church fell into disrepair by the end of the 16th century. At the beginning of the 17th century the church was taken over by the Franciscans to whom the church was given by the King of Bohemia Rudolf II.
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the Christian Hussites and the combined Christian Catholic forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves. After initial clashes, the Utraquists changed sides in 1423 to fight alongside Roman Catholics and opposed the Taborites and other Hussite spinoffs. These wars lasted from 1419 to approximately 1434.
Rudolf II was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608). He was a member of the House of Habsburg.
In 1611, during the Passau army incursion, fourteen monks were killed, when a rabble from the city of Prague attacked and looted the monastery. These monks are known as Fourteen Prague Martyrs. They were after almost 400 years beatified in 2012.
The church itself was modified during the Renaissance and Baroque (mostly in the second half of the 17th century).
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, music, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles. It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, deep colour, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century.
Today, the Gothic presbytery serves as a church of Franciscans. The northern aisle is accessible from the eastern corner of the Jungmann square through the gate which originally led to the cemetery behind the church.
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was widely used, especially for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century.
According to the last archaeological research from the 1980s and preserved contemporary documentation, the church was meant to be about 110 meters long. (In comparison, the biggest Gothic cathedral in Prague St. Vitus Cathedral - is 124 meters long.) Which means that nowadays it would be occupying the whole area of the Jungmann Square, almost reaching the building of the Adria Palace on the opposite side of the square. The only part that was built according to the plans was the presbytery with two small aisles and a great bell-tower by the western side of the northern aisle.
The construction of the tower began at the beginning of the 15th century. It was heavily damaged during the Hussite Wars. Also a great bell was shot down from it. In 1683 it definitely collapsed. The existence of this tower can be proved by its remains which can be found in the church. In the most western corner of the northern aisle, there are around 2 meters wide and 1 meter high remains of the thick tower walls and spiral staircase.
The northern aisle is partially preserved. The roof and vaults crumbled long time ago, but the outer walls with the remains of the vaults and windows are still visible. The aisle was apparently built on a different principle from the main chancel. The most obvious difference is the difference between the system and rhythm of the windows and the buttress system. The chancel walls are designed as a skeletal system with the windows reaching almost from one pillar to the next one, providing a huge amount of light inside of the chancel, whereas the windows of the aisle are relatively smaller and do not fill the whole space between the pillars. The pillars of the main chancel also do not interact logically with the inner space of the aisle. This was caused by the changes in plans between the two phases of building the aisle and the chancel around 1379. The builders decided to make the chancel taller, which resulted in enlarging of the buttress system.
Over the entrance to the aisle is a tympanum with the relief picturing God the Father, Jesus Christ and Holy Spirit. It is known as thee Throne of Divine Wisdom. This tympanum was supposed to be placed on the original church portal, which was never built.
Also the vault in the main chancel is not original. The original Gothic vault, which was even higher than the current one, was already by the end of the 16th century completely destroyed. In the 17th century was the church vaulted by the Franciscans. Along with the building of the new Renaissance vault were lowered the vaultings of the windows, which can be still seen from the outside.
During the Renaissance there was also built a new portal. Above the portal, between two Gothic windows is a mosaic of Our Lady of the Snow. Above the mosaic is a Gothic rose window.
The interior was changed a lot during the Baroque. The most important is a 29 meters high early Baroque columned altar. On its top there are statues of Virgin Mary and crucified John the Evangelist. It was made between 1649 and 1651 by an unknown artist. The painting on the bottom part of the Altar was painted by Antonín Stevens.
The Metropolitan Cathedral of Saints Vitus, Wenceslaus and Adalbert is a Roman Catholic metropolitan cathedral in Prague, the seat of the Archbishop of Prague. Until 1997, the cathedral was dedicated only to Saint Vitus, and is still commonly named only as St. Vitus Cathedral.
The Basilica of St Peter and St Paul is a neo-Gothic church in Vyšehrad fortress in Prague, Czech Republic.
Katarínka are the ruins of a Franciscan monastery and church dating back to the early 17th century, located deep in the forests of the Little Carpathians in western Slovakia, 20 km north of Trnava over Dubovský creek, close to the villages of Dechtice, Naháč and Dobrá Voda. The church was dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria, and that is where the nickname of the place Katarínka comes from.
The cathedral of St. Bartholomew is a Gothic church located on the Main Square in Plzeň, Czech Republic. It was probably established together with the city around the year 1295. The church became a cathedral in 1993, when the Pilsner diocese was created. It was included on the list of National cultural monuments of the Czech Republic in 1995.
The Cathedral of Tarragona is a Roman Catholic church in Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain. The edifice is located in a site previously occupied by a Roman temple dating to the time of Tiberius, a Visigothic cathedral, and a Moorish mosque. It was declared a national monument in 1905.
The Co-Cathedral of Saint Nicholas in Prešov is one of the oldest and most important churches in Slovakia. External dimensions of concathedral are 54.7 meters in length, 34.45 in width. The height of indoor nave is 16 m and tower reaches a height of 71 meters. The temple is a Late Gothic hall-type church with three naves.
Saint James` church is a late Gothic three-nave church situated in James' square in the centre of Brno, in Czech Republic. Its history starts in the beginning of the 13th century. The church was categorized as a national monument in 1995.
Czech Gothic architecture refers to the architectural period primarily of the Late Middle Ages in the area of the present-day Czech Republic.
The Gothic Church of Our Lady on the Lawn is located in the valley of the Prague Botič Stream below Vyšehrad in the New Town. It is quite a small Gothic building which was built beside the monastery of Servites. The church is dedicated to the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary. The church and the monastery have been listed as historical monuments since 1958. The church was founded 24 March 1360 by Charles IV. and was built between 1360 and 1375. Its current look is mostly in pseudo-Gothic.
The Church of St. Apollinaire is located in New Town in Prague in the street Apolinarska on the hill called Vetrov. This Gothic church was built approximately between years 1360–1390. The church was established by Charles IV in 1362. Nowadays Roman Catholic Church is located here but it was administrated also by the Chemin Neuf community. The church is protected as a cultural heritage since 1958.
St. Wenceslas Church at Zderaz is a Gothic single-nave church in Prague – New Town. It is located at the crossroad of Resslova Street and Dittrichova Street.
The Cathedral of the Holy Spirit is a principal church of the Diocese of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic and also the seat of the current bishop of the Diocese Jan Vokál. It is a late Gothic brick basilica with two towers, which is located in the southwestern corner of the Great Square in Hradec Králové.
The St. Stephen's Church is located in Štěpánská street in Prague 2, New Town. It is a church from the second half of the 14th century, which was built near the Romanesque St. Stephen rotunda. The church was dedicated to St. Stephen, traditionally regarded as the first martyr of Christianity, who was, according to the Acts of the Apostles, a deacon in the early church at Jerusalem who aroused the enmity of members of various synagogues by his teachings. And then rotunda was dedicated to St. Longin.
St. Michael's Church in Jircháře, Prague - New Town near the National Theatre, specifically the New Town street, which is called v Jirchářích. It is the seat of Czech, Slovak and English congregation of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in the Czech Republic. Its architectural style is not uniform due to alterations in different periods and styles. It is protected as a cultural monument of the Czech Republic.
Czech Renaissance architecture refers to the architectural period of the early modern era in Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia, which then comprised the Crown of Bohemia and today constitute the Czech Republic. The Renaissance style flourished in the Czech lands from the late 15th century to the first half of the 17th century.
The Church of St. James the Greater in Jihlava is an early gothic three-aisled temple nave with a long presbytery and two high towers in the front. It is consecrated to the patron of miners – St. James.
St. Castulus church is a Gothic church with Romanesque and Baroque elements. It is located on the Castulus square, in Old town near Convent of Saint Agnes. It is the only church in the Czech Republic consecrated to Saint Castulus.
The Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and St. Charles the Great is located in the Karlov area of Prague. The originally Gothic church was rebuilt and augmented in baroque style. The church is a part of the former convent of the Augustinian Order in Prague's Karlov.
The Franciscan Monastery is located near the Main Square in Plzeň, Czech Republic. Originally Minorites, later Franciscan monastery was founded in the end of 13th century. Church of Assumpton of Virgin Mary, Chapterhouse and Chapel of St. Barbara also belong to the monastery complex.
The church of Saint Giles is located in the centre of the town of Nymburk on the Kostelní náměstí. The church was built probably in the 13th century, as well as the surrounding town, however, there are no preserved sources confirming its origins. The church is a three nave basilica with a long chancel and a tower in the front. The temple is an example of brick Gothic architecture, except of a few parts which are made from sandstone. Its thin tower reaches 66 meters (216 ft) and together with mediaeval ramparts creates a characteristic silhouette of the town. The dean's church was initially dedicated to St. Nicolas, during the Thirty Years War the dedication changed to St. Giles. The church is a cultural monument of the Czech Republic.