|Igreja de Santa Engrácia|
Main façade of the pantheon
|Location||Campo de Santa Clara, 1100-365 Lisboa, Portugal|
The Church of Santa Engrácia (Portuguese : Igreja de Santa Engrácia, pronounced [iˈɣɾeʒɐ ðɨ ˈsɐ̃tɐ ẽˈɡɾasiɐ] ) is a 17th-century monument in Lisbon, Portugal. Originally a church, in the 20th century it was converted into the National Pantheon (Panteão Nacional, pronounced [pɐ̃tiˈɐ̃w̃ nɐsiuˈnaɫ] ), in which important Portuguese personalities are buried. It is located in the Alfama neighborhood, close to another important Lisbon monument, the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora.
The current building of the Church of Santa Engrácia substituted previous churches dedicated to a martyr of the city of Braga, Saint Engratia. The first church dedicated to the Saint was sponsored by Infanta Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu, daughter of King Manuel I, around 1568. In 1681, construction of the current church began after previous structures collapsed. The design was the work of João Antunes, royal architect and one of the most important baroque architects of Portugal.
Construction proceeded from 1682 through 1712, when the architect died. King John V lost interest in the project, concentrating his resources in the gigantic Convent of Mafra. The church was not completed until the 20th century, so that obras de Santa Engrácia (literally works of Saint Engratia) has become a Portuguese synonym for an endless construction project. A dome was added, and the church was reinaugurated in 1966.
João Antunes prepared an ingenious design for Santa Engrácia, never before attempted in Portugal. The church has a centralised floorplan, with a Greek cross shape. On each corner there is a square tower (the pinnacles were never completed), and the façades are undulated like in the baroque designs of Borromini. The main façade has an entrance hall (galilee) and three niches with statues. The entrance to the church is done through a beautiful baroque portal with the coat-of-arms of Portugal held by two angels. The Church has a high central dome which was completed only in the 20th century.
The harmonious interior of the church is dominated by the curved spaces of the central crossing and naves. The floor and walls are decorated with baroque, polychromed patterns of marble. The magnificent 18th-century baroque organ was brought from Lisbon Cathedral.
In 1916, during the First Portuguese Republic, the Church of Santa Engrácia was converted into a National Pantheon. It was completed only in 1966, during the government of the Dictator António de Oliveira Salazar. There was much speculation that it was completed for the eventual death of Salazar and other high ranking Estado Novo officials, but this was proven false when he died in 1970 and his wishes were revealed to be buried in his hometown of Vimieiro near Santa Comba Dão, which was carried out. Besides Oscar Carmona, no other Estado Novo officials were entombed there.
The personalities entombed here include the Presidents of the Republic Manuel de Arriaga, Teófilo Braga, Sidónio Pais and Óscar Carmona, Presidential candidate Humberto Delgado, writers João de Deus, Almeida Garrett, Guerra Junqueiro, Aquilino Ribeiro and Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, fado singer Amália Rodrigues, and footballer Eusébio. There are cenotaphs to Luís de Camões, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Vasco da Gama and Henry the Navigator.
D. Nuno Álvares Pereira, O. Carm., also spelled Nun'Álvares Pereira, 7th Count of Barcelos, 3rd Count of Ourém and 2nd Count of Arraiolos, was a Portuguese general of great success who had a decisive role in the 1383-1385 Crisis that assured Portugal's independence from Castile. He later became a mystic and was beatified by Pope Benedict XV, in 1918, and canonised by Pope Benedict XVI in 2009.
The Alfama is the oldest neighborhood of Lisbon, spreading on the slope between the São Jorge Castle and the Tagus river. Its name comes from the Arabic Al-hamma (الحَمّة), meaning "hot fountains" or "baths". The district includes the freguesias (parishes) of São Miguel, Santo Estêvão, São Vicente de Fora and part of the two streets, "Freguesia da Sé: Rua do Barão" and "Rua São João da Praça". It contains many important historical attractions, as well as an abundance of Fado bars and restaurants.
Braga is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province. The city has a resident population of 192,494 inhabitants, representing the seventh largest municipality in Portugal. Its area is 183.40 km2. Its agglomerated urban area extends from the Cávado River to the Este River. It is the third-largest urban centre in Portugal.
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes, GCTE, ComC, GCA, was a Portuguese politician and military man. Decorated with the Order of the Bath and the Royal Victorian Chain, he was the 12th President of the Portuguese Republic between 1951 and 1958.
António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, BTO, ComC, GCA, ComSE, was a Portuguese Army officer and politician who served as the 96th Prime Minister of Portugal and 11th President of Portugal (1926–1951). Prior to those posts he served as Minister of War in 1923.
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The Church or Monastery of São Vicente de Fora; meaning "Monastery of St. Vincent Outside the Walls" is a 17th-century church and monastery in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. It is one of the most important monasteries and mannerist buildings in the country. The monastery also contains the royal pantheon of the Braganza monarchs of Portugal.
The Convent of Our Lady of Mount Carmel is a former Catholic convent located in the civil parish of Santa Maria Maior, municipality of Lisbon, Portugal. The medieval convent was ruined during the sequence of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, and the destroyed Gothic Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel on the southern facade of the convent is the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the old city.
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The Archiepiscopal Palace of Braga, is a Portuguese episcopal palace in civil parish of Braga, in the municipality of the same name, in the northern district of Braga.
Saint Engratia is venerated as a virgin martyr and saint. Tradition states that she was martyred with eighteen companions in 303 AD. She should not be confused with the 8th-century Spanish martyr of the same name.
Baroque architecture in Portugal lasted about two centuries. The reigns of John V and Joseph I had increased imports of gold and diamonds, in a period called Royal Absolutism or Absolute monarchy, which allowed the Portuguese Baroque to flourish.
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The Castle of Santa Maria da Feira is a Portuguese castle in the municipality of Santa Maria da Feira, district of Aveiro. Emblematic of Portuguese medieval military architecture, the Castle of Santa Maria da Feira is one of the monuments that best reflects the diversity of defenses used during the Middle Ages, having been instrumental in the process of Reconquista and autonomy of the County of Portugal. It has been listed as a National monument since 1910.
João Antunes (1642–1712) was a Portuguese architect and master mason, considered to be one of the most important architects of Baroque architecture. Antunes served as royal architect during the reign of King Pedro II of Portugal and is responsible a number of famous landmarks in Lisbon, such as the National Pantheon at Santa Engrácia, and the tomb of Saint Joana, Princess of Portugal.
Pedro Teotónio Pereira was a Portuguese politician and diplomat. He played a decisive role for the Allies, in drawing Spain with Portugal into a neutral peninsular bloc during World War II.
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