|Dao (mainly Tang dynasty)|
|Literal meaning||way, path, circuit|
|Lu (Song and Jin dynasties)|
A circuit (Chinese :道; pinyin :dào or Chinese :路; pinyin :lù) was a historical political division of China and is a historical and modern administrative unit in Japan. The primary level of administrative division of Korea under the Joseon and in modern North and South Korea employs the same Chinese character as the Chinese and Japanese divisions but, because of its relatively greater importance, is usually translated as province instead.
|Qing, ROC (12-28)|
|ROC (32-49)||行政督察區||xíngzhèng dūchá qū|
Circuits originated in China during the Han dynasty and were used as a lower-tier administrative division, comparable to the county (simplified Chinese :县; traditional Chinese :縣; pinyin :xiàn, also translated as "districts"). They were used only in the fringes of the Empire, which were either inhabited primarily by non-Han Chinese peoples or too geographically isolated from the rest of the Han centers of power. The system fell into disuse after the collapse of the Western Jin dynasty.
The administrative division was revived in 627 when Tang Emperor Taizong made it the highest level administrative division and subdivided China into ten circuits. These were originally meant to be purely geographic and not administrative. Emperor Xuanzong added a further five, and slowly the circuits strengthened their own power until they became powerful regional forces that tore the country apart during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. During the Song and Jin dynasties, circuits (“dao”) were renamed lu (路), both of which mean "road" or "path".
Dao were revived during the Yuan dynasty. Circuits were demoted to the second level after the Yuan dynasty established provinces at the very top and remained there for the next several centuries. The Yuan dynasty also had lu (sometimes translated as "route"), but it was simply the Chinese word used for the Mongolian administrative unit, the cölge. The Yuan lu had little to do with the circuits (lu) in the Song and Jin dynasties and were closer in size to prefectures.
Under the Qing, they were overseen by a circuit intendant or tao-tai (Chinese : 道臺 ; pinyin :dàotái). The circuit intendant of Shanghai was particularly influential.
During the Republic of China era, circuits still existed as high-level, though not top-level, administrative divisions such as Qiongya Circuit (now Hainan province). In 1928, all circuits were replaced with committees or simply abandoned. In 1932, administrative circuits (Chinese :行政督察區; pinyin :xíngzhèng dūchá qū) were reintroduced and lasted until 1949.
In 1949, after the founding of the People's Republic of China, all the administrative circuits were all converted into zhuangqu (Chinese :专区; pinyin :zhuānqū) in 1949 and renamed diqu (Chinese :地区; pinyin :dìqū; lit. : 'prefecture') in the 1970s.
During the Asuka period (538–710), Japan was organized into five provinces and seven circuits, known as the Gokishichidō (5 ki 7 dō), as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese.Though these units did not survive as administrative structures beyond the Muromachi period (1336–1573), they did remain important geographical entities until the 19th century. The seven circuits spread over the islands of Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū:
In the mid-19th century, the northern island of Ezo was settled, and renamed Hokkaidō (北海道, "North Sea Circuit"). It is currently the only prefecture of Japan named with the dō (circuit) suffix.
Since the late 10th century, the do (“province”) has been the primary administrative division in Korea. See Eight Provinces, Provinces of Korea, Subdivisions of South Korea and Administrative divisions of North Korea for details.
A prefecture is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, as well as in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.
Due to China's large population and area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. The constitution of China provides for three de jure levels of government. Currently, however, there are five practical levels of local government: the provincial, prefecture, county, township, and village.
A jùn was a historical administrative division of China from the Eastern Zhou until the early Tang dynasty. It is usually translated as a commandery.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. The political status of Taiwan Province and a small fraction of Fujian Province are in dispute, which are under separate rule by the Republic of China.
Yantai, alternately known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a coastal prefecture-level city on the Shandong Peninsula in northeastern Shandong province of People's Republic of China. Lying on the southern coast of the Bohai Strait, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east, with sea access to both the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. It is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan and Laishan.
Saikaidō is a Japanese geographical term. It means both an ancient division of the country and the main road running through it. Saikaido was one of the main circuits of the Gokishichidō system, which was originally established during the Asuka period.
The history of the administrative divisions of the Imperial China is quite complex. Across history, what is called 'China' has taken many shapes, and many political organizations. For various reasons, both the borders and names of political divisions have changed—sometimes to follow topography, sometimes to weaken former states by dividing them, and sometimes to realize a philosophical or historical ideal. For recent times, the number of recorded tiny changes is quite large; by contrast, the lack of clear, trustworthy data for ancient times forces historians and geographers to draw approximate borders for respective divisions. But thanks to imperial records and geographic descriptions, political divisions may often be redrawn with some precision. Natural changes, such as changes in a river's course, or loss of data, still make this issue difficult for ancient times.
Zhou were historical political divisions of China. Formally established during the Han dynasty, zhou exist continuouslyin 1912—a period of over 2000 years. Zhou were also previously used in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
Gokishichidō was the name for ancient administrative units organized in Japan during the Asuka period, as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese. Though these units did not survive as administrative structures beyond the Muromachi period (1336–1573), they did remain important geographical entities until the 19th century. The Gokishichidō consisted of five provinces in the Kinai (畿内) or capital region, plus seven dō (道) or circuits, each of which contained provinces of its own.
Meihekou is a city of 600,000 in Jilin province, People's Republic of China. It is a regional transport hub, connecting three railway lines, all of which are single track, and 2 national highways. The city is also a major lorry transshipment point in the region as it is also the junction of two trunk roads, connected to Liaoyuan in the northwest. The city is administratively a county-level city of the prefecture-level city of Tonghua, and is its northernmost county-level division.
Haiyang, a coastal city in Shandong province in eastern China, located on the Yellow Sea (southern) coast of the Shandong Peninsula. It is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yantai.
Hailin is a county-level city, under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Mudanjiang, in the southeast of Heilongjiang province, China, bordering Jilin province to the southwest. It has an area of 8,816 km2 (3,404 sq mi), and a population of 422000. Ethnic groups include the majority Han Chinese as well as significant numbers of Manchu and ethnic Koreans.
The Tōkaidō is a Japanese geographical term. It means both an ancient division of the country and the main road running through it. It is part of the Gokishichidō system.
Ninghai County is a county under the administration of Ningbo, in the east of Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. It covers a land area of 1,712.50 km2 (661.20 sq mi) and a sea area 213.35 km2 (82.37 sq mi) of and has a 173.86 km (108.03 mi) coastline. It has four sub-districts, 11 towns, three townships and a population of 682,000.
Zhangwan District is a district of the city of Shiyan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County is an autonomous county of Miao and Dong peoples in Hunan Province, China, the county is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Huaihua. It was known as "Jing County", renamed to the present name on February 19, 1987.
The history of the administrative divisions of China between 1912 and 1949 refers to the administrative divisions under the Republic of China government control.
The Yuan dynasty was a vast empire founded by Mongol leader Kublai Khan in China. During its existence, its territory was divided into the Central Region (腹裏) governed by the Central Secretariat and places under control of various provinces (行省) or Branch Secretariats (行中書省), as well as the region under the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs. In addition, the Yuan emperors held nominal suzerainty over the western Mongol khanates, but in reality none of them were governed by the Yuan dynasty due to the division of the Mongol Empire.
Hebei Circuit or Hebei Province was one of the major circuits during the Tang dynasty, Five Dynasties period, and early Song dynasty. During the Tang dynasty it was known as Hebei Dao (河北道), and during the Song dynasty Hebei Lu (河北路), but both dao and lu can be translated as "circuit". In 1042 it was divided into two circuits: Hebei East Circuit and Hebei West Circuit.