|City of district significance|
|Also known as:|
City of district subordination[ citation needed ]
Locations of cities of district significance in Ukraine
|Category||Third-level division of Ukraine|
|Found in||Raions (districts)|
|Created by|| Verkhovna Rada law No.280/97-вр|
Adopted on 4 May 1997
|Number||276 (as of 2015)|
|Additional status||City Council (Municipality)|
|Populations||up to 50,000|
|Areas||up to approx. 65 km2 (25 sq mi)|
|Part of a series on the|
|Subdivisions of Ukraine|
|First level (regions)|
|Second level (districts)|
|Third level (municipalities)|
|Special case administrations|
|Populated places in Ukraine|
A city of district significance (Ukrainian : місто районного значення, misto raionnoho znachennia) is a special category of city municipalities within each of the rural raions (districts) of Ukraine's first-level of administrative divisions. These cities are subordinate to the raion authorities and derive their powers from them. The KOATUU national classification system refers to them as the third-level of the country's administrative divisions. As of 2015 [update] there are 276 cities of district significance in Ukraine.
Cities of district significance are automatically considered as "small cities", a status which is recognized by a few normative acts of the Verkhovna Rada, the Ukrainian parliament.Ukrainian law designates these populated places with populations of up to 50,000. In 2008, the average population of a city of district significance was 13,400. Small cities can belong to one of several specific economic categories, often having a regional transportation significance, important local industry, or an important historical and tourist attraction.
As of 2015 [update] , 63 of the 276 cities of district significance are members of the Association of Small Cities of Ukraine, a public organization that was registered in 2011 to recognize the common issues of small cities in general and to further promote their development.
Under Ukrainian law, every city of district significance automatically belongs to the category of "small cities" (Ukrainian : малі міста, mali mista), which is defined by the law "On the Approval of the National Program of the Development of Small Cities" dated 4 March 2005 as cities which have populations of up to 50,000. These small cities have populations of up to 50,000, and they contain a certain amount of social and industrial infrastructure within their boundaries. They have a proportionally lower rate of industrial expansion compared to cities of regional significance, however, they allow for favorable conditions for the creation of social, cultural, household, communal areas to meet the needs of its urban residents and the surrounding district countryside.
A large number of these cities are centered on important industrial enterprises, creating the need of maintaining a favorable economic climate for industry.Cities of district significance are often the administrative centers of the districts they are located in. The lives of approximately 22 million inhabitants (both urban and rural) are tied in with the socio-economic activities of small cities, which plays an important role in the development of suburbs and the Ukrainian economy.
The law "On the General Scheme of the Territorial Planning of Ukraine" is Ukraine's comprehensive general plan, which was adopted on 7 February 2002. It organizes small cities into five different categories:
The law "On the Approval of the National Program of the Development of Small Cities" was adopted on 4 March 2005. It organizes small cities into seven economic categories:
The Constitution of Ukraine and the 1997 law "On the Local Self-Governance in Ukraine" defines cities as independent units of administrative-territorial structures, which manage their own local self-government, economic, and financial activities.However, there is no clearly defined mechanism for designating populated places as cities of district significance under Ukrainian law. Rather, these cities are designated based on old Soviet laws such as the decree of the Presidium of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic "On the Resolution of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ukrainian SSR" dated 12 March 1981. The legal competence of designating populated places as cities of district significance belongs to the Ukrainian parliament subject to proposals from the executive committees of regional and city councils.
The 1981 decree stipulates that populated places are designated as cities of district significance if they have important regional industry, communal utilities, and networks of social, cultural, and business enterprises. In addition, they have to have populations of over 10,000 people, of which not less than 2/3 were workers, employees, and their families.The presidium's decrees, "On the Resolution of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ukrainian SSR" and "On the Practice of Applying the Legislation on the Order of Naming and Renaming of Administrative-Territorial Units and Populated Places of the Republic" were to have expired after the Ukrainian parliament adopted the law "On the Administrative-Territorial Composition of Ukraine". However, to this day, such a law has not been passed.
Local government in cities of district significance is delegated to their popularly elected mayoral administrations and legislative city councils, which derive their authority from the law "On the Local Self-Governance in Ukraine".These councils are local government areas that may often contain some urban-type settlements and rural localities under their jurisdiction aside from the respective cities themselves. Local elections take place nationwide every four years, and elect anywhere from 12-46 deputies, depending on the city's population.
Cities of district significance receive their funding through the rural raion state administrations they are subordinate to, amidst other sources of local revenue, as determined by the Budget Code of Ukraine. In 2015, the Association of Small Cities of Ukraine criticized the adoption of the 2015 Ukrainian budget, which they stated limited the authority of local government institutions throughout Ukraine, contrary to what was proposed by all five of the coalition parties in parliament as part of decentralization in Ukraine.
Although not every small city is designated as a city of district significance, in 2003 there were a total of 305 such small cities, which is 3/4 of the total number of cities in Ukraine, and 13% of the total population (19% of the urban population).In 2003, 15 cities had a population of up to 5,000; 66 cities had populations between 5,000–10,000; 160 cities had populations between 10,000–20,000; 109 cities had populations between 20,000–50,000.
The locations of cities of district significance throughout Ukraine is unevenly distributed throughout Ukraine's 24 oblasts (regions) and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The number of cities of district significance varies depending on the level of urbanization in a specific region.
The region with the largest number of cities of district significance is Lviv Oblast in western Ukraine with 35 such cities, which is close to 80% of the oblast's city population.Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts also have a proportionally larger number of cities of district significance with 24 (46% of the oblast's city population) and 23 (62% of the oblast's city population), respectfully.
Half of the cities of district significance are located within just six oblasts, not to mention that 94% of all of the cities in Ternopil Oblast and 82% in Chernivtsi Oblast are designated cities of district significance.These numbers are particularly higher than those in other regions throughout Ukraine due to a lower number of larger cities that could meet the status of cities of regional significance.
Out of the 276 cities of district significance, 89 of them (32% of them) are not administrative centers of their surrounding rural raions.Only four out of 24 cities of district significance in Donetsk Oblast are administrative centers; seven out of 23 in Luhansk Oblast; three out of seven in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast; and 17 out of 35 in Lviv Oblast. Every city of district significance in Cherkasy, Khmelnytskyi, Mykolaiv, Rivne, Zhytomytr, and Zakarpattia oblasts are also administrative centers of their respective raions.
A city of district significance can also be referred to as a city of district importance, depending on the translation from the original Ukrainian terminology. For the same category of cities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the subject of a territorial dispute between Russia and Ukraine, the term for this type of urban populated place is a city of district subordination[ citation needed ] (Ukrainian : місто районного підпорядкування[ citation needed ], misto raionnoho pidporiadkuvannia).
Cities of district significance and similarly named categories date back to the forms of local government and administrative divisions of Soviet Union. In countries of the former Soviet Union, these types of cities are subject to similar characteristics and economic categories as those that are located in Ukraine. In neighboring Russia, they are referred to as cities of district significance (Russian : город районного значения, gorod raionnogo znacheniya), while in Belarus, they are known as cities of district subordination (Belarusian : горад раённага падпарадкавання, horad rajonnaha padparadkavannja).
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities. On the first level there are 27 regions:
Lyman Raion is a raion (district) within Donetsk Oblast in eastern Ukraine. Its administrative center is Lyman, which is separately incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the district. Its area is 1,018 km2 (393 sq mi) and its population is approximately 21,881 (2013 est.).
Podilsk, until May 2016 Kotovsk (Ukrainian: Котовськ, is a city in Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. Administratively, Podilsk is incorporated as a town of oblast significance. It also serves as the administrative center of Podilsk Raion, one of twenty-six districts of Odessa Oblast, though it is not a part of the district. Population: 40,640 In 2001, population was 40,718.
Lyman, formerly Krasnyi Lyman is a city in Donetsk Oblast (province) of Ukraine. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. It also serves as the administrative center of Lyman Raion and Lyman United Territorial Community, though it is not a part of the raion. Population: 22,509 (2013 est.); 28,172 (2001).
The Novoazovsk Raion is one of the 18 administrative raions of Donetsk Oblast in eastern Ukraine. Its administrative center is located in the city of Novoazovsk, and its southern portion borders the Azov Sea. Population: 35,737 (2013 est.)
Kropyvnytskyi Raion is a raion (district) of Kirovohrad Oblast in central Ukraine. Its administrative center is the city of Kropyvnytskyi, which is incorporated separately as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 37,409 (2013 est.).
City of regional significance was a city municipality that was designated as a separate district within its region. In Crimea, these cities were referred to as cities of republican significance, while in regular oblasts those municipalities were referred to as cities of oblast significance. The designation of regional significance was created with the introduction of oblasts in 1932 and abolished in 2020.
The administrative divisions of Khmelnytskyi Oblast follows the general scheme of the administrative divisions in Ukraine. As Ukraine is a unitary state, any changes to the administrative divisions have to be approved by the Verkhovna Rada.
Populated place in Ukraine is structural element of human settling system, a stationary settlement, territorially integral compact area of population concentration basic and important feature of which is permanent human habitation. Populated places in Ukraine are systematized into two major categories: urban and rural. Urban populated places can be either cities or urban settlements, while rural populated places can be either villages or rural settlements. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census there are 1,344 urban populated places and 28,621 rural populated places in Ukraine.
Telmanove Raion is one of the 18 administrative raions of Donetsk Oblast, located in southeastern Ukraine. The administrative center of the district is located in the urban-type settlement of Boykivske, previously Telmanove. Population: 29,550 (2013 est.) The raion was named after the German Communist leader Ernst Thälmann.
Volnovakha Raion is one of the 18 administrative raions of Donetsk Oblast, located in southwestern Ukraine. The administrative center of the district is located in the city of Volnovakha. Population: 83,930 (2013 est.)
Yasynuvata Raion is one of the 18 administrative raions of Donetsk Oblast, located in southeastern Ukraine. The administrative center of the district is the city of Yasynuvata, which is incorporated separately as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the districts jurisdiction. Population: 27,845 (2013 est.)
Zaporizhia Raion is one of the 5 raions (districts) of Zaporizhia Oblast in southern Ukraine. The administrative center of the raion is located in the city of Zaporozhia. Population: 57,893 (2013 est.) According to the 2001 census, its population was 54,804.
Podilsk Raion, known until 2015 as Kotovsk Raion, is a raion (district) in Odessa Oblast of Ukraine. Its administrative center is the town of Podilsk which is incorporated separately as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 27,334 (2015 est.)
A rural council or officially, village council, often shortened to is a local government area as well as one of the lowest forms of administrative division of Ukraine that is associated with rural populated places in Ukraine. These populated places can refer to either villages or [rural] settlements.
The Dolynske Rural Council is one of 16 rural local government areas of the Zaporizhia Raion (district) of Zaporizhia Oblast in southern Ukraine. Its population was 2,815 in the 2001 Ukrainian Census.
Velyki Klishchi is a former village in the Narodychi Raion of Zhytomyr Oblast in northern Ukraine. The village was evacuated in 1990 following the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.
Poliske was a village (selo) in the Narodychi Raion of Zhytomyr Oblast in northern Ukraine. The village was evacuated in 1990 following the aftermath of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.
The Chornobyl Raion was one of 26 administrative raions (districts) of Kyiv Oblast in northern Ukraine. After the Chernobyl disaster, the majority of the raion was contaminated, and many of its populated places were included into the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, which is an officially designated exclusion area around the site of the disaster.
A united territorial community, also called an amalgamated territorial community or an amalgamated hromada, is a basic unit of administrative division in Ukraine. It is an enlarged community consisting of other territorial communities (hromadas), formerly known as councils, residents of which have decided to unite. According to the Law of Ukraine adopted in 1997, a community, also known as "hromada", is composed of its residents who are united by living in village, settlement, city on permanent basis or voluntary association of residents of several villages that has one administrative center. The communities form raions, several raions form oblast. City communities of cities Kiev and Sevastopol have a special status and are not part of any raion or oblast.