San Antonio de los Arenales
From up to down and left to right: Cathedral of San Antonio, Main Plaza Kiosko, Cuauhtemoc City Hall, Train Station, Statue of Cuauhtemoc
|Foundation||January 9, 1948|
|• Mayor|| Humberto Pérez |
|Elevation||2,069 m (6,788 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC−7 (Pacific (US Mountain))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−6 (Pacific)|
Cuauhtémoc (Spanish pronunciation: [kwauˈtemok] ) is a city located in the west-central part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It serves as the seat of the municipality of Cuauhtémoc. The city lies 103 km (64 mi) west of the state capital of Chihuahua. As of 2015, the city of Cuauhtémoc had a population of 168,482.
Mexico's states classify their settlements in a variety of fashions:
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.
The population in 1953 was just under 3,000, composed almost entirely of Mexicans with the exception of foreign-born people who have gone there as traders. The town of Cuauhtémoc developed after the coming of the Mennonites in the 1920s although very few Mennonites lived in town, for it was the Mennonite shopping center. A railroad, a highway, and a bus line connected Cuauhtémoc with Chihuahua.
Cuauhtémoc has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) moderated by its altitude. 15.6 °C (60.1 °F), while winter nights are cold with temperatures usually below freezing. The city usually sees 1 or 2 snowfalls per year. Summers are warm with June being the warmest month with an average high temperature of 29.5 °C (85.1 °F). Most of the precipitation falls during this time of the year, during the monsoon season. The highest recorded temperature was 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) on June 9, 1995 while the lowest recorded temperature was −18 °C (−0.4 °F) on December 30, 1975.Winter days are cool and sunny with a January high of
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.
The North American monsoon, variously known as the Southwest monsoon, the Mexican monsoon, the New Mexican monsoon, or the Arizona monsoon, is a pattern of pronounced increase in thunderstorms and rainfall over large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, typically occurring between July and mid September. During the monsoon, thunderstorms are fueled by daytime heating and build up during the late afternoon-early evening. Typically, these storms dissipate by late night, and the next day starts out fair, with the cycle repeating daily. The monsoon typically loses its energy by mid-September when drier and cooler conditions are reestablished over the region. Geographically, the North American monsoon precipitation region is centered over the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Mexican states of Sinaloa, Durango, Sonora and Chihuahua.
|Climate data for Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||15.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.9|
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.8|
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.0|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||11.4|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.2||1.0||1.1||1.8||2.3||7.2||14.3||14.1||10.9||3.5||1.8||1.9||62.1|
|Average snowy days||0.50||0.35||0.25||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.25||0.35||1.70|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico National|
|Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (snowy days)|
In the early 1950s there were no improved roads leading from the hinterland into Cuauhtémoc. A four-lane highway, completed in 1986, connected the city with the city of Chihuahua, the state capital. Another highway connected Cuauhtémoc with Col. Anahuac, where a large pulp mill is located. The Gran Vision highway, which is to be continued to the west coast through the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains, joins the city to the western hinterlands, and another highway leaving the city passes through the Mennonite colonies to the north (Manitoba Colony).
The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through northwestern and western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California. The Sierra Madre is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western 'backbone' of North America, Central America, South America and West Antarctica.
Manitoba Colony is a large community of German speaking Mennonites mostly north of Ciudad Cuauhtémoc in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico. It was founded in 1922 by Old Colony Mennonites from Manitoba, Canada and consisted originally of 47 villages. It is the largest and oldest Mennonite colony in Mexico.
The apple industry, introduced to the area by a former Old Colony Mennonite, Enrique Wiebe, has contributed much to the rapid growth of the city, particularly with large apple corporations such as Grupo La Norteñita. The influx of American industry in the mid-1980s, is also attracting people from all over the Republic. Doctors, dentists, and lawyers abound. Elementary, secondary, preparatory, and technology schools are numerous. One agricultural school, incorporated with the University of Chihuahua, is located in Cuauhtémoc, and the one incorporated Mennonite elementary and secondary school, Alvaro Obregon, is located on the outskirts at Quinta Lupita.
Chortitza Colony was a volost Yekaterinoslav Governorate granted to German-speaking Mennonites for colonization northwest of Khortytsia Island and is now part of Zaporizhia, Ukraine. Chortitza was founded in 1789 by Plautdietsch-speaking Mennonite settlers from West Prussia and consisted of many villages. It was the first of many Mennonite settlements in Russia. Because the Mennonites living in these villages emigrated or were evacuated or deported at the end of World War II, or emigrated after the collapse of the Soviet Union no Mennonites are living there today.
Grupo La Norteñita is a Mexican corporation headquartered in Cuauhtemoc, Chihuahua, Mexico that produces apples whose quality and quantity is ranked worldwide. It mainly grows, transforms and sells apples and other agricultural products. It is known for its packaging of selected apples in plastic trays. La Norteñita also produces apple juice and other apple derivatives such as jelly and jam. This company also ranches cattle; however, it is better known for its agriculture production.
The Cuauhtémoc area is the home of around 50,000 German speaking Mennonites who live in the following colonies mostly north of the city: Manitoba Colony, Swift Current Colony, Ojo de la Yegua Colony, Santa Rita Colony, Santa Clara Colony and Los Jagueyes Colony.
The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites who are descendants of Dutch Anabaptists who settled for about 250 years in West Prussia and established colonies in the south west of the Russian Empire beginning in 1789. Since the late 19th century, many of them have come to countries throughout the Western Hemisphere. The rest were forcibly relocated, so that very few of their descendants now live at the location of the original colonies. Russian Mennonites are traditionally multilingual with Plautdietsch as their first language and lingua franca. In 2014 there are several hundred thousand Russian Mennonites: about 200,000 in Germany, 100,000 in Mexico, 70,000 in Bolivia, 40,000 in Paraguay, 10,000 in Belize and tens of thousands in Canada and the US and a few thousand in Argentina, Uruguay, Belize, and Brazil.
The Mennonites settled in the San Antonio Valley, as far as 120 km (75 mi.) to the north of the town. There was a General Conference Mennonite Church in the town composed almost entirely of Mennonite refugees who came to Mexico after World War I. The growth of the Mennonite population due to natural increase and to additional immigration from Canada stimulated its economic activities. A small cereal factory was established by non-Mennonites, while a large cheese factory, slaughterhouse, and ice plant were erected by Mennonites (the Redekops) in the town. In 1947 the Mennonite Central Committee established a service unit in Cuauhtémoc to provide health services, recreational direction, and assistance in educational activities of German-speaking children
The General Conference Mennonite Church was a mainline association of Mennonite congregations based in North America from 1860 to 2002. The conference was formed in 1860 when congregations in Iowa invited North American Mennonites to join together in order to pursue common goals such as higher education and mission work. The conference was especially attractive to recent Mennonite and Amish immigrants to North America and expanded considerably when thousands of Russian Mennonites arrived in North America starting in the 1870s. Conference offices were located in Winnipeg, Manitoba and North Newton, Kansas. The conference supported a seminary and several colleges. In the 1990s the conference had 64,431 members in 410 congregations in Canada, the United States and South America. After decades of cooperation with the Mennonite Church, the two groups reorganized into Mennonite Church Canada in 2000 and Mennonite Church USA in 2002.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.
Although the city, formerly called San Antonio de los Arenales, developed only after the arrival of the Old Colony Mennonites in 1922, it has practically no Mennonites living in it. However, the streets and the numerous banks teem with them, especially on Monday mornings. Cuauhtémoc is the most important commercial center for Old Colony Mennonites in Chihuahua.
In the early 1930s the recent Mennonite immigrants from the Soviet Union (Rußländer) formed a Mennonite congregation in the town, but by 1987, it had disintegrated completely. The few Mennonite families and General Conference Mennonite Church and Mennonite Central Committee workers living in the city in 1986 (5 families and 5 singles) worshipped mostly at the General Conference congregation at Kilometro 11. Cuauhtémoc was the first city to erect a senior citizens home under public or government jurisdiction. Its first matron was a Mennonite, Maria Giesbrecht, from the Santa Rita Colony (Nord Colony).
The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. As of 2015, the city of Chihuahua had a population of 878,062 inhabitants. while the metropolitan area had a population of 918,339 inhabitants.
Progreso is a port city in the Mexican state of Yucatán, located on the Gulf of Mexico in the north-west of the state some 30 minutes north of state capital Mérida by highway. As of the Mexican census of 2010, Progreso had an official population of 37,369 inhabitants, the sixth largest community in the state in population. The city is also the municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name. The municipality's area is 270.10 km2 (104.29 sq mi) and its population at the census was 49,454 inhabitants. It includes Scorpion Reef with its five islets 130 km offshore (north) on the outer edge of Campeche Bank. Its largest other towns are Chicxulub, Campestre Flamboyanes, and Chelem.
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Mennonites in Colombia were until 2016 almost only converts from the general and indigenous Colombian population to the Mennonite faith. Since then conservative ethnic Mennonites with a German background who belong to the so-called Russian Mennonites started to immigrate to Colombia.