Ciudad Rodrigo

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Ciudad Rodrigo
municipality
Flag of Ciudad Rodrigo.svg
Flag
Escudo Ciudad Rodrigo.svg
Seal
Termino municipal de Ciudad Rodrigo.svg
Location in Salamanca
Spain Castile and Leon location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ciudad Rodrigo
Location in Spain
Spain location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo (Spain)
Coordinates: 40°35′49″N6°32′21″W / 40.59694°N 6.53917°W / 40.59694; -6.53917 Coordinates: 40°35′49″N6°32′21″W / 40.59694°N 6.53917°W / 40.59694; -6.53917
Country Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Autonomous community Flag of Castile and Leon.svg  Castile and León
Province Salamanca
Comarca Comarca of Ciudad Rodrigo
Government
  MayorMarcos Iglesias Caridad area_footnotes = [1] (PP)
Area
  Total240 km2 (90 sq mi)
Elevation
[1]
658 m (2,159 ft)
Population
 (2018) [2]
  Total12,513
  Density52/km2 (140/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
37500
Website www.aytociudadrodrigo.es

Ciudad Rodrigo (Spanish pronunciation:  [θjuˈðað roˈðɾiɣo] ) is a small cathedral city in the province of Salamanca, [3] in western Spain, with a population in 2016 of 12,896. It is also the seat of a judicial district.

Contents

The site of Ciudad Rodrigo, perched atop a rocky rise on the right bank of the River Águeda, has been occupied since the Neolithic Age. Known also as Mirobriga by those who wish to associate the city with an ancient Celtic village in the outskirts of the modern city.

A key border fortress, it was the site of a 10-day siege by the Duke of Wellington.

Geography

Ciudad Rodrigo RI-53-0000010.jpg
Ciudad Rodrigo

Ciudad Rodrigo is situated on the right bank of the Águeda river, about 89 km (55 mi) south-west of Salamanca and 25 km (16 mi) away from the Portuguese border.

The autovia A-62 (dual carriageway) links Ciudad Rodrigo with Salamanca, Valladolid and Burgos, and with Portugal.

Climate

Ciudad Rodrigo has a Mediterranean climate characterised by hot and dry summers, and cool, damp winters.

History

Origins

A verraco in Ciudad Rodrigo, built by the Vettones. Berraco (Plaza del Castillo, Ciudad Rodrigo).jpg
A verraco in Ciudad Rodrigo, built by the Vettones.
The Cathedral of Ciudad Rodrigo, was built between the 12th and 14th centuries. Catedral3.JPG
The Cathedral of Ciudad Rodrigo, was built between the 12th and 14th centuries.
The City Walls, built by Ferdinand II of Leon in the 12th century. Muralla interior de Ciudad Rodrigo (desde la puerta de Amayuelas al oeste).jpg
The City Walls, built by Ferdinand II of León in the 12th century.
Facade of Capilla de Cerralbo, built between the 16th and 17th centuries. Vista de la Capilla de Cerralbo desde la Plaza de San Salvador.jpg
Facade of Capilla de Cerralbo, built between the 16th and 17th centuries.
Capilla de las Franciscanas Descalzas (built in 1739). Capilla de las Franciscanas Descalzas.jpg
Capilla de las Franciscanas Descalzas (built in 1739).
The Hospital of the Passion, built in the 15th century. PICT3007.JPG
The Hospital of the Passion, built in the 15th century.
Casa del Primer Marques de Cerralbo (16th century). Casa del Primer Marques de Cerralbo (vista desde el oeste).jpg
Casa del Primer Marqués de Cerralbo (16th century).
San Isidoro Church (12th century). Iglesia de San Isidoro. Vista desde la plaza Campo del Pozo.jpg
San Isidoro Church (12th century).

Ciudad Rodrigo was originally a Celtic village under the name of Mirobriga. The town was later taken by the Romans during the conquest of Lusitania and named Augustobriga.

In the 12th century, the site was repopulated by King Ferdinand II of León, walling it and re-establishing the old Visigothic diocese of Calabria into the new bishopric as suffragan of the Diocese of Santiago de Compostela; it comprised a big part of the province of Salamanca, and a portion of the province of Cáceres, an act confirmed by Pope Alexander III in 1175. This led to the construction of the city's cathedral, an architectural hybrid of the Gothic and late Romanesque styles. King Alfonso VIII gave the city of Caliabria to the Diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo in 1191. The first bishop of whom anything certain is known was called Pedro (1165) and one of the most celebrated was the learned jurist Don Diego de Covarruvias y Leyva (1560).

Artistic works

During the 15th century, a series of artworks of perhaps 35-panels (only 26 panels survive), known as the Retablo (altarpiece) of the Cathedral of the Ciudad Rodrigo [4] was created by Fernando Gallego, Maestro Bartolomé, [5] and the artists of their workshops. Over the centuries, the works became badly deteriorated. In 1954, they were acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation which had them fully restored. In 1961, the foundation donated the works to the University of Arizona Museum of Art in Tucson, Arizona, where they reside today. [6]

Napoleonic Wars

The Ayuntamiento of Ciudad Rodrigo (16th century). Ayuntamiento de Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca.jpg
The Ayuntamiento of Ciudad Rodrigo (16th century).
A street of the city. Calle San Juan.jpg
A street of the city.

Main articles: Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (1810) and Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (1812)

Its position as a fortified town on the main road from Portugal to Salamanca made it militarily important in the middle years of the Napoleonic Peninsular War.

The French Marshal Michel Ney took Ciudad Rodrigo on July 9, 1810 after a 24-day siege. The 5,500-man Spanish garrison of Field Marshal Don Andreas de Herrasti put up a gallant defense, surrendering only after French artillery opened a breach in the walls and their infantry were poised for an assault. The Spanish suffered 461 killed and 994 wounded, while 4,000 men and 118 cannon were captured. Ney's VI Corps lost 180 killed and over 1,000 wounded during the siege. The French soldiery then pillaged the city. The siege delayed Marshal André Masséna's invasion of Portugal by a month.

The British General Wellington began his 1812 campaign by taking Ciudad Rodrigo by storm on the night of January 19, 1812 – January 20, 1812 after preparatory operations lasting about 10 days. In these clashes, the British captured the Greater Teson on January 8 and the Lesser Teson on January 16. Meanwhile, two breaches in the walls had been opened by Wellington's twenty-three 24-lb and four 18-lb siege guns under the command of Captain Alexander Dickson. Major-General Thomas Picton's 3rd Division assaulted the "greater" breach while Robert Craufurd's Light Division attacked the "lesser" breach. Allied losses in the siege were 195 killed and 916 wounded, although amongst the dead were Maj-Gens Henry Mackinnon and Craufurd. The 2,000-man French garrison under Brig-Gen Barrié lost 529 killed and wounded, while the rest were captured. The French Army of Portugal lost its entire siege train among the 142 captured cannon. There were two cannons embedded in the wall of the "greater" breach that caused most casualties in the storming. The 88th Connaught Rangers Regiment took one of the guns while the 45th Nottinghamshire Regiment took the other. The victory was marred when the British rank and file thoroughly sacked the city, despite the efforts of their officers. The capture of Ciudad Rodrigo allowed Wellington to proceed to Badajoz, whose taking was a much more bloody affair.

In 1812, the then-Viscount Wellington (later created a Duke) was rewarded for his victorious liberation with the hereditary Spanish ducal victory title of Duque de Ciudad Rodrigo.

Ciudad Rodrigo is also the birthplace of Siglo de Oro writer Feliciano de Silva.

Sights

Avila y Tiedra's palace Palacio de los Avila y Tiedra (Ciudad Rodrigo).JPG
Ávila y Tiedra's palace

The historic centre of Ciudad Rodrigo is enclosed by the city walls.

The castle of Henry II of Castile

This castle was built by the medieval King Enrique II of Castile in 1372.

International Relations

Ciudad Rodrigo is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 "Municipio:Ciudad Rodrigo". www.lasalina.es (in Spanish). Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  2. Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
  3. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ciudad Rodrigo"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 402.
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. Stengle, Jamie (May 9, 2008). "Behind the Altarpiece, a Maestro". The Australian.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 8, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas: Aveiro" (in Portuguese). Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses. Retrieved May 29, 2015.

Other References