Civitavecchia

Last updated
Civitavecchia
Città di Civitavecchia
Forte Michelangelo 2014.jpg
Civitavecchia fort and harbour
Civitavecchia-Stemma.png
Coat of arms
Map of comune of Civitavecchia (province of Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg
Location of Civitavecchia in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Location of Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia
Italy provincial location map 2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Civitavecchia
Location of Civitavecchia in Italy
Italy Lazio location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Civitavecchia
Civitavecchia (Lazio)
Coordinates: 42°06′N11°48′E / 42.100°N 11.800°E / 42.100; 11.800 Coordinates: 42°06′N11°48′E / 42.100°N 11.800°E / 42.100; 11.800
Country Italy
Region Lazio
Metropolitan city Rome (RM)
Frazioni Aurelia, La Scaglia
Government
  MayorAntonio Cozzolino (M5S)
Area
[1]
  Total71.95 km2 (27.78 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (31 August 2015) [2]
  Total53,027
  Density740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Civitavecchiesi
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
00053
Dialing code 0766
Patron saint Saint Fermina
Saint day28 April
Website www.comune.civitavecchia.rm.it

Civitavecchia (pronounced  [ˌtʃivitaˈvɛkkja] ; meaning "ancient town") is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio. A sea port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, it is located 60 kilometres (37 miles) west-north-west of the center of Rome. The harbour is formed by two piers and a breakwater, on which stands a lighthouse. Civitavecchia had a population of around 53,000 as of 2015.

Contents

History

Civitavecchia in 1795, etching by William Marlow. Civitavecchia 1795.jpg
Civitavecchia in 1795, etching by William Marlow.

The modern city was built over a pre-existing Etruscan settlement.

The harbour was constructed by the Emperor Trajan at the beginning of the 2nd century. The first occurrence of the name Centum Cellae is from a letter by Pliny the Younger (AD 107). The origin of the name is disputed: it has been suggested that it could refer to the centum ("hundred") halls of the villa of the emperor.

In the early Middle Ages (530s), Centumcellae was a Byzantine stronghold. It became part of the Papal States in 728. As the port was raided by the Saracens in 813–814, 828, 846 and finally in 876, a new settlement in a more secure place was therefore built by order of Pope Leo VII as soon as 854. The Popes gave the settlement as a fief to several local lords, including the Count Ranieri of Civitacastellana and the Abbey of Farfa, and the Di Vico, who held Centumcellae in 1431. In that year, pope Eugene IV sent an army under cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi and several condottieri (Niccolò Fortebraccio, Ranuccio Farnese and Menicuccio dell'Aquila among them) to recapture the place, which, after the payment of 4,000 florins, became thenceforth a full Papal possession, led by a vicar and a treasurer.

The place became a free port under Pope Innocent XII in 1696 and by the modern era was the main port of Rome. The French Empire occupied it in 1806. On 16 April 1859 the Rome and Civitavecchia Rail Road was opened for service.

The Papal troops opened the gates of the fortress to the Italian general Nino Bixio in 1870. This permanently removed the port from papal control.

During World War II, Allied bombings severely damaged Civitavecchia, and caused civilian casualties. [3]

Economy

Civitavecchia is today a major cruise and ferry port, the main starting point for sea connection from central Italy to Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, Tunis and Barcelona. Fishing has a secondary importance.

The city is also the seat of two thermal power stations. The conversion of one of them to coal has raised the population's protests, as it is feared it could create heavy pollution.

Main sights

The massive Forte Michelangelo was first commissioned from Donato Bramante by Pope Julius II, to defend the port of Rome. The upper part of the "maschio" tower, however, was designed by Michelangelo, whose name is generally applied to the fortress. North of the city at Ficoncella are the Terme Taurine baths frequented by Romans and still popular with the Civitavecchiesi. The modern name stems from the common fig plants among the various pools. And also next to the town is the location of the cruise ship docks. All major cruise lines start and end their cruises at this location, and others stop for shore excursion days that allow guests to see Rome and Vatican sights, which are ninety minutes away.

Geography

Climate

Civitavecchia experiences a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).

Climate data for Civitavecchia
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)12.8
(55.0)
13.1
(55.6)
14.6
(58.3)
16.7
(62.1)
20.3
(68.5)
23.6
(74.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.0
(80.6)
24.9
(76.8)
21.4
(70.5)
17.0
(62.6)
13.9
(57.0)
19.3
(66.8)
Average low °C (°F)7.1
(44.8)
7.4
(45.3)
8.5
(47.3)
10.6
(51.1)
14.3
(57.7)
17.5
(63.5)
20.3
(68.5)
20.5
(68.9)
18.5
(65.3)
15.2
(59.4)
11.1
(52.0)
8.1
(46.6)
13.3
(55.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)94
(3.7)
71
(2.8)
51
(2.0)
53
(2.1)
43
(1.7)
18
(.7)
10
(.4)
25
(1)
56
(2.2)
84
(3.3)
89
(3.5)
71
(2.8)
670
(26.2)
Source: [4]

Transport

View of the port CivitavecchiaPorto.JPG
View of the port
View of station platforms Binari stazione Civitavecchia.jpg
View of station platforms

The Port of Civitavecchia, also known as "Port of Rome", [5] is an important hub for the maritime transport in Italy, for goods and passengers. Part of the "Motorways of the Sea" [6] it is linked to several Mediterranean ports and represents one of the main links between Italian mainland to Sardinia.

Civitavecchia railway station, opened in 1859, is the western terminus of the Rome–Civitavecchia railway, which forms part of the Pisa–Livorno–Rome railway. A short line linking the town center to the harbour survived until the early 2000s. [7] It counted two stations: Civitavecchia Marittima, serving the port, and Civitavecchia Viale della Vittoria.

Civitavecchia is served by the A12, an unconnected motorway linking Rome to Genoa and by the State highway SS1 Via Aurelia , which also links the two stretches. The town is also interested by a project regarding a new motorway, the Civitavecchia-Venice or New Romea, [8] nowadays completed as a dual carriageway between Viterbo and Ravenna (via Terni, Perugia and Cesena) and commonly known in Italy as the Orte-Ravenna.

Education

The commune has multiple preschools, [9] primary schools, [10] junior high schools, [11] and high schools. [12] Polo Universitario di Civitavecchia is located in the city.

Twin towns and sister cities

Civitavecchia is twinned with:

People

See also

Related Research Articles

Colonna family Italian noble family

The Colonna family, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an Italian papal noble family. It was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope and many other church and political leaders. The family is notable for its bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome, until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511. In 1571, the heads of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V. Thereafter, historians recorded that "no peace had been concluded between the princes of Christendom, in which they had not been included by name".

Lazio Region of Italy

Lazio is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the central peninsular section of the country, it has 5,864,321 inhabitants – making it the second most populated region of Italy – and its GDP of more than €170 billion per year means that it has the nation's second largest regional economy. The capital of Lazio is Rome, which is also the capital and largest city in Italy.

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy as well as the capital of the Lazio region. The city has been a major human settlement for over two millennia. With 2,860,009 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the third most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Its metropolitan area is the third-most populous within Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city; for this reason Rome has sometimes been defined as the capital of two states.

Ancona city and seaport in central Italy

Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 as of 2015. Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. The city is located 280 km (170 mi) northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic Sea, between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno and Monte Guasco.

Viterbo Comune in Lazio, Italy

Viterbo is an ancient city and comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo.

Orvieto Comune in Umbria, Italy

Orvieto is a city and comune in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. The city rises dramatically above the almost-vertical faces of tuff cliffs that are completed by defensive walls built of the same stone, called tufa.

Frosinone Comune in Lazio, Italy

Frosinone is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, the administrative seat of the province of Frosinone. It is located about 75 kilometres (47 mi) south-east of Rome close to the Rome-Naples A1 Motorway. The city is the main city of the Valle Latina, an Italian geographical and historical region that extends from south of Rome to Cassino.

Administrative subdivisions of the Papal States from 1816 to 1870

Between the Congress of Vienna (1815) and the capture of Rome (1870), the Papal State was subdivided geographically into 17 apostolic delegations for administrative purposes. These were instituted by Pope Pius VII in a motu proprio of 6 July 1816: "Quando per ammirabile disposizione".

Province of Rome Place in Lazio, Italy

The Province of Rome was one of the five provinces that formed part of the region of Lazio in Italy. It was established in 1870 and disestablished in 2014. It was essentially coterminous with the Rome metropolitan area. The city of Rome was the provincial capital. During the 1920s, the boundary of the province shrank as land was ceded to establish new provinces. The Province of Rome was the most populous province in Italy. On 1 January 2015, it was superseded by a new local government body - the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital.

Cervia Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Cervia is a seaside resort town in the province of Ravenna, located in the Northern region of Italy Emilia-Romagna.

The Arab raid against Rome took place in 846. Muslim raiders plundered the outskirts of the city of Rome, sacking the basilicas of Old St Peter's and St Paul's-Outside-the-Walls, but were prevented from entering the city itself by the Aurelian Walls.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Civitavecchia-Tarquinia diocese of the Catholic Church

The Italian Catholic Diocese of Civitavecchia-Tarquinia is in Lazio, and has existed under this name since 1986. The diocese is directly subject to the Holy See.

Firmina Roman Catholic Roman saint

Saint Firmina or Fermina is a Roman Catholic Italian saint and virgin martyr. She is the patron saint of Civitavecchia, and Amelia Cathedral is dedicated to her.

Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church from 17 December 1316 until his death, was a Roman nobleman, a nephew of Pope Nicholas III and a grandson of Matteo Rosso Orsini.

Civitavecchia railway station

Civitavecchia railway station serves the town and comune of Civitavecchia, the sea port for Rome, in the region of Lazio, central Italy. Opened in 1859, it forms part of the Pisa–Livorno–Rome railway.

The Ancona–Orte railway is a rail line in central Italy connecting the city of Ancona with Orte, and therefore with the capital city, Rome. The line crosses the Apennine Mountains from the Adriatic Sea to the Tyrrhenian Sea, passing through Foligno, Spoleto, and Terni.

Metropolitan City of Rome Capital Metropolitan City in Lazio, Italy

Metropolitan City of Rome Capital is an area of local government at the level of metropolitan city in the Lazio region of the Republic of Italy. It comprises the territory of the city of Rome and 121 other municipalities (comuni) in the suburbs of the city. With more than 4.3 million inhabitants, it is the largest metropolitan city in Italy.

Port of Civitavecchia international seaport in Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy, European Union

Port of Civitavecchia also known as "Port of Rome", or Civitavecchia Port of Rome is the seaport of Civitavecchia, Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy. Is an important hub for the maritime transport in Italy, for goods and passengers. Rome Cruise Terminal is part of port. Part of the "Motorways of the Sea" it is linked to several Mediterranean ports and represents one of the main links between Italian mainland and Sardinia.

Cassa di Risparmio di Civitavecchia (Cariciv) was an Italian retail bank based in Civitavecchia, in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital. In 2015, along with two other Lazio-based subsidiaries: Rieti and Viterbo, were absorbed by parent company Intesa Sanpaolo. Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Civitavecchia found in 1992 by separating the charity function from the bank, was still operates as in 2016.

The Arsenal of Civitavecchia is a now destroyed naval arsenal which was commissioned by Pope Alexander VII to house the fleet of the Papal Navy. It was built between 1660 and 1663 and designed by the famed baroque architect and sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini. It was located on the site of the ancient Roman port of Centum Cellae in Civitavecchia close to Rome itself. The structure was mistakenly destroyed in 1944 in an Allied bombing raid during World War II, along with most of the surrounding port area.

References

  1. "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. http://www.portofrome.it/history-of-civitavecchia/?lang=en
  4. "Civitavecchia historic weather averages in Italy". Intellicast. Retrieved 3 June 2009.
  5. (in Italian) Port of Civitavecchia website
  6. Infos at R.A.M. website (search the list of ports) Archived April 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  7. (in Italian) Historical infos and pictures about the Civitavecchia-Cv. Marittima rail line
  8. (in Italian) Article at ANAS website
  9. "Scuole dell'Infanzia Archived 2014-12-21 at the Wayback Machine ." Commune of Civitavecchia. Retrieved on December 21, 2014.
  10. "Scuole elementari Archived 2014-12-21 at the Wayback Machine ." Commune of Civitavecchia. Retrieved on December 21, 2014.
  11. "Scuola media inferiore Archived 2014-12-21 at the Wayback Machine ." Commune of Civitavecchia. Retrieved on December 21, 2014.
  12. "Scuole medie superiori Archived 2014-12-21 at the Wayback Machine ." Commune of Civitavecchia. Retrieved on December 21, 2014.
  13. "Twinning with Palestine". The Britain - Palestine Twinning Network. Archived from the original on 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
  14. The City of Bethlehem has signed a twinning agreements with the following cities Bethlehem Municipality.
  15. "::Bethlehem Municipality::". www.bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  16. https://boardgamegeek.com/boardgamedesigner/1581/emiliano-sciarra