Claude-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois

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Charles-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois General Charles Henri Belgrand de Vaubois.jpg
Charles-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois

Claude-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois (1 October 1748 in Ville-sous-la-Ferté, Aube – 5 November 1839) was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. On 20 August 1808 he was created Comte de Belgrand de Vaubois. Later, his name was inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe (Arche Kléber) in Paris.

Ville-sous-la-Ferté Commune in Grand Est, France

Ville-sous-la-Ferté is a commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region in north-central France.

Aube Department of France

Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 305,606 inhabitants (2012), Aube is 76th department in terms of population. The inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or Auboises

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

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Early life

Vaubois was born at Clairvaux (now part of Ville-sous-la-Ferté, Aube). In 1765 he was appointed a lieutenant of artillery in the Regiment of Metz. In 1789 he was appointed a Captain Commandant of Artillery. In 1791 he became a lieutenant colonel of volunteers. During service with the Army of the Alps, he was promoted to general of brigade in September 1793 and to general of division in 1796. After transferring to General Napoleon Bonaparte's Army of Italy, he led his troops in the capture of Livorno. Appointed to command a division in the Bassano campaign, he participated in the victory at the Battle of Rovereto on 4 September. [1]

Artillery class of weapons which fires munitions beyond the range and power of personal weapons

Artillery is a class of heavy military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls, and fortifications during sieges, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the large share of an army's total firepower.

Lieutenant colonel (pronounced Lef-ten-ent Kernel or Loo-ten-ent Kernel ) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence. Sometimes, the term, 'half-colonel' is used in casual conversation in the British Army. A lieutenant colonel is typically in charge of a battalion or regiment in the army.

Livorno Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of 158,493 residents in December 2017. It has traditionally been known in English as Leghorn.

During the Arcola campaign, Vaubois defended Trento with a 10,500-man division. Paul Davidovich's Austrian corps proved to be unexpectedly strong and fell upon Vaubois with 18,000 men. In a series of skirmishes, Vaubois was driven out of Trento and pushed back to Calliano where his command was defeated on 7 November. Bonaparte arrived to stabilize the situation but the French army commander left Vaubois to do the best he could while Bonaparte attacked the main Austrian army at Arcole. The French won the three-day battle of Arcole on 17 November, the same day that Davidovich beat Vaubois again at Rivoli Veronese. The defeat had little consequence, since Bonaparte soon massed against Davidovich and sent his corps fleeing northward. Soon after, Bonaparte gave Vaubois' division to Barthélemy Joubert.

Trento Comune in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy

Trento is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of the autonomous province of Trento. In the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Formerly part of Austria and Austria-Hungary, it was annexed by Italy in 1919. With almost 120,000 inhabitants, Trento is the third largest city in the Alps and second largest in the Tyrol.

Baron Paul Davidovich or Pavle Davidović became a general of the Austrian Empire and a Knight of the Military Order of Maria Theresa. He played a major role in the 1796 Italian campaign during the French Revolutionary Wars, leading corps-sized commands in the fighting against the French army led by Napoleon Bonaparte. He led troops during the Napoleonic Wars and was Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian infantry regiment.

Calliano, Trentino Comune in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy

Calliano is a comune (municipality) in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about 15 kilometres (9 mi) south of Trento.

On 24 November 1796, Bonaparte wrote of him, "Vaubois is a brave man. Has the proper qualifications for the commander of a besieged place but not for the commander of a division in a very active army or in a war so vigorously conducted as this." [2] The events of 1798-1800 were to prove he was certainly the right choice to command a besieged place.

Belgrand de Vaubois in Malta

Today he is most often remembered in Malta, where Napoleon appointed him Commandant en chef des Isles de Malte et du Goze) on June 19, 1798, just seven days after the Knights Hospitaller, rulers of this archipelago from 1530, signed a surrender on board L’Orient , Napoleon's flagship. Napoleon and his expedition then set sail for Egypt, with the Knight's treasure, worth five million francs in gold and one million in silver plate, on board the flagship. (Nelson's fleet destroyed L’Orient on August 1, at Abū Qīr Bay in the Battle of the Nile; the Knights' treasures are still on the bottom of sea there.)

Malta island republic in Europe

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km.2 The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Knights Hospitaller Western Christian military order

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg.

Napoleon left behind a garrison of 3,053 men, 5 companies of artillery and a medical unit in Malta and Gozo. The French proceeded to institute a number of policies. They declared the French language to be the official language. Although the French initially tried to win the support of the Catholic Church, they soon came into conflict with the Maltese Church as they instituted French revolutionary reforms. They abolished papal jurisdiction, authorized civil marriage, expelled all priests, regular clergy and nuns who were not native of Malta, and plundered the churches of gold and silver artifacts and paintings. The plundering of their churches outraged the staunchly pious Maltese. Furthermore, French draining of most of the cash of the Monte di Pietà and the Massa frumentaria precipitated an unprecedented financial crisis. On September 2, 1798, the Maltese rose against the French garrison in Notabile (Città Vecchia or Mdina). Soon both Malta and Gozo were in full rebellion, with the Maltese forming a National Assembly. They dispatched to a petition to Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, their official Suzerain, in Naples, to help them in their struggle against the French occupiers. Though Ferdinand promised much, he did little, having enough of his own troubles to worry much about his loyal Maltese subjects.

Gozo Island of Malta

Gozo, known locally as Għawdex and in antiquity as Gaulos, is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The island is part of Malta. After the island of Malta itself, it is the second-largest island in the archipelago. Compared to its southeastern neighbour, Gozo is more rural and known for its scenic hills, which are featured on its coat of arms.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Catholic Church Christian church led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

Insurrection and the arrival of the British

Still, on September 18, a Portuguese squadron of four ships began a blockade of Malta. That blockade - although varying in the number and national composition of the ships - continued until the French surrendered. Nelson dispatched British forces under the command of Captain Alexander Ball, who arrived on October 12, 1798. The Maltese insurrectionist forces forced the French to withdraw to Valletta and the Three Cities around the Grand Harbour. On October 28, Gozo Island fell as the French commander there surrendered himself and his 217 men to Captain Ball. With General Vaubois's forces besieged in Valletta, Captain Ball's ships continued the blockade. Expecting the imminent French capitulation, Nelson wrote to Ball in January 1799:

"...Respecting the situation of Malta with the King of Naples, it is this he is the legitimate Sovereign of the Island: therefore, I am of opinion his Flag should fly. At the same time, a Neapolitan garrison would betray it to the first man who would bribe him. I am sure the King would have no difficulty in giving his Sovereignty to England; and I have lately, with Sir William Hamilton, got a Note that Malta should never be given to any Power without the consent of England...

"P.S. In case of the Surrender of Malta, I beg you will not do anything which can hurt the feelings of their Majesties. Unite their Flag with England’s, if it cannot, from the disposition of the Islanders, fly alone."

The siege of Valletta

In February 1799, the Maltese insurgents, having lost hope in an intervention of King Ferdinand, requested that Ball, who had previously landed near the village of Qrendi on the south of the island, preside over the National Assembly. He changed the name of the assembly to that of National Congress and declared himself chief of government. In March, the Congress appealed to King George III to assume sovereignty over Malta, but no answer came from Pitt’s ministry.

The starving French garrison received a little relief at the beginning of February 1799. The frigate La Boudeuse ran the blockade and entered the Grand Harbour. However, she was the last ship to re-supply Vaubois and his men.

On November 1, 1799, Nelson was off Valletta on board the Foudroyant. Vaubois, who was still hoping for relief from France, summarily rejected a new surrender demand. Vaubois wrote: Mindful of being worthy of the respect of your country, as you are with our own, we are resolved to defend this fortress to the last.

Nelson ordered Ball to take command of the Maltese forces - about 2,000 Maltese troops along with about 1,500 irregulars, unpaid, ill-equipped and half-starving. A hard pressed King Ferdinand agreed to confirm Ball as Governor of Malta.

The whole Maltese population, running short of essential provisions, was living close to famine so that the siege was turning into a race of which side would starve first. The British and Maltese, together with a Neapolitan contingent of 1,200 men, got some relief in January 1800.

However, General Vaubois waited in vain for supplies. French preparations had dragged on until Napoleonnow Premier Consulappointed contre-amiral Jean-Baptiste Perrée to command a relief expedition. The squadron, comprising Le Généreux (one of the two survivors of the Battle of the Nile), three corvettes serving as armed storeships, and one armed storeship, all with some 3,000 men, arms, food and ammunition on board, sailed from Toulon-sur-Mer on February 6, 1800. The expedition ended in disaster. On the morning of February 18, English ships met the French squadron off Lampedusa island. Contre-amiral Perrée was killed at the start of the action and at 1.30 p.m. Le Généreux struck her colours. The rest of the French convoy returned to Toulon.

On August 24, Vaubois dispatched the frigates La Diane and La Justice to run the blockade to France. The Success sighted them, with the Northumberland and the captured Le Généreux, now crewed by the British, giving chase. The British captured La Diane but La Justice escaped under cover of darkness.

Vaubois' surrender

The siege was nearing its end. The French garrison had eaten all the horses, the mules, the dogs, the cats and the rats of Valletta. Finally, on September 4, 1800, Vaubois sent an emissary under a flag of truce to the British commander Major-General Henry Pigot. The following day, Pigot and Captain George Martin, RN, negotiated terms of surrender with General Vaubois and contre-amiral Villeneuve. (Ironically the French excluded Captain Alexander Ball, as chief of the Maltese, from the negotiations, as the French did not want to surrender to the Maltese.) The British granted Vaubois and the French fair terms and the honors of war, including the right to keep their arms and spoils. General Vaubois and his troops were quickly repatriated to Marseilles.

After Malta

While the siege continued, Vaubois became a senator on July 27, 1800. He was named a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor in 1804 and a Count of the Empire in 1808. In 1809 he led a division of the National Guard. [3] He became a peer of France and Knight of St. Louis in 1814. During the Hundred Days in 1815, Vaubois did not join Napoleon. He died in 1839.

Sources

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References

  1. Chandler, p 458
  2. Fiebeger, study folder, p 13
  3. Chandler, p 458