Claude Bernard

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Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard.jpg
Claude Bernard
Born(1813-07-12)12 July 1813
Died10 February 1878(1878-02-10) (aged 64)
Paris
NationalityFrench
Alma mater University of Paris
Known for Physiology
Awards Baly Medal (1869)
Copley Medal (1876)
Scientific career
Fields Physiology
Institutions Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle
Influences François Magendie
Signature
Claude Bernard signature.svg

Claude Bernard (French:  [bɛʁnaʁ] ; 12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist. Historian I. Bernard Cohen of Harvard University called Bernard "one of the greatest of all men of science". [1] Among many other accomplishments, he was one of the first to suggest the use of blind experiments to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations. [2] He originated the term milieu intérieur , and the associated concept of homeostasis (the latter term being coined by Walter Bradford Cannon).

The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, legal, historical, or cultural.

I. Bernard Cohen was the Victor S. Thomas Professor of the history of science at Harvard University and the author of many books on the history of science and, in particular, Isaac Newton.

Harvard University private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, and its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.

Contents

Life and career

Bernard was born in 1813 in the village of Saint-Julien [3] near Villefranche-sur-Saône. He received his early education in the Jesuit school of that town, and then proceeded to the college at Lyon, which, however, he soon left to become assistant in a druggist's shop. [3] Although he is sometimes described as an agnostic [4] or even an atheist, Bernard was a fervent Catholic, [5] with a biographical entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia. [6] His leisure hours were devoted to the composition of a vaudeville comedy, and the success it achieved moved him to attempt a prose drama in five acts, Arthur de Bretagne. [7]

Saint-Julien, Rhône Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Saint-Julien is a commune in the Rhône department in eastern France.

Villefranche-sur-Saône Subprefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Villefranche-sur-Saône is a commune in the Rhône department in eastern France.

Lyon Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.

In 1834, at the age of twenty-one, he went to Paris, armed with this play and an introduction to Saint-Marc Girardin, but the critic dissuaded him from adopting literature as a profession, and urged him rather to take up the study of medicine. [3] This advice Bernard followed, and in due course he became interne at the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. In this way he was brought into contact with the great physiologist, François Magendie, who served as physician at the hospital. Bernard became 'preparateur' (lab assistant) at the Collège de France in 1841. [7]

Hôtel-Dieu de Paris Hospital in Paris, France

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris founded by Saint Landry in 651 AD is the oldest hospital in the city of Paris, France, and is the most central of the Assistance publique - hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) hospitals. The hospital is associated with the Faculté de Médecine Paris-Descartes. It still resides on the bank of the Île de la Cité, next to Notre-Dame, connected to the "Rive Gauche" by the pont au Double. Although the facility had been ravaged by disastrous fires on several occasions, the two buildings of the facility were originally built in the 7th and 17th centuries. It was built as a symbol of charity and hospitality. It was the only hospital in Paris until the Renaissance.

François Magendie French physiologist

François Magendie was a French physiologist, considered a pioneer of experimental physiology. He is known for describing the foramen of Magendie. There is also a Magendie sign, a downward and inward rotation of the eye due to a lesion in the cerebellum. Magendie was a faculty at the College of France, holding the Chair of Medicine from 1830 to 1855.

Collège de France Higher education and research establishment

The Collège de France, founded in 1530, is a higher education and research establishment in France. It is located in Paris, in the 5th arrondissement, or Latin Quarter, across the street from the historical campus of La Sorbonne.

Memorial plaque in Paris marking the site of Claude Bernard's laboratory from 1847 until his death in 1878. Plaque Claude Bernard laboratoire.jpg
Memorial plaque in Paris marking the site of Claude Bernard's laboratory from 1847 until his death in 1878.

In 1845, Bernard married Marie Françoise "Fanny" Martin for convenience; the marriage was arranged by a colleague and her dowry helped finance his experiments. In 1847 he was appointed Magendie's deputy-professor at the college, and in 1855 he succeeded him as full professor. His field of research was considered inferior at the time, the laboratory assigned to him was simply a "regular cellar". [8] Some time previously Bernard had been chosen the first occupant of the newly instituted chair of physiology at the Sorbonne, but no laboratory was provided for his use. It was Louis Napoleon who, after an interview with him in 1864, repaired the deficiency, building a laboratory at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in the Jardin des Plantes. At the same time, Napoleon III established a professorship which Bernard accepted, leaving the Sorbonne. [7] In the same year, 1868, he was also admitted a member of the Académie française and elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Marie Françoise "Fanny" Bernard was known for having set up an anti-vivisection society as a result of opposing Claude Bernard's research methods.

University of Paris former university in Paris, France

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

Académie française Pre-eminent council for the French language

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language. The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII. Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution, it was restored as a division of the Institut de France in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte. It is the oldest of the five académies of the institute.

When he died on 10 February 1878, he was accorded a public funeral – an honor which had never before been bestowed by France on a man of science. [7] [3] He was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.

Père Lachaise Cemetery Cemetery in Paris, France

Père Lachaise Cemetery is the largest cemetery in Paris, France. With more than 3.5 million visitors annually, it is the most visited necropolis in the world.

Works

Claude Bernard's aim, as he stated in his own words, was to establish the use of the scientific method in medicine. He dismissed many previous misconceptions, took nothing for granted, and relied on experimentation. Unlike most of his contemporaries, he insisted that all living creatures were bound by the same laws as inanimate matter.[ citation needed ]

Scientific method mathematical and experimental techniques employed in the natural sciences; more specifically, techniques used in the construction and testing of scientific hypotheses

The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises.

Claude Bernard's first important work was on the functions of the pancreas, the juice of which he proved to be of great significance in the process of digestion; this achievement won him the prize for experimental physiology from the French Academy of Sciences.[ citation needed ]

A second investigation – perhaps his most famous – was on the glycogenic function of the liver; [9] in the course of his study he was led to the conclusion, which throws light on the causation of diabetes mellitus, that the liver, in addition to secreting bile, is the seat of an internal secretion, by which it prepares sugar at the expense of the elements of the blood passing through it.

A third research resulted in the discovery of the vasomotor system. In 1851, while examining the effects produced in the temperature of various parts of the body by section of the nerve or nerves belonging to them, he noticed that division of the cervical sympathetic nerve gave rise to more active circulation and more forcible pulsation of the arteries in certain parts of the head, and a few months afterwards he observed that electrical excitation of the upper portion of the divided nerve had the contrary effect. In this way he established the existence of vasomotor nerves, both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor. [3]

Milieu interieur

Milieu intérieur is the key process with which Bernard is associated. He wrote, "The stability of the internal environment [the milieu intérieur] is the condition for the free and independent life." [10] This is the underlying principle of what would later be called homeostasis, a term coined by Walter Bradford Cannon. He also explained that:

The living body, though it has need of the surrounding environment, is nevertheless relatively independent of it. This independence which the organism has of its external environment, derives from the fact that in the living being, the tissues are in fact withdrawn from direct external influences and are protected by a veritable internal environment which is constituted, in particular, by the fluids circulating in the body.

The constancy of the internal environment is the condition for free and independent life: the mechanism that makes it possible is that which assured the maintenance, within the internal environment, of all the conditions necessary for the life of the elements.

The constancy of the environment presupposes a perfection of the organism such that external variations are at every instant compensated and brought into balance. In consequence, far from being indifferent to the external world, the higher animal is on the contrary in a close and wise relation with it, so that its equilibrium results from a continuous and delicate compensation established as if the most sensitive of balances. [11]

The study of the physiological action of poisons was also of great interest to him, his attention being devoted in particular to curare and carbon monoxide gas.

Vivisection

Bernard's scientific discoveries were made through vivisection, of which he was the primary proponent in Europe at the time. He wrote:

The physiologist is no ordinary man. He is a learned man, a man possessed and absorbed by a scientific idea. He does not hear the animals' cries of pain. He is blind to the blood that flows. He sees nothing but his idea, and organisms which conceal from him the secrets he is resolved to discover. [12]

Bernard practiced vivisection, to the disgust of his wife and daughters who had returned at home to discover that he had vivisected their dog. [13] The couple was officially separated in 1869 and his wife went on to actively campaign against the practice of vivisection.

His wife and daughters were not the only ones disgusted by Bernard's animal experiments. The physician-scientist George Hoggan spent four months observing and working in Bernard's laboratory and was one of the few contemporary authors to chronicle what went on there. He was later moved to write that his experiences in Bernard's lab had made him "prepared to see not only science, but even mankind, perish rather than have recourse to such means of saving it."[ citation needed ]

Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine

Claude Bernard and pupils Claude Bernard and pupils Wellcome L0019301.jpg
Claude Bernard and pupils

In his major discourse on the scientific method, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865 [14] ), Bernard described what makes a scientific theory good and what makes a scientist important, a true discoverer. Unlike many scientific writers of his time, Bernard wrote about his own experiments and thoughts, and used the first person. [15]

Known and Unknown. What makes a scientist important, he states, is how well he or she has penetrated into the unknown. In areas of science where the facts are known to everyone, all scientists are more or less equal—we cannot know who is great. But in the area of science that is still obscure and unknown the great are recognized: "They are marked by ideas which light up phenomena hitherto obscure and carry science forward." [16]

Authority vs. Observation. It is through the experimental method that science is carried forward—not through uncritically accepting the authority of academic or scholastic sources. In the experimental method, observable reality is our only authority. Bernard writes with scientific fervor:

When we meet a fact which contradicts a prevailing theory, we must accept the fact and abandon the theory, even when the theory is supported by great names and generally accepted. [17]

Induction and Deduction. Experimental science is a constant interchange between theory and fact, induction and deduction. Induction, reasoning from the particular to the general, and deduction, or reasoning from the general to the particular, are never truly separate. A general theory and our theoretical deductions from it must be tested with specific experiments designed to confirm or deny their truth; while these particular experiments may lead us to formulate new theories.[ citation needed ]

Cause and Effect. The scientist tries to determine the relation of cause and effect. This is true for all sciences: the goal is to connect a "natural phenomenon" with its "immediate cause". We formulate hypotheses elucidating, as we see it, the relation of cause and effect for particular phenomena. We test the hypotheses. And when an hypothesis is proved, it is a scientific theory. "Before that we have only groping and empiricism." [18]

Verification and Disproof. Bernard explains what makes a theory good or bad scientifically:

Theories are only hypotheses, verified by more or less numerous facts. Those verified by the most facts are the best, but even then they are never final, never to be absolutely believed. [19]
Claude Bernard Bernard Claude.jpg
Claude Bernard

When have we verified that we have found a cause? Bernard states:

Indeed, proof that a given condition always precedes or accompanies a phenomenon does not warrant concluding with certainty that a given condition is the immediate cause of that phenomenon. It must still be established that when this condition is removed, the phenomenon will no longer appear… [20]

We must always try to disprove our own theories. "We can solidly settle our ideas only by trying to destroy our own conclusions by counter-experiments." [21] What is observably true is the only authority. If through experiment, you contradict your own conclusions—you must accept the contradiction—but only on one condition: that the contradiction is PROVED.

Determinism and Averages. In the study of disease, "the real and effective cause of a disease must be constant and determined, that is, unique; anything else would be a denial of science in medicine." In fact, a "very frequent application of mathematics to biology [is] the use of averages"—that is, statistics—which may give only "apparent accuracy". Sometimes averages do not give the kind of information needed to save lives. For example:

A great surgeon performs operations for stone by a single method; later he makes a statistical summary of deaths and recoveries, and he concludes from these statistics that the mortality law for this operation is two out of five. Well, I say that this ratio means literally nothing scientifically and gives us no certainty in performing the next operation; for we do not know whether the next case will be among the recoveries or the deaths. What really should be done, instead of gathering facts empirically, is to study them more accurately, each in its special determinism….to discover in them the cause of mortal accidents so as to master the cause and avoid the accidents. [22]

Although the application of mathematics to every aspect of science is its ultimate goal, biology is still too complex and poorly understood. Therefore, for now the goal of medical science should be to discover all the new facts possible. Qualitative analysis must always precede quantitative analysis.

Truth vs. Falsification. The "philosophic spirit", writes Bernard, is always active in its desire for truth. It stimulates a "kind of thirst for the unknown" which ennobles and enlivens science—where, as experimenters, we need "only to stand face to face with nature". [23] The minds that are great "are never self-satisfied, but still continue to strive." [24] Among the great minds he names Joseph Priestley and Blaise Pascal.

Meanwhile, there are those whose "minds are bound and cramped". [25] They oppose discovering the unknown (which "is generally an unforeseen relation not included in theory") because they do not want to discover anything that might disprove their own theories. Bernard calls them "despisers of their fellows" and says "the dominant idea of these despisers of their fellows is to find others' theories faulty and try to contradict them." [26] They are deceptive, for in their experiments they report only results that make their theories seem correct and suppress results that support their rivals. In this way, they "falsify science and the facts":

They make poor observations, because they choose among the results of their experiments only what suits their object, neglecting whatever is unrelated to it and carefully setting aside everything which might tend toward the idea they wish to combat. [26]

Discovering vs. Despising. The "despisers of their fellows" lack the "ardent desire for knowledge" that the true scientific spirit will always have—and so the progress of science will never be stopped by them. Bernard writes:

Ardent desire for knowledge, in fact, is the one motive attracting and supporting investigators in their efforts; and just this knowledge, really grasped and yet always flying before them, becomes at once their sole torment and their sole happiness….A man of science rises ever, in seeking truth; and if he never finds it in its wholeness, he discovers nevertheless very significant fragments; and these fragments of universal truth are precisely what constitutes science. [27]

See also

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References

  1. Cohen, I. Bernard, "Foreword", in the Dover edition (1957) of: Bernard, Claude, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (originally published in 1865; first English translation by Henry Copley Greene, published by Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1927).[ page needed ]
  2. Daston, Lorraine. "Scientific Error and the Ethos of Belief". Social Research. 72 (Spring 2005): 18.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 D. Wright Wilson (June 1914). "Claude Bernard". Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation: 567–578.
  4. John G. Simmons (2002). Doctors and Discoveries: Lives That Created Today's Medicine. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 17. ISBN   978-0-618-15276-6. Upon his death on February 10, 1878, Bernard received a state funeral – the first French scientist to be so honored. The procession ended at Pere Lachaise cemetery, and Gustave Flaubert described it later with a touch of irony as 'religious and very beautiful'. Bernard was an agnostic.
  5. Donnet, V (1998). "[Was Claude Bernard an atheist?]". Hist Sci Med. 32: 51–5. PMID   11625277.
  6. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02497a.htm
  7. 1 2 3 4 Chisholm 1911.
  8. Vallery-Radot, René (2003-03-01). Life of Pasteur 1928. p. 42. ISBN   9780766143524.
  9. F. G. Young (1957). "Claude Bernard and the Discovery of Glycogen". British Medical Journal. 1 (5033 (Jun. 22, 1957)): 1431–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5033.1431. JSTOR   25382898. PMC   1973429 .
  10. Bernard, C. (1974) Lectures on the phenomena common to animals and plants. Trans Hoff HE, Guillemin R, Guillemin L, Springfield (IL): Charles C Thomas ISBN   978-0-398-02857-2.
  11. Bernard, Claude (1974). Lectures on the Phenomena of Life Common to Animals and Plants. Hebbel E. Hoff, Roger Guillemin, Lucienne Guillemin (trans.). Springfield, Illinois. USA: Charles C Thomas. p. 84. ISBN   0-398-02857-5.
  12. Preece, Rod (2002). Awe for the Tiger, Love for the Lamb: A Chronicle of Sensibility to Animals. p. 309. ISBN   9780774808972.
  13. Mary Midgley (1998). Animals and Why They Matter. University of Georgia Press. p. 28.
  14. Bernard, Claude (1865). Introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale. Paris.
  15. Bernard, Claude, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (Dover edition 1957; originally published in 1865; first English translation by Henry Copley Greene, published by Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1927).[ page needed ]
  16. Bernard (1957), p. 42.
  17. Bernard (1957), p. 164.
  18. Bernard (1957), p. 74.
  19. Bernard (1957), p. 165.
  20. Bernard (1957), p. 55.
  21. Bernard (1957), p. 56.
  22. Bernard (1957), p. 137.
  23. Bernard (1957), p. 221.
  24. Bernard (1957), p. 222.
  25. Bernard (1957), p. 37.
  26. 1 2 Bernard (1957), p. 38.
  27. Bernard (1957), p. 22.
Attribution

Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bernard, Claude"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Further reading