|Died||December 26, 1908 80) (aged|
|Known for||Founder of Spreckels Sugar Company|
|Spouse(s)||Anna Christina Mangels (1829-1910)|
|Children||13, five lived to adulthood: John Diedrich (1853-1926), Adolph Bernard (1857-1924), Claus August (1858-1946), Rudolph (1872-1958), Emma Claudina Spreckels Hutton (1870-1924)|
Adolph Claus J. Spreckels (July 9, 1828 – December 26, 1908) (his last name has also been misspelled as Spreckles) was a major industrialist in Hawai'i during the kingdom, republican and territorial periods of the islands' history. He also involved himself in several California enterprises, most notably the company that bears his name, Spreckels Sugar Company.
Spreckels was born in Lamstedt, Hanover, now a city of Germany. In 1846, he left his homeland to start a new life in the United States, with only one German thaler in his pocket.In 1852 he married his childhood sweetheart, Anna Christina Mangels (1829-1910), who had immigrated to New York City with her brother three years earlier. They had thirteen children, five of whom lived to maturity: sons John Diedrich (1853-1926), Adolph Bernard (1857-1924), Claus August (1858-1946), and Rudolph (1872-1958); and daughter, Emma Claudina (1870-1924), who married Watson Ferris Hutton.
The family first settled in South Carolina, where Spreckels opened a grocery store business. Within a short time they moved to New York City, then in 1856 relocated to San Francisco, where Spreckels began a brewery. Spreckels entered the sugar business in the mid-1860s and came to dominate the Hawaiian sugar trade on the West Coast. His first refinery, built in 1867, was at Eighth and Brannan Streets in San Francisco, but by the late 1870s the Brannan Street facilities were running at capacity, so Spreckels chose a site in Potrero Point to open a larger sugar refinery with water access.[ citation needed ] He called his concerns the California Sugar Refinery.
Spreckels used some of his wealth to purchase, beginning in 1872, the former Mexican land grant Rancho Aptos, a large tract of ranch and timber land in Aptos, California. He built a large resort hotel and, not far away, an extensive ranch complex. Spreckels was one of the original investors in the Santa Cruz Railroad, which began operation in 1875 and passed through his land on its run between Santa Cruz and Watsonville.It was on the Aptos ranch that Spreckels began to experiment with growing sugar beets. He induced others in the area to plant sugar beets as well, and built a small refinery in nearby Capitola in 1874, where it operated for five years.
In 1888, Spreckels established the Western Beet Sugar Company in Watsonville, which was at that time the largest beet sugar factory in the U.S.By 1890, Spreckels' main growing operations had shifted to the Salinas Valley, so he built the 42-mile narrow gauge Pajaro Valley Consolidated Railroad to ship his sugar beets from the fields near Salinas to Watsonville.
In 1899, Spreckels opened an even larger factory closer to the main sugar beet fields. He named the new factory Spreckels Sugar Company. A company town grew up around the plant, and still exists as Spreckels, California. The town and the sugar factory were important in the early life of novelist John Steinbeck, and several scenes from his novels take place there.
In the 1890s, Spreckels helped found the national sugar trust and renamed his San Francisco property the Western Sugar Refinery and continued to increase his control over the Hawaiian sugar trade. This control over the industry was irksome to Hawaiian planters not directly affiliated with Spreckels and his associates. At the end of the 1890s, they attempted to break free. In 1905, the planters established a cooperative refinery in Crockett, California, the California and Hawaiian Sugar Company (C&H). The Spreckels dominance in sugar was broken, but the Western Sugar Refinery continued operation in San Francisco until 1951.[ citation needed ]
Spreckels was the President of the San Francisco and San Joaquin Valley Railroad [ citation needed ] Today this route is BNSF's main route to Northern California.from 1895 until it was sold to the Santa Fe Railway in 1901. The railroad built a line that competed with the Southern Pacific through the San Joaquin Valley between Richmond and Bakersfield. The railroad was welcome competition for shippers who were strangled by Southern Pacific's monopoly on shipping rates in the valley.
Spreckels' interest in Hawaii's sugar industry began in 1876. Prior to that time, Spreckels had opposed the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, which increased the Kingdom of Hawaii's access to the American sugar market, because he feared that the low tariffs on Hawaiian sugar would hurt his business. However, Spreckels eventually decided to establish his own plantations in Hawaii and traveled there one year later.
In 1878 Spreckels founded Spreckelsville, a company town along the northern shore of Maui. To do so, he purchased and leased 40,000 acres (160 km2) of land. By 1892, Spreckelsville was the largest sugarcane plantation in the world and employed thousands of immigrant farm laborers from Japan, Korea, China, and other countries.
Spreckels then incorporated the Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC&S) with Hermann Schussler.
Spreckels became friends with Walter M. Gibson, adviser to King Kalākaua. Together, they made arrangements where Spreckels would loan the king money and in return, he and Gibson would increase the Spreckels' land holdings and water rights. However, Spreckels fell out of Kalākaua's favor in 1886.
He purchased the Pacific Commercial Advertiser in Hawaii in 1880 and became a publisher. This paper later became known as the Honolulu Advertiser and, prior to its demise in 2010, became one of the largest newspapers in circulation in the United States. Spreckels' conservative, pro-monarchy slant caused him to fall from favor in the business community, and he eventually sold the newspaper.
Claus Spreckels also lent his assistance to William Matson when he first founded Matson Navigation Company . Matson had been captain of a vessel, engaged chiefly in carrying coal to the Spreckels Sugar refinery and later worked aboard the Spreckels family yacht.Spreckels financed many of Matson's new ships, including Matson's first ship, called Emma Claudina and named for Spreckels' daughter.
On July 9, 1893, Spreckels found a death threat graffitied on his house. He went into self-exile from Hawaii on July 19 on the Australia vowing to "return to see grass growing in the streets of Honolulu." Spreckels returned to Hawaii for one last time in 1905.[ citation needed ]
On Claus Spreckels's death on December 26, 1908, second son Adolph assumed the management of Spreckels Sugar Company.
In 1899, Spreckels gave the city of San Francisco a classical-style outdoor music structure (known as "the bandshell") to frame one end of the Music Concourse in Golden Gate Park. The official name of the structure is the Spreckels Temple of Music .
A number of streets in Aptos, California, are named either for Claus Spreckels or for parts of his once-extensive estate. In addition to Spreckels Drive and Claus Lane, Polo Drive runs along one side of what was once Spreckels' polo field, now a Santa Cruz County park named Polo Grounds Park.A shopping center called Deer Park Shopping Center sits at the edge of a formerly wooded Spreckels-owned area used by hotel guests and visitors.
Other naming tributes to the Spreckels family include:
Matson, Inc. is an American transportation-services company founded in 1882.
Seacliff State Beach is a state beach park on Monterey Bay, in the town of Aptos, Santa Cruz County, California. It is located off Highway 1 on State Park Drive, about 5 miles (8 km) south of Santa Cruz,. The beach is most known for the concrete ship SS Palo Alto lying in the water. North of Seacliff State Beach is New Brighton State Beach.
The Treaty of reciprocity between the United States of America and the Hawaiian Kingdom was a free trade agreement signed and ratified in 1875 that is generally known as the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.
The Spreckels Sugar Company is an American sugar beet refiner that for many years controlled much of the U.S. West Coast refined sugar market. It is currently headquartered in Brawley, California.
The Pajaronian is a newspaper based in Watsonville, California in Santa Cruz County on California's Central Coast. The Register-Pajaronian is published weekly every Friday, but was for many years a daily paper. The newspaper has a circulation of 5,000 and covers the Watsonville City Council, the Pajaro Valley Unified School District and the Santa Cruz County Farm Bureau. The newspaper's coverage area includes the cities of Aptos, Corralitos, Watsonville, Pajaro, Aromas and most of North Monterey County. Tony Nunez is the managing editor of the Register-Pajaronian, which is owned by Santa Cruz-based Good Times.
John Diedrich Spreckels, the son of German-American industrialist Claus Spreckels, founded a transportation and real estate empire in San Diego, California, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The entrepreneur's many business ventures included the Hotel del Coronado and the San Diego and Arizona Railway, both of which are credited with helping San Diego develop into a major commercial center.
Area code 831 is a telephone area code in the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) for a small region of the U.S. state of California. The numbering plan area (NPA) comprises Monterey County, San Benito County, and Santa Cruz County. The area code was created on July 11, 1998 in a split from area code 408.
Aptos High School is a comprehensive secondary school in Aptos, California, USA in the Pajaro Valley Unified School District. Aptos High serves the communities of Rio Del Mar, Corralitos, Seacliff, Seascape, La Selva Beach, Buena Vista and Watsonville.
William Matson was a Swedish-born American shipping executive. He was the founder of Matson Navigation Company.
Rancho Aptos was a 6,686-acre (27.06 km2) Mexican land grant in present day Santa Cruz County, California given in 1833 by Governor José Figueroa to Rafael Castro. The grant on the Monterey Bay was immediately downcoast of his sister, Martina Castro's Rancho Soquel, and upcoast of his father, José Joaquín Castro's Rancho San Andrés. Rancho Aptos went from Seacliff State Beach to Rio del Mar and included present day Aptos.
Henry Perrine Baldwin was a businessman and politician on Maui in the Hawaiian Islands. He supervised the construction of the East Maui Irrigation System and co-founded Alexander & Baldwin, one of the "Big Five" corporations that dominated the economy of the Territory of Hawaii.
Samuel Thomas Alexander co-founded a major agricultural and transportation business in the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Bunker Spreckels was an American surfer and an early pioneer of a surfboard design.
Alexander & Baldwin Sugar Museum is located in the small sugarcane growing and milling community of Puʻunene, Hawaii, Kahului, Maui. The museum exhibits the history of Hawaiian sugarcane plantations and Alexander & Baldwin and its role in the sugarcane industry in Hawaii. The company itself continues in business and though it has diversified, it continues to produce sugarcane. The museum itself in the former mill manager's house.
The Santa Cruz Railroad was a narrow gauge railroad that ran 21 miles from Santa Cruz to Pajaro, California. It started operation in 1874, running from the east bank of the San Lorenzo River to Soquel, California. With completion of a bridge over the San Lorenzo, it began operation over its full length in 1876 and was sold in foreclosure in 1881.
Spreckelsville is an unincorporated community on the northern coast of the island of Maui in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
The Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railroad (SCMB), or Santa Cruz Branch Rail Line, was a historic railway running through Santa Cruz County, California. It ran from Davenport to the Watsonville Junction where it connected to the Union Pacific Coast Line.
John Thomas Dare was a politician, who briefly served in the House of Representatives for the Territory of Arizona, the California State Assembly, and as Attorney General of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was born in Suffolk County, New York sometime between 1842 and 1844. The exact year varies by source.
William G. Irwin was a capitalist and successful sugar planter in the Kingdom of Hawai'i. He was born in England, and emigrated to Hawaii with his family while still a child. He would remain a British citizen throughout his life. Educated at Punahou School, he was in the right place at the right time to make a lot of money in the sugar plantation market. After the passage of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, Irwin formed the William G. Irwin & Co partnership. California entrepreneur Claus Spreckels offered him a separate partnership in 1881, a union that would come to include the Spreckels interests in sugar plantations, and have subsidiaries in banking activities and ship building. Two decades later, after amassing a fortune in his association with Spreckels, Irwin moved away from the plantation activities and relocated to San Francisco, where he continued his affiliations with financial institutions. At his death, Irwin's estate was estimated to be in excess of $10,000,000. His only child Helene married the first time into the wealthy Crocker family of California, and through her second marriage to Paul I. Fagan, became an owner of the San Francisco Seals baseball team.
Spreckels Mansion was built c.1912–1913 and is a French Classical mansion located in the Pacific Heights neighborhood at 2080 Washington Street in San Francisco, California. The three-story mansion is in a French Baroque Chateau-style, designed by George Adrian Applegarth (1876–1972) and Kenneth A. MacDonald Jr., and built by businessman Adolph B. Spreckels. It is listed as city landmark No. 197.
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