|Clementia of Hungary|
|Queen consort of France and Navarre|
|Coronation||24 August 1315|
|Died||13 October 1328 (aged 34–35)|
|Spouse||Louis X of France|
|Issue||John I of France|
|House||Capetian House of Anjou|
|Father||Charles Martel of Anjou|
|Mother||Clemence of Austria|
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Clementia of Hungary (French : Clémence; 1293–13 October 1328) was queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louis X.
Clementia was the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou, the titular King of Hungary, and Clemence of Austria. Both parents died during her early childhood, and Mary of Hungary, Clementia's grandmother, raised her. The family claimed Hungary through Mary, and so although Clementia was born and grew up in Naples, she was considered a Hungarian princess.
When Philip IV of France died, his eldest son, Louis I of Navarre, became King of France. Louis' wife Margaret had been locked up in Château Gaillard since 1314 after being found guilty of adultery by King Philip, on the testimony of, amongst others, Louis's sister Isabella. Since there had been no formal annulment, Margaret technically became queen consort when Louis acceded to the throne upon Philip's death, though she was kept locked up. In 1315, the queen died, allegedly strangled or otherwise murdered to clear the way for her husband to remarry. Louis chose Clementia and they married on 19 August 1315; she was crowned queen at Reims on 24 August.
Louis died in June 1316, leaving Clementia several months pregnant.Louis' brother Philip became regent, denying the rights of Clementia's stepdaughter Joan, who was too young and whose paternity was questioned; and of Clementia herself, who was considered unsuitable to be regent. She gave birth to a son named John in November 1316. King from the moment of his birth, he lived only five days, whereupon the throne was seized by his uncle, who now became Philip V. Clementia and Philip quarrelled over this and he refused to pay her the income Louis had promised her. She wrote repeatedly to Pope John XXII and to her family for help.
She then left the French court for Aix-en-Provence, where she stayed until 1321, when she returned to Paris. She actively participated in royal life in Paris, and owned thirteen estates around Paris and in Normandy. In 1326, she commissioned a tomb effigy for her great-grandfather, Charles I, the brother of Louis IX. She owned the Peterborough Psalter and she probably sent the Reliquary Shrine of Elizabeth of Hungary, now at The Cloisters, to her sister-in-law in Buda. Through her patronage and gift-giving she sought to enhance the reputation in Paris of her Angevin family and of her husband.
Upon her death 13 October 1328, at age thirty-five, her possessions were sold. She was buried on 15 October in the now-demolished church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris, and her effigy is now in the Basilica of St Denis.
Queen Clementia is best known for the remarkable inventory that was made of her belongings. The ninety-nine-page document in French describes her works of art and material culture in great detail. Her many crown jewels, reliquaries, the textiles that decorated her domestic space and her chapel, the silver sculptures she owned, and even her clothing are all described. She had more than forty manuscripts. The inventory is also valuable because it details where she acquired many of her objects and who received them after her death.
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|Ancestors of Clementia of Hungary|
Clementia is a character in Les Rois maudits (The Accursed Kings), a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. She is portrayed by Monique Lejeunein the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Serena Autieri in the 2005 adaptation.
The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, and a branch of the Robertians. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet, the founder of the dynasty, and his male-line descendants, who ruled in France without interruption from 987 to 1792, and again from 1814 to 1848. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled without interruption until the French Revolution abolished the monarchy in 1792. The Bourbons were restored in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat, but had to vacate the throne again in 1830 in favor of the last Capetian monarch of France, Louis Philippe I, who belonged to the House of Orléans.
John I, called the Posthumous, was king of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316. He is the youngest person to be king of France, the only one to have borne that title from birth, and the only one to hold the title for his entire life. His reign is the shortest of any French king. Although considered a king today, his status was not recognized until chroniclers and historians in later centuries began numbering John II, thereby acknowledging John I's brief reign.
Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."
Louis X, called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn, was King of France from 1314 to 1316, succeeding his father Philip IV. After the death of his mother, Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Louis I from 1305 until his death in 1316.
Philip V, known as the Tall, was King of France and Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to 1322.
Charles IV, called the Fair in France and the Bald in Navarre, was last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre from 1322 to 1328. Charles was the third son of Philip IV; like his father, he was known as "the fair" or "the handsome".
Charles Martel of the Angevin dynasty was the eldest son of king Charles II of Naples and Maria of Hungary, the daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary. The 18-year-old Charles Martel was set up by Pope Nicholas IV and the ecclesiastical party as the titular King of Hungary (1290–1295) as successor of his maternal uncle, the childless Ladislaus IV of Hungary against whom the Pope had already earlier declared a crusade.
Robert of Clermont was created Count of Clermont in 1268. He was the son of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence. In 1272, Robert married Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of Bourbon and had the following issue:
Louis I, called the Lame was Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and La Marche and the first Duke of Bourbon.
Charles of Valois, the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328.
Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen also paid homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, and uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was also a member of the French royal family.
Margaret of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre as the first wife of Louis X of France.
The Accursed Kings is a series of historical novels by French author Maurice Druon about the French monarchy in the 14th century. Published between 1955 and 1977, the series has been adapted as a miniseries twice for television in France.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet.
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Blanche of Burgundy was Queen of France and Navarre for a few months in 1322 through her marriage to King Charles IV the Fair. The daughter of Count Otto IV of Burgundy and Countess Mahaut of Artois, she was led to a disastrous marriage by her mother's ambition. Eight years before her husband's accession to the thrones, Blanche was arrested and found guilty of adultery with a Norman knight. Her sister-in-law, Margaret of Burgundy, suffered the same fate, while her sister Joan was acquitted. Blanche was imprisoned until she became queen, when she was moved to the coast of Normandy. The date and place of her death are unknown; the mere fact that she died was simply mentioned on the occasion of her husband's third marriage in April 1326.
Joan of Burgundy, also known as Joan the Lame, was Queen of France as the first wife of King Philip VI. Joan served as regent while her husband fought on military campaigns during the Hundred Years' War.
Joan II, Countess of Burgundy, was Queen of France by marriage to Philip V of France, and ruling Countess of Burgundy and Countess of Artois. She was the eldest daughter and heiress of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy, and Mahaut, Countess of Artois.
Maria of Calabria was a Neapolitan princess of the Capetian House of Anjou whose descendants inherited the crown of Naples following the death of her older sister, Queen Joanna I.
Hugues III de Bouville (1275–1331) was the chamberlain of Philip IV of France.
Margaret of Burgundy
| Queen consort of France and Navarre |
Joan II of Burgundy