Clichy-sous-Bois

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Clichy-sous-Bois
Clichy-sous-Bois - Hotel-de-Ville 01.jpg
The town hall of Clichy-sous-Bois
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Clichy-sous-Bois map.svg
Paris and inner ring départements
Location of Clichy-sous-Bois
Clichy-sous-Bois
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
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Clichy-sous-Bois
Ile-de-France region location map.svg
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Clichy-sous-Bois
Coordinates: 48°54′37″N2°33′12″E / 48.910197°N 2.553235°E / 48.910197; 2.553235 Coordinates: 48°54′37″N2°33′12″E / 48.910197°N 2.553235°E / 48.910197; 2.553235
Country France
Region Île-de-France
Department Seine-Saint-Denis
Arrondissement Le Raincy
Canton Livry-Gargan
Intercommunality Grand Paris
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Olivier Klein [1]
Area
1
3.95 km2 (1.53 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [2]
28,782
  Density7,300/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
93014 /93390
Elevation66–121 m (217–397 ft)
(avg. 98 m or 322 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Clichy-sous-Bois (French pronunciation:  [kliʃi su bwɑ] ) is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from central Paris. [3]

Contents

Clichy-sous-Bois is not served by any motorway, major road, or railway and therefore remains one of the most isolated of Paris's inner suburbs. It is one of the most economically disadvantaged suburbs and is where the 2005 civil unrest and riots began, which subsequently spread nationwide.

Geography

Clichy-sous-Bois has an area of 3.95 km2 (1.53 sq mi) with 1.1 km2 (0.42 sq mi) of woods. The woods are remnants of the Bondy wood (Forêt Départementale de Bondy, Parc de la Fosse Maussoin, Parc de la Mairie).

History

The name of Clichy-sous-Bois comes from Roman Cleppius, seventh century Clippiacum superius, twelfth century Clichiacum.

Flint tools from the Neolithic have been found here. Clichy en Aulnois belonged to the lords of Livry in the early Middle Ages. Subject to the Knights Templar in the 13th century, Clichy subsequently passed into possession of the Knights Hospitaller order. Until the 16th century, it was a hunting resort of the French kings. In the 18th century, it belonged to the Duc d'Orléans. In 1820, the village had about 150 inhabitants.

On 20 May 1869, a part of the territory of Clichy-sous-Bois was detached and merged with a part of the territory of Livry-Gargan and a small part of the territory of Gagny to create the commune of Le Raincy.

In 1870, Clichy was affected by the Franco-Prussian War.

Heraldry

Arms of Clichy-sous-Bois Blason Clichy-sous-Bois 93.svg
Arms of Clichy-sous-Bois
The arms of Clichy-sous-Bois are blazoned  :
Per pale vert and argent, a cinqfoil counterchanged, and on a chief gules a latin cross voided between two bunches of grapes slipped and leaved argent.



Crime and civil unrest

Clichy-sous-Bois has a high unemployment rate compared to the rest of the country, about 20%, and 40% for the people under 25 years old (source : INSEE). The suburban riots of October 2005 originated in Clichy-sous-Bois after the death of two young boys who had been escaping a police control. Then the riots spread to other communes of the department, and then to virtually every major urban area in France.

Demography

The majority of its population is of African heritage. [4] As of 2015 the youth unemployment rate was 40%. [5]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 161    
1800 152−0.82%
1806 136−1.84%
1821 137+0.05%
1831 138+0.07%
1836 145+0.99%
1841 156+1.47%
1846 168+1.49%
1851 175+0.82%
1856 184+1.01%
1861 227+4.29%
1866 247+1.70%
1872 182−4.96%
1876 205+3.02%
1881 251+4.13%
1886 350+6.88%
1891 452+5.25%
1896 503+2.16%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 672+5.96%
1906 1,071+9.77%
1911 1,434+6.01%
1921 2,104+3.91%
1926 3,467+10.50%
1931 4,026+3.03%
1936 4,056+0.15%
1946 3,573−1.26%
1954 5,105+4.56%
1962 11,606+10.81%
1968 16,357+5.89%
1975 22,422+4.61%
1982 24,654+1.36%
1990 28,180+1.68%
1999 28,288+0.04%
2007 29,674+0.60%
2012 30,720+0.70%
2017 29,348−0.91%
Source: EHESS [6] and INSEE (1968-2017) [7]

Immigration

Place of birth of residents of Clichy-sous-Bois in 1999
Born in metropolitan France Born outside metropolitan France
63.7%36.3%
Born in
overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15 immigrants2Non-EU-15 immigrants
2.6%2.0%4.0%27.7%
1 This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as Pieds-Noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), as well as to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.

2 An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

As of 2009 33% of the commune's residents were foreign nationals, higher than both the departmental average and the French national average. [8]

Transport

Clichy-sous-Bois is not served directly by any station of the Paris Métro, RER, or suburban rail network. The closest station to Clichy-sous-Bois is Le Raincy Villemomble Montfermeil station on Paris RER line E . This station is located in the neighboring commune of Le Raincy, 3.2 km (2.0 mi) from the town center of Clichy-sous-Bois. There is also a T4 Tramway stop at Gargan which is 1.1 km from the town centre. The tramway terminates at the Bondy station for RER-E2, which is only 3 stops to Paris Gare du Nord ( via correspondence at Magenta station) The only direct transport in and out of Clichy-sous-bois is by bus (for example the 601AB bus if you are coming from "Le Raincy-Villemonble-Montfermeil" station).

Due to the lack of a rail link, it was claimed the time on public transport to the city centre can be 1.5 hours [3] but this predates the tramway opened November 2006. A new branch of the T4 Tramway was scheduled to open in 2017, eventually opened in 2019, [9] passes through the heart of Clichy-sous-Bois.

Economy

As of 2007 the unemployment rate was around 20%. It was close to 50% in the housing estates defined by The Economist as "the worst." [3]

Politics

In 2007 the voting turnout for the presidential election in Clichy was 82%. The voter registration had increased by less than 20%. [3]

Education

There are twelve preschool sites, [10] and eleven elementary school sites. [11]

As of 2016 there are about 2,500 students in Clichy's four secondary schools. The following junior high schools are in the commune: [12]

The sole senior high school/sixth form college in Clichy is Lycée Alfred-Nobel. [12] As of 2007 the lycée has 1,100 students. It has an agreement with the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (Sciences-Po) which allows applicants from the school to gain entrance to the university without taking the entrance examination. As of 2007 three students from the lycée had been admitted. [3]

Personalities linked to the commune

See also

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References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les maires" (in French). data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises. 13 September 2022.
  2. "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 "France's suburbs: Two years on." The Economist . 8 November 2007. Retrieved on 3 March 2014.
  4. "French police trial over 2005 Zyed and Bouna deaths". BBC News. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  5. Viscusi, Gregory (18 March 2015). "Paris Ghetto With Views But No Jobs Shows Decades of Failures". Bloomberg.com . Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  6. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Clichy-sous-Bois, EHESS. (in French)
  7. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  8. Sanselm, Franck. "L'Ethnicisation des Rapports Sociaux à l'École." Sociétés contemporaines 2009/4 (n° 76). ISBN   9782724631630. doi : 10.3917/soco.076.0121. Hosted at Cairn.info. p. 121-147. CITED: Circa p. 145 (PDF p. 15/16) - "[7] [...]La ville de Clichy-sous-Bois, quant à elle, compte 33% d'habitants de nationalité étrangère contre 18,7% et 7,5% aux niveaux départamental et national (Source: Ville de Clichy-sous-Bois)"
  9. "La nouvelle branche du T4" livry-gargan.fr, Retrieved on 4 December 2019.
  10. "Les ecoles maternelles." Clichy-sous-Bois. 4 September 2016.
  11. "Les ecoles elementaires." Clichy-sous-Bois. Retrieved on 4 September 2016.
  12. 1 2 "Les collèges et le lycée." Clichy-sous-Bois. Retrieved on 4 September 2016. "Clichy-sous-Bois compte trois collèges et un lycée d’enseignement général et professionnel. Ces quatre établissements sont fréquentés chaque année par plus de 2500 élèves au total."
  13. "Mission d'information sur la carte scolaire". Senate of France. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016. "Le collège Louise Michel de Clichy-sous-Bois[...]En 2004, il comptait environ 1 200 élèves et constituait le plus gros collège de la commune. En 2012, il n'accueille plus que 550 élèves environ, y compris les SEGPA.[...] en construisant un nouveau collège Robert Doisneau et en modifiant la sectorisation."