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Clive Robbins, (23 July 1927 in Handsworth, West Midlands – 7 December 2011 in New York) was a British music therapist, Special Needs educator, anthroposophist and co-founder of Nordoff-Robbins music therapy.
Handsworth is now an inner city, urban area of northwest Birmingham in the West Midlands. Handsworth lies just outside Birmingham City Centre.
Music therapy is an evidence-based clinical use of musical interventions to improve clients' quality of life. Music therapists use music and its many facets— physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual— to help clients improve their health in cognitive, motor, emotional, communicative, social, sensory, and educational domains by using both active and receptive music experiences. These experiences include improvisation, re-creation, composition, receptive methods, and discussion of music.
Anthroposophy is a philosophy founded by the 19th-century esotericist Rudolf Steiner that postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world, accessible to human experience. Followers of anthroposophy aim to develop mental faculties of spiritual discovery through a mode of thought independent of sensory experience. They also aim to present their ideas in a manner verifiable by rational discourse and specifically seek a precision and clarity in studying the spiritual world mirroring that obtained by natural historians in investigations of the physical world.
Born on 23 July 1927 in Handsworth, Birmingham as the son of a baker, Clive Robbins did not discover until he was 17 that the woman he had always been told was his older sister, was actually his mother, due to prejudices surrounding the issue of illegitimacy at the time. He started life somewhat disoriented and in search of meaning and purpose. During the World War II, he was sent away to foster parents. Here he developed his lifelong passion for music, was able to hear classical music and take piano lessons.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
While in the RAF at 18, Clive was injured by a bullet that nearly killed him, leaving his left hand and arm partially paralysed and dashing his hopes of becoming a pianist. Instead, he attempted photography and painting but found no vocation until becoming a teacher in 1954 at Sunfield Children's Home, a Rudolf Steiner 'curative educational community' for mentally disabled children in the Clent Grove, Stourbridge. He described it as "the first profoundly fulfilling experience of my life". He and his wife Mildred lived with their two children, Tobias and Jennifer, on the grounds of the school in a small trailer.
Sunfield is an Independent special school, Children’s Home and charity on the border of Worcestershire and the West Midlands in England. It was founded in 1930 and now supports boys and girls, aged 6 – 19 years, with complex learning needs, including autism.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, economist and esotericist. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism.
Stourbridge is a market town in the West Midlands county of England. Situated on the River Stour, it was the centre of British glass making during the Industrial Revolution. The 2011 UK census recorded the town's population as 63,298.
It was in 1958 at Sunfield that Clive met Paul Nordoff, who was an eminent American composer and pianist. Paul Nordoff was always fascinated by Steiner's philosophy, known as anthroposophy, and was so impressed by what he found at Sunfield that he went on to explore his growing interest in the therapeutic potential of music. In 1959, Clive Robbins teamed up with Paul Nordoff and pioneered an extraordinary new way of reaching and engaging disabled children through musical improvisation, music therapy being practically unknown at the time.
Paul Nordoff was an American composer and music therapist, anthroposophist and initiator of the Nordoff-Robbins method of music therapy. His music is generally tonal and neo-Romantic in style.
Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins were both involved in the thinking and practice of Anthroposophy previous to their meeting. "Our studies of anthroposophy had independently instilled in each of us an attitude of reverence for the destiny of humanity as a whole and the meaningfulness of each human existence" Robbins later wrote, going on to describe the individual music therapy work that they soon began together at Sunfield as "creative empiricism" (Robbins, 2005, p. 10).
The time Paul Nordoff spent at Sunfield in 1959-60 working with Clive Robbins was life-changing. The two men formed a close relationship and carried out experimental musical work with many of the most disabled and unreachable children who bore tragic lives of distress and self-injury. With the help of carefully chosen harmonies, appealing melodies and rhythms, the children were drawn into musical participation developing increased social and self-awareness, discipline and concentration. Placed in front of a snare drum and cymbal, they revealed their sensitivities and their expressive, receptive and relational abilities in their musical responses. It was a profound discovery of how music could be used for human benefit and Paul and Clive documented their observations and techniques in painstaking detail, making and transcribing recordings of their sessions.
When Paul left Sunfield in June 1960 Clive accompanied him, gripped by the urge to continue what they had started. They visited 26 curative homes across Europe, giving illustrated presentations and live demonstrations of their work, then spent the next six years in Philadelphia exploring and establishing the work which they called therapy in music. A research grant from the National Institute of Mental Health supported them in this. There followed seven years in Europe where Paul and Clive worked as Lecturing Fellows of the American-Scandinavian Foundation from 1967 to 1974. This period saw the fruition of their work together with teaching engagements across Europe, the evolution of music therapy training for musicians, publications and television documentaries about their work.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Paul and Clive toured the world demonstrating their work, with groups of followers starting to work wherever they went. After Paul Nordoff's died in 1977, Robbins continued his music therapy work, teaching and lecturing well into his 80s and renowned for his ability to inspire and captivate audiences with real-life stories of his charismatic life-transforming work in music.
In 1975, Clive returned to the US where he married his second wife Carol Matteson, also a music therapist. Together they worked at the New York State School for the Deaf in Rome, NY (1975–81), at Southern Methodist University, Dallas (1981–82), continuing courses and lectures and maintaining ties in Europe with annual teaching engagements. From 1982 until 1989 they lived in Australia where they established a Music Therapy Centre at Warrah, an anthroposophical disability service centre and biodynamic farm, and a Nordoff-Robbins Association in Australia. In 1989 a dream was fulfilled with the establishment of the Nordoff-Robbins Center for Music Therapy at New York University, of which Clive and Carol became Co-Directors. The new Centre served as a music therapy clinic and training venue for music therapists in the Nordoff-Robbins approach. Here Clive stayed active until his death, becoming Founding Director in 1998.
Southern Methodist University (SMU) is a private Methodist research university in University Park, Texas. SMU also operates satellite campuses in Plano, Texas and Taos, New Mexico.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
Biodynamic agriculture is a form of alternative agriculture very similar to organic farming, but it includes various esoteric concepts drawn from the ideas of Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925). Initially developed in 1924, it was the first of the organic agriculture movements. It treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks, emphasizing spiritual and mystical perspectives.
After Carol's untimely death in 1996, Clive married another music therapist, Kaoru Mochizuki, with whom he worked and lectured also in the Far East - Japan, Taiwan and Korea. The improvisational approach to music therapy which he pioneered with Nordoff has influenced the entire professional field, extending well beyond the range of those who were trained specifically in the Nordoff-Robbins approach. Music therapy represents a new force in contemporary music, with roots all over the globe and the Nordoff-Robbins approach has played a pivotal role in this development, championed by Clive Robbins. It was named by its co-creators Creative Music Therapy and is both a philosophy and a practical craft, based on a deep insight into the transformative power of music in human experience.
Clive's gift was to help Paul Nordoff harness his musicianship, giving it direction and finding a language for communicating the ideas. Clive has inspired thousands with his love, emotion and sensitivity, his embracing personality and humanistic values. His descriptions of the power of music and its impact on the emotional states of human experience were profoundly moving to the many who heard and shared his passion for music and people.
Clive saw the establishment in 1996 of the International Trust for Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy which came into being to preserve the name and reputation of Nordoff Robbins and to hold the worldwide intellectual property assets arising from the work of Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins. He held honorary doctorates from Combs College of Music, Philadelphia, the University of Witten-Herdecke, Germany, and the State University of New York.
Martha Carey Thomas was an American educator, suffragist, linguist. She was the second president of Bryn Mawr College, a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.
Rhys Carpenter was an American classical art historian and professor at Bryn Mawr College.
The Nordoff–Robbins approach to music therapy, also known as creative music therapy, developed from the 17-year collaboration of Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins beginning in 1958. It was originally devised as a therapy for children with psychological, physical, or developmental disabilities. Its early development was influenced by Rudolph Steiner and anthroposophical philosophy and teachings. Nordoff–Robbins music therapy is grounded in the belief that everyone can respond to music, no matter how ill or disabled. It holds that the unique qualities of music as therapy can enhance communication, support change, and enable people to live more resourcefully and creatively. Nordoff-Robbins music therapists practice worldwide and have graduated from training programs around the world including England, the USA, Australia, Germany, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa, and the Far East.
Combs College of Music was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1885 as Combs Broad Street Conservatory of Music by Gilbert Raynolds Combs, celebrated pianist,organist and composer.
Carl Alanson Whitaker (1912–1995) was an American physician and psychotherapy pioneer family therapist.
Juliette Louise Alvin was a French-British cellist, viola da gamba player, and pioneering music therapist.
Eugen Kolisko was an Austrian-German physician and educator who was born in Vienna. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, and in 1917 became a lecturer of medical chemistry. He was the son of pathologist Alexander Kolisko (1857-1918).
Jeffrey Brillhart is an American organist and conductor. He has served as director of music and fine arts at Bryn Mawr Presbyterian Church since January 1983. He is music director of Philadelphia's Singing City Choir, one of the first racially and religiously integrated symphonic choirs in America. He teaches organ improvisation at Yale University. He first gained national recognition for his abilities in organ improvisation after winning the 1994 National Competition in Organ Improvisation, sponsored by the American Guild of Organists.
The O2 Silver Clef Awards is an annual UK music awards lunch which has been running since 1976.
Julia Usher is an English musician, project animateur and composer, and is known for musical theater. Besides composing, she also works as a music therapist.
Janet Christine Graham is an English composer, music educator and music therapist. She was born in Consett, County Durham, and studied composition at the Royal Academy of Music from 1966–70 with James Iliff. After her time at the Royal Academy of Music, she began teaching piano at the Mid Hertfordshire Music Centre while continuing to compose and study with Elisabeth Lutyens. She married organist Philip Redpath Deane on 8 September 1973. In 1978,two of her pieces were selected for the BBC Young Composers' Forum. In 1986 Graham began volunteering at a fortnightly musical evening at a local psychiatric hospital. After two years of training at the Nordoff Robbins Centre in London, Graham became a music therapist in 1990 and was a therapist and tutor there for 17 years. In 2007 she moved to the Nordoff Robbins North East where she became Head Music Therapist.Here, Graham established new music therapy projects and lead local courses at hospitals and care homes; she particularly worked with autistic children and adults as well as elderly people with dementia. After retiring from music therapy in 2013, Graham began composing again and playing music with local groups. In 2004, Janet Graham published a research project in the British Journal of Learning Disabilities titled, Communicating with the Uncommunicative: Music Therapy with Pre-verbal Adults, in which she found improvement of two patients' general communication abilities.
Donald Harris was an American composer who taught music at The Ohio State University for 22 years. He was Dean of the College of the Arts from 1988 to 1997.
Michael Wilson, was a musician, curative educator, scientist, translator and General Secretary of the Anthroposophical Society in Great Britain
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm "Fried" Geuter, was a pioneer of anthroposophical Special Needs education, the co-founder of Sunfield Children's Home and teacher at the Ravenswood Village Settlement near Crowthorne in Berkshire.
Eileen Morley Hutchins, born 28 June 1902 in Hay-on-Wye, Herefordshire and died 9 October 1987 in Stourbridge was a Steiner school teacher, author and founder of the Elmfield Rudolf Steiner School in Stourbridge.
Carlo Pietzner, born in Vienna, Austria, 26 January 1915 and died in Copake, New York, 17 April 1986, was a co-founder of Camphill, artist, anthroposophist, and a Special Needs and adult educator.
Stephen Joseph Herben Jr. was an American professor of philology at Bryn Mawr College. He specialized in English and German philology, and among other places did work at the American-Scandinavian Foundation in Copenhagen and Oxford University, as well as at Rutgers, Princeton, and Stanford University. His work included assistance with the etymological work of the second edition of Webster's New International Dictionary, and two articles on medieval literary descriptions of weapons and armor. The second of these articles, "Arms and Armour in Chaucer", is still considered a standard on the subject.