Clovis IV

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Clovis IV
Jugement du roi Clovis III 1 - Archives Nationales - K-3-7.jpg
A written judgement issued by Clovis IV on 28 February 693
King of the Franks
Reign691–694
Predecessor Theuderic III
Successor Childebert III
Mayor of the Palace Pepin of Herstal
Bornc. 677
Died694 (aged 1617)
Dynasty Merovingian
Father Theuderic III
Mother Chrodochild

Clovis IV (c. 677–694/695) was the king of the Franks from 690 or 691 until his death. If the brief reign of Clovis III (675) is ignored as a usurpation, then Clovis IV may be numbered Clovis III. [1]

Contents

A member of the Merovingian dynasty, Clovis was the son of King Theuderic III and Queen Chrodochild. [2] He was born around 677 [3] or possibly towards 682. [4] He succeeded his father as the sole ruler of the Franks upon the latter's death in 690 or 691. [5] He ruled an undivided kingdom including Austrasia, Burgundy and Neustria. [6] According to the Annals of Metz , a pro-Pippinid source, he was appointed by Pippin of Herstal, the mayor of the palace of Austrasia, and reigned four years. [7]

Clovis was a minor at his accession, and real power was in Pippin's hands. [3] [8] His minority, coming as it did on the heels of his father's efforts to strengthen royal power, was an important factor in the decline of the Merovingian dynasty. [9] Clovis resided primarily in Compiègne (the traditional site of the Marchfield) and Montmacq. [10]

Nine of Clovis's charters have been edited and published. Four of them are records of placita (public judicial hearings) held in the king's presence. Despite the rise of Pippin and his family, which is a major theme of the Annals of Metz, the royal court was still important in Clovis's reign. During a placitum in Valenciennes in 693, Clovis was attended by twelve bishops, twelve viri illustres (including Nordebert, the Neustrian mayor of the palace), nine counts and numerous other officials. [8] The future Neustrian mayor of the palace Ragamfred started out as a domesticus under Clovis. Warno, the Neustrian comes palatii of Chilperic II, also began his career at the court of Clovis. [11]

In 692, Clovis confirmed for the Abbey of Saint-Denis the right to collect certain tolls in Marseille, a right which it had been granted by Dagobert I. [12] [13] He also granted to the Abbey of Saint-Médard the nearby house that had been the primary residence of the former mayor of the palace, Ebroin, in Soissons. [14]

The anonymous continuator of the Chronicle of Fredegar devotes two sentences to Clovis IV: "King Theuderic died ... and his little son Clovis was chosen to succeed him as king. But it was not long before King Clovis fell ill and died, having reigned four years." [15] He died in either 694 [2] or 695. [5] He was succeeded by his brother, Childebert III. Clovis does not appear to have made much of an impression on his contemporaries; his brother was more highly regarded. [5]

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Childeric III was King of Francia from 743 until he was deposed by Pope Zachary in March 751 at the instigation of Pepin the Short. Although his parentage is uncertain, he is considered the last Frankish king from the Merovingian dynasty. Once Childeric was deposed, Pepin the Short, who was the father of emperor Charlemagne, was crowned king, initiating the Carolingian dynasty.

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Clovis III

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Chlothar IV

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Battle of Lucofao

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The Battle of Autun was a pitched battle in 642 or 643, concluding a feud between Flaochad and Willebad, two magnates of the Merovingian kingdom of Burgundy. The battle is recounted in detail in the final chapter of the contemporary Chronicle of Fredegar and also in the biographies of saints Eligius of Noyon and Sigiramn. While Fredegar seems hostile to Willebad, the hagiographers are hostile to Flaochad. The anonymous author of Fredegar may have been an eyewitness.

References

  1. Grierson & Blackburn (2007), p. 84n.
  2. 1 2 Wood 1994, p. 357.
  3. 1 2 McConville 2018, p. 362.
  4. Vergauteren 1928, p. 96.
  5. 1 2 3 Wood 1994, p. 256.
  6. Geary 1988, p. 233.
  7. Wood 1994, p. 258.
  8. 1 2 Wood 1994, pp. 261–62.
  9. Geary 1988, p. 181.
  10. Gerberding 1987, p. 151.
  11. Wood 1994, p. 269.
  12. Wood 1994, p. 205.
  13. Gerberding 1987, p. 64.
  14. Gerberding 1987, p. 153.
  15. Wallace-Hadrill 1960, p. 85.

Sources

Clovis IV
Born: 677 Died: 695
Preceded by
Theuderic III
King of the Franks
691695
Succeeded by
Childebert III