Clyde Snow (January 7, 1928 – May 16, 2014) was a well-known U.S. forensic anthropologist. Some of his skeletal confirmations include John F. Kennedy, victims of John Wayne Gacy, King Tutankhamun, victims of the Oklahoma City bombing, and Dr. Josef Mengele.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president.
John Wayne Gacy was an American serial killer and rapist. He sexually assaulted, tortured and murdered at least 33 teenage boys and young men between 1972 and 1978 in Cook County, Illinois.
Snow started his higher education at the New Mexico Military Institute where he earned an Associated Degree. He then flunked out of Southern Methodist University. After that he attended Eastern New Mexico University to earn his Bachelor's Degree. His master's degree in Zoology was then earned at Texas Technical University. Finally he attended University of Arizona and achieved his Ph.D. in Anthropology.
New Mexico Military Institute (NMMI) is a public military junior college in Roswell, New Mexico. Founded in 1891, NMMI operates under the auspices of the State of New Mexico, under a dedicated Board of Regents that reports to the Governor of New Mexico. A land-grant institution located in the city center of Roswell, New Mexico, NMMI enrolls nearly 1,000 cadets at the junior college and high school levels each year. NMMI is the only state-supported military college located in the western United States and has many notable alumni that have served at senior levels in the military and private sector.
Southern Methodist University is a private research university in metropolitan Dallas, with its main campus located in University Park. SMU also operates satellite campuses in Plano, Texas and Taos, New Mexico.
Eastern New Mexico University is a public university in Portales, New Mexico. ENMU is New Mexico's largest regional comprehensive university and is the most recently founded state university in New Mexico. It is a federally designated Hispanic-serving institution and a member of the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities. The university consists of 5 colleges on three campuses. ENMU's main campus is located in Portales and there are also two degree-granting branches, one at Ruidoso and one Roswell.
In 1968, Snow became the head of the department of Forensic Anthropology at Civil Aeromedical Institute. On September 25, 1978 Dr. Snow testified before the House Select Committee on Assassinations about various forensic aspects of the Kennedy assassination. He denied that E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis were among the Three tramps found in a railroad car behind the Grassy Knoll. However he also testified "[Hunt] has rather protruding ears and in later photographs they have been brought back closer to his head" with plastic surgery.By 1972, the American Academy of Forensic Sciences recognized forensic work as a specialty of anthropology.
Everette Howard Hunt Jr., better known as E. Howard Hunt, was an American intelligence officer and published author of 73 books. From 1949 to 1970, Hunt served as an officer in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Along with G. Gordon Liddy, Frank Sturgis, and others, Hunt was one of the Nixon administration "plumbers", a team of operatives charged with identifying government sources of national security information "leaks" to outside parties. Hunt and Liddy plotted the Watergate burglaries and other clandestine operations for the Nixon administration. In the ensuing Watergate scandal, Hunt was convicted of burglary, conspiracy, and wiretapping, eventually serving 33 months in prison.
Frank Anthony Sturgis, born Frank Angelo Fiorini, was one of the five Watergate burglars whose capture led to the end of the presidency of Richard Nixon. He served in several branches of the United States military and in the Cuban Revolution of 1958, and worked as an undercover operative for the Central Intelligence Agency. He was named as one of the men who along with Miami CIA head David Morales, met with E. Howard Hunt, shortly before the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
The three tramps are three men photographed by several Dallas-area newspapers under police escort near the Texas School Book Depository shortly after the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. Since the mid-1960s, various allegations have been made about the identities of the men and their involvement in a conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Records released by the Dallas Police Department in 1989 identified the men as Gus Abrams, Harold Doyle, and John Gedney.
Since 1979, Snow turned his focus to forensics exclusively. He worked with various human rights groups and brought to attention mass graves of civilians in Argentina, and spent five years training many of the founding members of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team (Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense, EAAF). So far at least five officers in Argentina were convicted partially due to Snow's work in the mass graves. The success of this mission led to the creation of Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Team as well when survivors of the Guatemalan Civil War sought his help in 1991.
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are often thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law; and social, cultural and economic rights, including the right to participate in science and culture, the right to work, and the right to education.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Argentina, officially named the Argentine Republic, is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation. The sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team(Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense, or "EAAF") is an Argentine not-for-profit scientific non-governmental organisation. It was created in 1986 at the initiative of various human rights organisations with the aim of developing forensic anthropology techniques to help locate and identify the Argentines who had disappeared during the "Dirty War" period of the 1976–1983 military dictatorship. Since then, the Team's members have conducted field work in 30 other countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Angola, Timor-Leste, French Polynesia, Croatia and South Africa. In particular, the EAAF acquired additional worldwide renown by identifying the remains of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, found in Bolivia.
In 1991, Snow traveled to San Vicente, Bolivia, to carry out a search for the remains of the American outlaws Butch Cassidy (Robert Leroy Parker) and the Sundance Kid (Harry Alonzo Longabaugh). However, the exact location of the grave was only known with to an accuracy of several yards, and the grave excavated was found to contain the remains of a German miner named Gustav Zimmer. No remains were found whose DNA matched that of Parker and Longabaugh's families.
San Vicente Canton is one of the cantons of the Atocha Municipality, the second municipal section of the Sud Chichas Province in the Potosí Department in south-west Bolivia. During the census of 2001 it had 104 inhabitants. Its seat is San Vicente with a population of 50 in 2001.
Bolivia, officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre while the seat of government and financial center is located in La Paz. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a mostly flat region in the east of Bolivia.
Robert Leroy Parker, better known as Butch Cassidy, was an American train robber and bank robber, and the leader of a gang of criminal outlaws known as the "Wild Bunch" in the American Old West.
In 1997, Snow worked on mass graves found in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Snow also participated in a re-enactment of an excavation of Butch Masters in Illinois that aired on The Discovery Channel episode Science Detectives on Discover Magazine.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, Austria and Hungary to the north, Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and Albania and Greece to the south.
Historical reenactment is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period. This may be as narrow as a specific moment from a battle, such as the reenactment of Pickett's Charge presented during the Great Reunion of 1913, or as broad as an entire period, such as Regency reenactment or The 1920s Berlin Project.
In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains. An excavation site or "dig" is a site being studied. Such a site excavation concerns itself with a specific archaeological site or a connected series of sites, and may be conducted over as little as several weeks to over a number of years.
In 2004, Snow appeared on the Unsolved History documentary television series episode Hunting Nazis on The Discovery Channel.
As of 2005, Snow lived with his wife near Oklahoma City. He continued teaching at the University of Oklahoma, and he also did occasional lectures for Forensic Science organizations and law enforcement personnel.
Snow died May 16, 2014, aged 86, in Norman, Oklahoma.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable, as might happen in a plane crash. Forensic anthropologists are also instrumental to the investigation and documentation of genocide and mass graves. Along with forensic pathologists, forensic dentists, and homicide investigators, forensic anthropologists commonly testify in court as expert witnesses. Using physical markers present on a skeleton, a forensic anthropologist can potentially determine a victim's age, sex, stature, and ancestry. In addition to identifying physical characteristics of the individual, forensic anthropologists can use skeletal abnormalities to potentially determine cause of death, past trauma such as broken bones or medical procedures, as well as diseases such as bone cancer.
Harry Alonzo Longabaugh, better known as the Sundance Kid, was an outlaw and member of Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch in the American Old West. He likely met Butch Cassidy after Cassidy was released from prison around 1896. "The Wild Bunch" gang performed the longest string of successful train and bank robberies in American history. Longebaugh fled the United States along with his consort Etta Place and Butch Cassidy in order to escape the dogged pursuit of the Pinkerton Detective Agency. The trio fled first to Argentina and then to Bolivia, where Cassidy and Longabaugh were killed in a shootout in November 1908.
Kathleen Joan Toelle Reichs is an American crime writer, forensic anthropologist and academic. She is an adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte; as of 2016 she is on indefinite leave. She is also affiliated with the Laboratoire des Sciences Judiciaires et de Médecine Légale for the province of Quebec. She is one of 100 anthropologists certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology and is on the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Her schedule also involves a number of speaking engagements around the world. Reichs was a producer for the TV series Bones, which is loosely based on her novels, which in turn, are inspired by her life. She has two daughters, Kerry and Courtney, and one son, Brendan.
A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial. The United Nations has defined a criminal mass grave as a burial site containing three or more victims of execution. Mass graves are usually created after a large number of people die or are killed, and there is a desire to bury the corpses quickly for sanitation concerns. Although mass graves can be used during major conflicts such as war and crime, in modern times they may be used after a famine, epidemic, or natural disaster. In disasters, mass graves are used for infection and disease control. In such cases, there is often a breakdown of the social infrastructure that would enable proper identification and disposal of individual bodies.
The Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation is an autonomous, non-profit, technical and scientific non-governmental organisation. Its aim is to strengthen the administration of justice and respect for human rights by investigating, documenting, and raising awareness about past instances of human rights violations, particularly unresolved murders, that occurred during Guatemala's 30-year-long Civil War.
Etta Place was a companion of the American outlaws Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, both members of the outlaw gang known as the Wild Bunch. Principally the companion of Longabaugh, little is known about her; both her origin and her fate remain shrouded in mystery.
Ellis R. Kerley was an American anthropologist, and pioneer in the field of Forensic anthropology, which is a field of expertise particularly useful to criminal investigators and for the identification of human remains for humanitarian purposes. Best known for his work in age dating of specimens, Kerley also made humanitarian contributions by identifying the remains of repatriated American soldiers from the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
Azucena Villaflor was an Argentine social activist, and one of the founders of the human rights association called Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, which looked for desaparecidos.
EAAF may refer to:
Most Evil is an American forensics television program on Investigation Discovery presented by forensic psychiatrist Dr. Michael H. Stone of Columbia University during Seasons 1 & 2; and by forensic psychologist Dr. Kris Mohandie during Season 3. On the show, the presenter rates murderers on a scale of evil that Stone himself has developed. The show features profiles on various murderers, serial killers, and mass murder of various degrees of psychopathy.
Fredy Peccerelli, a forensic anthropologist, is the Director and one of the founding members of the Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation in Guatemala City, a nongovernmental organization that exhumes mass graves of victims of Guatemala's civil war. Peccerelli, along with members of his immediate family, has been the subject of repeated death threats as a result of his work.
Tlatelolco is an archaeological excavation site in Mexico City, Mexico where remains of the pre-Columbian city-state of the same name have been found. It is centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. On one side of the square is an excavated Aztec site, on a second is a seventeenth-century church called the Templo de Santiago, and on the third stands a mid-20th-century modern office complex, formerly housing the Mexican Foreign Ministry, and since 2005 used as the Centro Cultural Universitario of UNAM.
The Argentine Military Cemetery, Spanish: Cementerio de Darwin, is a military cemetery on East Falkland that holds the remains of 237 Argentine combatants killed during the 1982 Falklands War. It is located west of the Darwin Settlement close to the location of the Battle of Goose Green and there is a replica of the cemetery at Berazategui in Buenos Aires Province Argentina.
Mercedes Doretti is an Argentine forensic anthropologist based in New York City. She is known for finding evidence of crimes against humanity. She was awarded a MacArthur "Genius Grant" prize in 2007.
Ángela Auad was an Argentine social activist. A member of the Marxist–Leninist Communist Party, she worked with the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo to locate those who "disappeared" during the Dirty War. Because of her activism, she was kidnapped, tortured and murdered.
Eric Stover is an American human rights researcher and advocate and faculty director of the Human Rights Center at the University of California at Berkeley.
Betty Pat Galtiff is an American pioneer in the field of forensic art and forensic facial reconstruction. Working closely with forensic anthropologist Dr. Clyde Snow, she has sculpturally reconstructed faces of individuals including the Pharaoh Tutankhamun, President John F. Kennedy, and the unidentified victims of serial killer John Wayne Gacy.