Cocos (Keeling) Islands

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Coordinates: 12°07′S96°54′E / 12.117°S 96.900°E / -12.117; 96.900

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Contents

Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Pulu Kokos (Keeling)  (Cocos Islands Malay)
Wilayah Kepulauan Cocos (Keeling)  (Malay)
Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.svg
Motto: Maju Pulu Kita  (Cocos Islands Malay)
"Onward our island"
Australia on the globe (Cocos (Keeling) Islands special) (Southeast Asia centered).svg
Status External territory
Capital West Island
12°11′13″S96°49′42″E / 12.18694°S 96.82833°E / -12.18694; 96.82833
Largest village Bantam (Home Island)
Official languagesNone [a]
Native languages Malay, English
Sovereign state Australia
Leaders
  Monarch
Elizabeth II
General David Hurley
Natasha Griggs
Seri Wati Iku
Territory of Australia
 Annexed by the
United Kingdom

1857
 Transferred to
Australian control

1955
Area
 Total
14 km2 (5.4 sq mi)
 Water (%)
0
Population
 2016 census
544 (2016) [1]
 Density
43/km2 (111.4/sq mi)(n/a)
Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone UTC+06:30 (CCT)
Calling code 61 891
ISO 3166 code CC
Internet TLD .cc
  1. ^ English does not have de jure status in Cocos (Keeling) Island and in Australia, but it is the de facto language of communication in government.

The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka and closer to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is part of Southeast Asia and is in the Southern Hemisphere. The territory's dual name (official since the islands’ incorporation into Australia in 1955) reflects that the islands have historically been known as either the Cocos Islands or the Keeling Islands.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

States and territories of Australia first-level subdivision of Australia

Government in the Commonwealth of Australia is exercised on three levels: federal, states and territories, and local government.

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi). It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

The territory consists of two atolls made up of 27 coral islands, of which only two – West Island and Home Island – are inhabited. The population of around 600 people consists mainly of Cocos Malays, who practise Sunni Islam and speak a dialect of Malay as their first language. The territory is administered by the Australian federal government's Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, and together with Christmas Island (which is about 960 kilometres (600 mi) to the east) forms the Australian Indian Ocean Territories administrative unit. However, the islanders do have a degree of self-government through the local shire council. Many public services – including health, education, and policing – are provided by the state of Western Australia, and Western Australian law applies except where the federal government has determined otherwise.

Atoll Ring-shaped coral reef, generally formed over a subsiding oceanic volcano, with a central lagoon and perhaps islands around the rim

An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. There may be coral islands or cays on the rim. The coral of the atoll often sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided partially beneath the water. The lagoon forms over the volcanic crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow and form the reefs. For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a rate slow enough to permit reef growth upward and outward to replace the lost height.

A coral island is a type of island formed from coral detritus and associated organic material. They occur in tropical and sub-tropical areas, typically as part of coral reefs which have grown to cover a far larger area under the sea.

West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands capital of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

West Island is the capital of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. The population is roughly 120 and consists mainly of Europeans. It is the less populous of the two inhabited islands. It was part of the Clunies-Ross plantation and an airstrip was built here during World War II. As well as all the government buildings, it contains the airport, a general store and tourist accommodation. In November 2013 it was revealed that the Australian Signals Directorate operates a listening station on West Island. Wullenweber and Adcock antenna systems as well as two satellite dish antennae are clearly visible via Google satellite view.

The islands were first discovered in 1609 by William Keeling, but no settlement occurred until the early 19th century. One of the first settlers was John Clunies-Ross, a Scottish merchant; much of the island's current population is descended from the Malay workers he brought in to work his copra plantation. The Clunies-Ross family ruled the islands as a private fiefdom for almost 150 years, with the head of the family usually recognised as resident magistrate. The British formally annexed the islands in 1857, and for the next century they were officially administered from either Ceylon or Singapore. The territory was transferred to Australia in 1955, although until 1979 virtually all of the island's real estate still belonged to the Clunies-Ross family.

William Keeling British sea captain for the East India Company

Captain William Keeling, of the East India Company, was a British sea captain. He commanded the Susanna on the second East India Company voyage in 1604. During this voyage his crew was reduced to fourteen men and one of the ships vanished. On the third voyage he commanded the Red Dragon and the Hector in 1607. During this voyage he met with an ambassador from the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1608 at Bantam (city). He discovered the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in 1609 as he was going home from Banda to England.

Copra

Copra is the dried meat or kernel of the coconut, which is the fruit of the coconut palm. Coconut oil is extracted from copra, making it an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields de-fatted coconut cake after oil extraction, which is mainly used as feed for livestock.

Clunies-Ross family family

The Clunies-Ross family were the original settlers of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, a small archipelago in the Indian Ocean. From 1827 to 1978, the family ruled the previously uninhabited islands as a private fiefdom, initially as terra nullius and then later under British (1857–1955) and Australian (1955–1978) sovereignty. The head of the family was usually recognised as the resident magistrate, and was sometimes styled as the "King of the Cocos Islands" – a title given by the press.

Name

The islands have been called the Cocos Islands (from 1622), the Keeling Islands (from 1703), the Cocos–Keeling Islands (since James Horsburgh in 1805) and the Keeling–Cocos Islands (19th century). [2] Cocos refers to the abundant coconut trees, while Keeling is William Keeling, who discovered the islands in 1609. [2]

James Horsburgh British hydrographer

James Horsburgh was a Scottish hydrographer. He worked for the British East India Company, (EIC) and mapped many seaways around Singapore in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

Coconut species of plant

The coconut tree is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only known living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.

John Clunies-Ross, [3] who sailed there in the Borneo in 1825, called the group the Borneo Coral Isles, restricting Keeling to North Keeling, and calling South Keeling "the Cocos properly so called". [4] [5] The form Cocos (Keeling) Islands, attested from 1916, [6] was made official by the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955. [2]

North Keeling island

North Keeling is a small, uninhabited coral atoll, approximately 1.2 square kilometres (0.46 sq mi) in area, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of Horsburgh Island. It is the northernmost atoll and island of the Australian territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. It consists of just one C-shaped island, a nearly closed atoll ring with a small opening into the lagoon, about 50 metres (160 ft) wide, on the east side. The lagoon is about 0.5 square kilometres (0.19 sq mi) in area. The island is home to the only surviving population of the endemic, and endangered, Cocos buff-banded rail, as well as large breeding colonies of seabirds. Since 1995, North Keeling Island and the surrounding sea to 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from shore have been within the Pulu Keeling National Park.

The territory's Malay name is Pulu Kokos (Keeling). Sign boards on the island also feature Malay translations. [7] [8]

Geography

The Cocos (Keeling) Islands consist of two flat, low-lying coral atolls with an area of 14.2 square kilometres (5.5 sq mi), 26 kilometres (16 mi) of coastline, a highest elevation of 5 metres (16 ft) and thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation. The climate is pleasant, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year and with moderate rainfall. Tropical cyclones may occur in the early months of the year.

North Keeling Island is an atoll consisting of just one C-shaped island, a nearly closed atoll ring with a small opening into the lagoon, about 50 metres (160 ft) wide, on the east side. The island measures 1.1 square kilometres (270 acres) in land area and is uninhabited. The lagoon is about 0.5 square kilometres (120 acres). North Keeling Island and the surrounding sea to 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from shore form the Pulu Keeling National Park, established on 12 December 1995. It is home to the only surviving population of the endemic, and endangered, Cocos Buff-banded Rail.

South Keeling Islands is an atoll consisting of 24 individual islets forming an incomplete atoll ring, with a total land area of 13.1 square kilometres (5.1 sq mi). Only Home Island and West Island are populated. The Cocos Malays maintain weekend shacks, referred to as pondoks, on most of the larger islands.

Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Cocos (Keeling) Islands-CIA WFB Map.png
Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
1889 map of South Keeling Islands. Cocos Islands 1889.jpg
1889 map of South Keeling Islands.
1976 map of South Keeling Islands. Cocos(keeling) 76.jpg
1976 map of South Keeling Islands.
Islets (clockwise from north)
Islet
(Malay name)
Translation of Malay nameEnglish nameArea
(km²)
1Pulau LuarOuter Island Horsburgh Island
2Pulau TikusMouse IslandDirection Island
3Pulau PasirSand IslandWorkhouse Island<0.01
4Pulau BerasRice IslandPrison Island0.02
5Pulau GangsaCopper IslandClosed sandbar, now part of Home Island<0.01
6Pulau Selma Home Island 0.95
7Pulau Ampang Kechil Little Ampang IslandScaevola Islet<0.01
8Pulau AmpangAmpang IslandCanui Island0.06
9Pulau Wa-idasAmpang Minor0.02
10Pulau BlekokPond Heron IslandGoldwater Island0.03
11Pulau KembangFlower IslandThorn Island0.04
12Pulau CheplokCape Gooseberry IslandGooseberry Island <0.01
13Pulau PandanPandan IslandMisery Island0.24
14Pulau SiputSnail IslandGoat Island0.10
15Pulau JambatanBridge IslandMiddle Mission Isle<0.01
16Pulau LabuPumpkin IslandSouth Goat Island0.04
17Pulau AtasTop IslandSouth Island3.63
18Pulau Kelapa SatuOne Coconut IslandNorth Goat Island0.02
19Pulau BlanEast Cay0.03
20Pulau Blan MadarBurial Island0.03
21Pulau MariaMaria IslandWest Cay0.01
22Pulau KambingGoat IslandKeelingham Horn Island<0.01
23Pulau PanjangLong Island West Island 6.23
24Pulau Wak BangkaTurtle Island0.22

There are no rivers or lakes on either atoll. Fresh water resources are limited to water lenses on the larger islands, underground accumulations of rainwater lying above the seawater. These lenses are accessed through shallow bores or wells.

Flora and fauna

Climate

Cocos (Keeling) Islands experiences tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to Köppen climate classification as the archipelago lies approximately in the midway between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. The archipelago has two distinct precipitation totals between the wet season and the dry season. The wettest month is April with precipitation total 250.0 millimetres (9.84 in), while the driest month is October with precipitation total 50.9 millimetres (2.00 in). The temperature varies a little as its location away from the Equator. The hottest month is March with average high temperature 29.8 °C (85.6 °F), while the coolest month is August with average low temperature 23.6 °C (74.5 °F).

Demographics

In 2010, the population of the islands is estimated at just over 600. [10] The population on the two inhabited islands generally is split between the ethnic Europeans on West Island (estimated population 100) and the ethnic Malays on Home Island (estimated population 500). A Cocos dialect of Malay and English are the main languages spoken, and 80% of Cocos Islanders are Sunni Muslim. [10]

History

Discovery and early history

Historic compass chart of the Cocos islands AMH-5134-NA Compass chart of the Kokos islands.jpg
Historic compass chart of the Cocos islands

The archipelago was discovered in 1609 by Captain William Keeling of the East India Company, on a return voyage from the East Indies. North Keeling was sketched by Ekeberg, a Swedish captain, in 1749, showing the presence of coconut palms. It also appears on a 1789 chart produced by British hydrographer Alexander Dalrymple. [12]

In 1825, Scottish merchant seaman Captain John Clunies-Ross stopped briefly at the islands on a trip to India, nailing up a Union Jack and planning to return and settle on the islands with his family in the future. [13] Wealthy Englishman Alexander Hare had similar plans, and hired a captain  coincidentally, Clunies-Ross's brother to bring him and a volunteer harem of 40 Malay women to the islands, where he hoped to establish his private residence. [14] Hare had previously served as resident of Banjarmasin, a town in Borneo, and found that "he could not confine himself to the tame life that civilisation affords". [14]

Clunies-Ross returned two years later with his wife, children and mother-in-law, and found Hare already established on the island and living with the private harem. A feud grew between the two. [14] Clunies-Ross's eight sailors "began at once the invasion of the new kingdom to take possession of it, women and all". [14]

After some time, Hare's women began deserting him, and instead finding themselves mates amongst Clunies-Ross's sailors. [15] Disheartened, Hare left the island. He died in Bencoolen in 1834. [16] Encouraged by members of the former harem, Clunies-Ross then recruited Malays to come to the island for work and wives.

Clunies-Ross's workers were paid in a currency called the Cocos rupee, a currency John Clunies-Ross minted himself that could only be redeemed at the company store. [17]

1840 chart of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Chart of Cocos Keeling Islands.png
1840 chart of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
A landing party from the German Navy cruiser Emden leaves Cocos (Keeling) Islands via this jetty on Direction Island on 9 November 1914. WW1 Landing at Direction Island.jpg
A landing party from the German Navy cruiser Emden leaves Cocos (Keeling) Islands via this jetty on Direction Island on 9 November 1914.

On 1 April 1836, HMS Beagle under Captain Robert FitzRoy arrived to take soundings to establish the profile of the atoll as part of the survey expedition of the Beagle. To the naturalist Charles Darwin, aboard the ship, the results supported a theory he had developed of how atolls formed, which he later published as The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs . He studied the natural history of the islands and collected specimens. [18] Darwin's assistant Syms Covington noted that "an Englishman [he was in fact Scottish] and HIS family, with about sixty or seventy mulattos from the Cape of Good Hope, live on one of the islands. Captain Ross, the governor, is now absent at the Cape."

Annexation by the British Empire

The islands were annexed by the British Empire in 1857. [19] This annexation was carried out by Captain Stephen Grenville Fremantle in command of HMS Juno. Fremantle claimed the islands for the British Empire and appointed Ross II as Superintendent. [20] In 1878, by Letters Patent, the Governor of Ceylon was made Governor of the islands, and, by further Letters Patent in 1886, [21] responsibility for the islands was transferred to the Governor of the Straits Settlement to exercise his functions as "Governor of Cocos Islands". [19]

The islands were made part of the Straits Settlement under an Order in Council of 20 May 1903. [22] Meanwhile, in 1886 Queen Victoria had, by indenture, granted the islands in perpetuity to John Clunies-Ross. [23] The head of the family enjoyed semi-official status as Resident Magistrate and Government representative. [23]

In 1901 a telegraph cable station was established on Direction Island. Undersea cables went to Rodrigues, Mauritius, Batavia, Java and Fremantle, Western Australia. In 1910 a wireless station was established to communicate with passing ships. The cable station ceased operation in 1966. [24]

World War I

On the morning of 9 November 1914, the islands became the site of the Battle of Cocos, one of the first naval battles of World War I. A landing party from the German cruiser SMS Emden captured and disabled the wireless and cable communications station on Direction Island, but not before the station was able to transmit a distress call. An Allied troop convoy was passing nearby, and the Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney was detached from the convoy escort to investigate.

Sydney spotted the island and Emden at 09:15, with both ships preparing for combat. At 11:20, the heavily damaged Emden beached herself on North Keeling Island. The Australian warship broke to pursue Emden's supporting collier, which scuttled herself, then returned to North Keeling Island at 16:00. At this point, Emden's battle ensign was still flying: usually a sign that a ship intends to continue fighting. After no response to instructions to lower the ensign, two salvoes were shot into the beached cruiser, after which the Germans lowered the flag and raised a white sheet. Sydney had orders to ascertain the status of the transmission station, but returned the next day to provide medical assistance to the Germans.

Casualties totaled 134 personnel aboard Emden killed, and 69 wounded, compared to four killed and 16 wounded aboard Sydney. The German survivors were taken aboard the Australian cruiser, which caught up to the troop convoy in Colombo on 15 November, then transported to Malta and handed over the prisoners to the British Army. An additional 50 German personnel from the shore party, unable to be recovered before Sydney arrived, commandeered a schooner and escaped from Direction Island, eventually arriving in Constantinople. Emden was the last active Central Powers warship in the Indian or Pacific Ocean, which meant troopships from Australia and New Zealand could sail without naval escort, and Allied ships could be deployed elsewhere.

World War II

During World War II, the cable station was once again a vital link. The Cocos were valuable for direction finding by the Y service, the worldwide intelligence system used during the war. [25]

Allied planners noted that the islands might be seized as an airfield for German planes and as a base for commerce raiders operating in the Indian Ocean. Following Japan's entry into the war, Japanese forces occupied neighbouring islands. To avoid drawing their attention to the Cocos cable station and its islands' garrison, the seaplane anchorage between Direction and Horsburgh islands was not used. Radio transmitters were also kept silent, except in emergencies.[ citation needed ]

After the Fall of Singapore in 1942, the islands were administered from Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and West and Direction Islands were placed under Allied military administration. The islands' garrison initially consisted of a platoon from the British Army's King's African Rifles, located on Horsburgh Island, with two 6-inch (152.4 mm) guns to cover the anchorage. The local inhabitants all lived on Home Island. Despite the importance of the islands as a communication centre, the Japanese made no attempt either to raid or to occupy them and contented themselves with sending over a reconnaissance aircraft about once a month.

On the night of 8–9 May 1942, 15 members of the garrison, from the Ceylon Defence Force, mutinied under the leadership of Gratien Fernando. The mutineers were said to have been provoked by the attitude of their British officers and were also supposedly inspired by Japanese anti-British propaganda. They attempted to take control of the gun battery on the islands. The Cocos Islands Mutiny was crushed, but the mutineers murdered one non-mutinous soldier and wounded one officer. Seven of the mutineers were sentenced to death at a trial that was later alleged to have been improperly conducted, though the guilt of the accused was admitted. Four of the sentences were commuted, but three men were executed, including Fernando. These were to be the only British Commonwealth soldiers executed for mutiny during the Second World War. [26]

On 25 December 1942, the Japanese submarine I-166 bombarded the islands but caused no damage. [27]

Later in the war, two airstrips were built, and three bomber squadrons were moved to the islands to conduct raids against Japanese targets in South East Asia and to provide support during the planned reinvasion of Malaya and reconquest of Singapore. The first aircraft to arrive were Supermarine Spitfire Mk VIIIs of No. 136 Squadron RAF. [28] They included some Liberator bombers from No. 321 (Netherlands) Squadron RAF (members of exiled Dutch forces serving with the Royal Air Force), which were also stationed on the islands. When in July 1945 No. 99 and No. 356 RAF squadrons arrived on West Island, they brought with them a daily newspaper called Atoll which contained news of what was happening in the outside world. Run by airmen in their off-duty hours, it achieved fame when dropped by Liberator bombers on POW camps over the heads of the Japanese guards.

In 1946, the administration of the islands reverted to Singapore and it became part of the Colony of Singapore. [29]

Transfer to Australia

On 23 November 1955, the islands were transferred from the United Kingdom to the Commonwealth of Australia. Immediately before the transfer the islands were part of the United Kingdom's Colony of Singapore, in accordance with the Straits Settlements (Repeal) Act, 1946 of the United Kingdom [30] and the British Settlements Acts, 1887 and 1945, as applied by the Act of 1946. [19] The legal steps for effecting the transfer were as follows: [31]

The reason for this comparatively complex machinery was due to the terms of the Straits Settlement (Repeal) Act, 1946. According to Sir Kenneth Roberts-Wray "any other procedure would have been of doubtful validity". [32] The separation involved three steps: separation from the Colony of Singapore; transfer by United Kingdom and acceptance by Australia.

H. J. Hull was appointed the first official representative (now administrator) of the new territory. He had been a lieutenant-commander in the Royal Australian Navy and was released for the purpose. Under Commonwealth Cabinet Decision 1573 of 9 September 1958, Hull's appointment was terminated and John William Stokes was appointed on secondment from the Northern Territory police. A media release at the end of October 1958 by the Minister for Territories, Hasluck, commended Hull's three years of service on Cocos.

Stokes served in the position from 31 October 1958 to 30 September 1960. His son's boyhood memories and photos of the Islands have been published. [33] C. I. Buffett MBE from Norfolk Island succeeded him and served from 28 July 1960 to 30 June 1966, and later acted as Administrator back on Cocos and on Norfolk Island. In 1974, Ken Mullen wrote a small book [34] about his time with wife and son from 1964 to 1966 working at the Cable Station on Direction Island.

In the 1970s, the Australian government's dissatisfaction with the Clunies-Ross feudal style of rule of the island increased. In 1978, Australia forced the family to sell the islands for the sum of A$ 6,250,000, using the threat of compulsory acquisition. By agreement, the family retained ownership of Oceania House, their home on the island. In 1983, the Australian government reneged on this agreement and told John Clunies-Ross that he should leave the Cocos. The following year the High Court of Australia ruled that resumption of Oceania House was unlawful, but the Australian government ordered that no government business was to be granted to Clunies-Ross's shipping company, an action that contributed to his bankruptcy. [35] John Clunies-Ross now lives in Perth, Western Australia. However, some members of the Clunies-Ross family still live on the Cocos.

Extensive preparations were undertaken by the government of Australia to prepare the Cocos Malays to vote in their referendum of self-determination. Discussions began in 1982, with an aim of holding the referendum, under United Nations supervision, in mid-1983. Under guidelines developed by the UN Decolonization Committee, residents were to be offered three choices: full independence, free association, or integration with Australia. The last option was preferred by both the islanders and the Australian government. A change in government in Canberra following the March 1983 Australian elections delayed the vote by one year. While the Home Island Council stated a preference for a traditional communal consensus "vote", the UN insisted on a secret ballot. The referendum was held on 6 April 1984, with all 261 eligible islanders participating, including the Clunies-Ross family: 229 voted for integration, 21 for Free Association, nine for independence, and two failed to indicate a preference. [36] In recent years a series of disputes have occurred between the Muslim Coco Malay inhabitants and the non-Muslim population of the islands. [37]

Government

The capital of the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is West Island while the largest settlement is the village of Bantam[ citation needed ] (Home Island). Governance of the islands is based on the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955 [38] [39] and depends heavily on the laws of Australia. The islands are administered from Canberra by the Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities through a non-resident Administrator appointed by the Governor-General. They were previously the responsibility of the Department of Transport and Regional Services (before 2007), the Attorney-General's Department (2007–2013), and Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development (2013–2017) [40] [41]

The current Administrator is Natasha Griggs, who was appointed on 5 October 2017 and is also the Administrator of Christmas Island. These two Territories comprise the Australian Indian Ocean Territories. The Australian Government provides Commonwealth-level government services through the Christmas Island Administration and the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development. [42] As per the Federal Government's Territories Law Reform Act 1992, which came into force on 1 July 1992, Western Australian laws are applied to the Cocos Islands, "so far as they are capable of applying in the Territory."; [43] non-application or partial application of such laws is at the discretion of the federal government. The Act also gives Western Australian courts judicial power over the islands. The Cocos Islands remain constitutionally distinct from Western Australia, however; the power of the state to legislate for the territory is power delegated by the federal government. The kind of services typically provided by a state government elsewhere in Australia are provided by departments of the Western Australian Government, and by contractors, with the costs met by the federal government.

There also exists a unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council with seven seats. A full term lasts four years, though elections are held every two years; approximately half the members retire each two years.

Federal politics

Senate, 2016 [44]
Labor
54.64%
Rise Up Australia
22.86%
Country Liberal
11.07%
Greens
5.00%
CEC
3.21%
HEMP/Sex
3.21%
House of Representatives, 2016 [45]
Labor
64.34%
Shooters
19.49%
Country Liberal
8.82%
Greens
2.94%
Others
4.41%

Cocos (Keeling) Islands residents who are Australian citizens also vote in federal elections. Cocos (Keeling) Islanders are represented in the House of Representatives by the member for the Division of Lingiari (in the Northern Territory) and in the Senate by Northern Territory senators. [46] At the 2016 federal election, the Labor Party received absolute majorities from Cocos electors in both the House of Representatives and the Senate. [44] [45]

Defence and law enforcement

Defence is the responsibility of the Australian Defence Force. There are no active military installations or defence personnel on the islands. The Administrator may request the assistance of the Australian Defence Force if required. The 2016 Australian Defence White Paper stated that the airfield in the island would be upgraded to support the RAAF's P-8 Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft. [47]

Civilian law enforcement and community policing is provided by the Australian Federal Police. The normal deployment to the island is one sergeant and one constable. These are augmented by two locally engaged Special Members who have police powers.

Courts

Since 1992, court services have been provided by the Western Australian Department of the Attorney-General under a service delivery arrangement with the Australian Government. Western Australian Court Services provide Magistrates Court, District Court, Supreme Court, Family Court, Children's Court, Coroner's Court and Registry for births, deaths and marriages and change of name services. Magistrates and judges from Western Australia convene a circuit court as required.

Health care

Home Island and West Island have medical clinics providing basic health services, but serious medical conditions and injuries cannot be treated on the island and patients are sent to Perth for treatment, a distance of 3,000 km (1,900 mi).

Economy

The population of the islands is approximately 600. There is a small and growing tourist industry focused on water-based or nature activities. In 2016, a beach on Direction Island was named the best beach in Australia by Brad Farmer, an Aquatic and Coastal Ambassador for Tourism Australia and co-author of 101 Best Beaches 2017. [48] [49]

Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but most food and most other necessities must be imported from Australia or elsewhere.

The Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction workers, stevedores, and lighterage worker operations. Tourism employs others. The unemployment rate was 6.7% in 2011. [50]

Strategic importance

The Cocos Islands are strategically important because of their proximity to shipping lanes in the Indian and Pacific oceans. [51] The United States and Australia have expressed interest in stationing surveillance drones on the Cocos Islands. [52] Euronews described the plan as Australian support for an increased American presence in Southeast Asia, but expressed concern that it was likely to upset Chinese officials. [53]

James Cogan has written for the World Socialist Web Site that the plan to station surveillance drones at Cocos is one component of former US President Barack Obama's "pivot" towards Asia, facilitating control of the sea lanes and potentially allowing US forces to enforce a blockade against China. [51] After plans to construct airbases were leaked to the Washington Post ,[ citation needed ] Australian defence minister Stephen Smith stated that the Australian government views the "Cocos as being potentially a long-term strategic location, but that is down the track." [54]

Communications and transport

Transport

The Cocos (Keeling) Islands have fifteen kilometres (9.3 miles) of highway.

There is one paved airport on the West Island. A tourist bus operates on Home Island.

The only airport is Cocos (Keeling) Islands Airport with a single 2,441 m (8,009 ft) paved runway. Virgin Australia operates scheduled jet services from Perth Airport via Christmas Island. After 1952, the airport at Cocos Islands was a stop for airline flights between Australia and South Africa, and Qantas and South African Airways stopped there to refuel. The arrival of long-range jet aircraft ended this need in 1967.

An interisland ferry, the Cahaya Baru, connects West, Home and Direction Islands.

There is a lagoon anchorage between Horsburgh and Direction islands for larger vessels, while yachts have a dedicated anchorage area in the southern lee of Direction Island. There are no major seaports on the islands.

Communications

The islands are connected within Australia's telecommunication system (with number range +61 8 9162 xxxx). Public phones are located on both West Island and Home Island. A reasonably reliable GSM mobile phone network (number range +61 406 xxx), run by CiiA (Christmas Island Internet Association), operates on Cocos (Keeling) Islands. SIM cards (full size) and recharge cards can be purchased from the Telecentre on West Island to access this service.

Australia Post provides mail services with the postcode 6799. There are post offices on West Island and Home Island. Standard letters and express post items are sent by air twice weekly, but all other mail is sent by sea and can take up to two months for delivery.

Internet

.cc is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Cocos (Keeling) Islands. It is administered by VeriSign through a subsidiary company eNIC, which promotes it for international registration as "the next .com"; .cc was originally assigned in October 1997 to eNIC Corporation of Seattle WA by the IANA. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus also uses the .cc domain, along with .nc.tr.

Internet access on Cocos is provided by CiiA (Christmas Island Internet Association), and is supplied via satellite ground station on West Island, and distributed via a wireless PPPoE-based WAN on both inhabited islands. Casual internet access is available at the Telecentre on West Island and the Indian Ocean Group Training office on Home Island.

The National Broadband Network announced in early 2012 that it would extend service to Cocos in 2015 via high-speed satellite link. [55]

Media

The Cocos (Keeling) Islands have access to a range of modern communication services. Digital television stations are broadcast from Western Australia via satellite. A local radio station, 6CKI – Voice of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, is staffed by community volunteers and provides some local content.

Television

Australian

The Cocos (Keeling) Islands receives a range of digital channels from Western Australia via satellite and is broadcast from the Airport Building on the West Island on the following VHF frequencies: ABC6, SBS7, WAW8, WOW10 and WDW11 [56]

Malaysian

From 2013 onwards, Cocos Island will receive four Malaysian channels via satellite: TV3, ntv7, 8TV and TV9.[ citation needed ]

Education

There is a school in the archipelago, Cocos Islands District High School, with campuses located on West Island (Kindergarten to Year 10), and the other on Home Island (Kindergarten to Year 6). CIDHS is part of the Western Australia Department of Education. School instruction is in English on both campuses, with Cocos Malay teacher aides assisting the younger children in Kindergarten, Pre-Preparatory and early Primary with the English curriculum on the Home Island Campus. The Home Language of Cocos Malay is valued whilst students engage in learning English.

Culture

Heritage listings

The West Island Mosque on Alexander Street is listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List. [57]

See also

Related Research Articles

Australian Indian Ocean Territories is the name since 1995 of an administrative unit under the Australian Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, consisting of two islands groups in the Indian Ocean under Australian sovereignty:

Shire of Cocos Local government area in Australia

The Shire of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is a local government area which manages local affairs on the Australian external territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands. The island is grouped with Western Australia but is administered by the Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities and an Administrator.

Cocos Malays geographical object

Cocos Malays are a community that form the predominant group of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, which is now part of Australia. Despite that they all have assimilated into the ethnic Malay culture, they are named in reference to the Malay race, coming from places such as Bali, Bima, Celebes, Madura, Sumbawa, Timor, Sumatra, Pasir-Kutai, Malacca, Penang, Batavia and Cirebon.

Horsburgh Island island

Horsburgh Island is one of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Its area is 1.04 square kilometres. There is a small lagoon in the interior of the island to the northeast.

Home Island island of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia

Home Island, also known locally as Pulu Selma, is one of only two permanently inhabited islands of the 26 islands of the Southern Atoll of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, an Australian Overseas Territory in the central-eastern Indian Ocean. It is 95 hectares in area and contains the largest settlement of the territory, Bantam, with a population of about 500 Cocos Malay people. Local attractions include a museum covering local culture and traditions, flora and fauna, Australian naval history, and the early owners of the Cocos-Keeling Islands. There is also a trail leading to Oceania House which was the ancestral home of the Clunies-Ross family, the former rulers of the Cocos-Keeling Islands and is over a century old.

The Supreme Court of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands is the de jure superior court for the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, an Australian external territory. The court was originally established in 1958 after the British Government transferred sovereignty for the islands from Singapore to Australia. The court had jurisdiction to deal with all serious crimes and major civil claims for damages occurring on the Island.

Postage stamps and postal history of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

The postage stamps and postal history of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands is linked to those of the two British colonies and of Australia to which the Indian Ocean archipelago was successively attached.

A status referendum was held in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands on 6 April 1984. All registered voters participated in the vote, with 88% voting for integration with Australia. The referendum has been described as the "smallest act of self-determination ever conducted".

West Island Mosque

West Island Mosque is a heritage-listed mosque at Alexander Street, West Island, of the Cocos Keeling Islands, an external territory of Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Home Island Industrial Precinct Heritage site on Home Island, Australia

The Home Island Industrial Precinct is a heritage-listed industrial area at Jalan Bunga Mawar, Home Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Direction Island Slipway and Tank Heritage site on Direction Island, Australia

The Direction Island Slipway and Tank are heritage-listed industrial remnants at Direction Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. The site was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Six Inch Guns, Horsburgh Island

The Six Inch Guns are a heritage-listed battery at Horsburgh Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Oceania House

Oceania House is a heritage-listed house at Jalan Bunga Kangkong, Home Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Qantas Huts

The Qantas Huts are heritage-listed former accommodation huts at Sydney Highway, West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. They were was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Home Island Cemetery

Home Island Cemetery is a heritage-listed cemetery at Home Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Administration Building Forecourt historic commonwealth heritage site in Cocos (Keeling) Islands EXT

The Administration Building Forecourt is a heritage-listed garden and memorial precinct at Morea Close, West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Old Co-Op Shop

The Old Co-op Shop is a heritage-listed retail building at Jalan Bunga Mawar, Home Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia. It was added to the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

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Bibliography