Cofre de Perote

Last updated
Cofre de Perote
Perote volcano.jpg
Cofre de Perote
Highest point
Elevation 4,282 m (14,049 ft) [1]
Prominence 1,340 m (4,400 ft)
Listing
Coordinates 19°29.52′N97°9′W / 19.49200°N 97.150°W / 19.49200; -97.150 Coordinates: 19°29.52′N97°9′W / 19.49200°N 97.150°W / 19.49200; -97.150
Geography
Location Perote Municipality, Veracruz, Mexico
Geology
Mountain type Shield volcano
Volcanic belt Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt
Last eruption 1150 CE ± 100 years
Climbing
Easiest route rock climb

Geography

Cofre de Perote, also known by its Nahuatl names Naupa-Tecutépetl (from Nāuhpa-Tēuctēpetl) and Nauhcampatépetl, both meaning something like "Place of Four Mountain" or "Mountain of the Lord of Four Places", is an inactive volcano located in the Mexican state of Veracruz, at the point where the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, home to all of Mexico's highest peaks, joins the Sierra Madre Oriental. With an elevation of 4,282 metres (14,049 ft) above sea level, Cofre de Perote is Mexico's eighth highest mountain summit.

Nahuatl, known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live in central Mexico.

Volcano A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fourth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 129 million people, Mexico is the tenth most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, and León.

Contents

Cofre de Perote is a shield volcano, shaped very differently from the stratovolcanic Pico de Orizaba, which lies about 50 km (31 mi) to the southeast. A cofre is a coffer, and the name alludes to a volcanic outcropping on the shield which constitutes the peak of the mountain. To the north is the town of Perote, Veracruz, after which the mountain is named.

Shield volcano Low profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows

A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually composed almost entirely of fluid lava flows. It is named for its low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground. This is caused by the highly fluid lava erupted, which travels farther than lava erupted from a stratovolcano, and results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form.

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Pico de Orizaba mountain

Pico de Orizaba, also known as Citlaltépetl, is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America, after Denali of Alaska in the United States and Mount Logan of Canada. It rises 5,636 metres (18,491 ft) above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla. The volcano is currently dormant but not extinct, with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. It is the second most prominent volcanic peak in the world after Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro.

The area surrounding the volcano was protected by the Mexican government as a national park, known as Cofre de Perote National Park (Spanish : Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote), in 1937.

National park Park used for conservation purposes of animal life and plants

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 450 million native speakers in Spain and in the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Cofre de Perote from the northwest Cofre de Perote from the northwest.jpg
Cofre de Perote from the northwest
Aerial view of Cofre de Perote from the northwest, with Pico de Orizaba and Sierra Negra visible to the south Cofre Perote&Orizaba.jpg
Aerial view of Cofre de Perote from the northwest, with Pico de Orizaba and Sierra Negra visible to the south

Climate

Cofre de Perote features a humid alpine climate (Köppen climate classification ET), without a dry season but having a rainier season in summer and autumn.

Alpine climate average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line

Alpine climate is the typical weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line. This climate is also referred to as a mountain climate or highland climate.

Climate data for Cofre de Perote
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)2.2
(36.0)
4.8
(40.6)
6.1
(43.0)
7.3
(45.1)
8.4
(47.1)
6.7
(44.1)
6.0
(42.8)
7.1
(44.8)
6.8
(44.2)
6.0
(42.8)
5.4
(41.7)
4.5
(40.1)
5.9
(42.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
2.7
(36.9)
3.4
(38.1)
5.1
(41.2)
6.6
(43.9)
5.2
(41.4)
4.1
(39.4)
4.8
(40.6)
5.0
(41.0)
4.2
(39.6)
3.3
(37.9)
2.1
(35.8)
3.9
(39.0)
Average low °C (°F)−2.3
(27.9)
0.7
(33.3)
0.8
(33.4)
3.0
(37.4)
4.9
(40.8)
3.6
(38.5)
2.3
(36.1)
2.6
(36.7)
3.2
(37.8)
2.4
(36.3)
1.2
(34.2)
−0.3
(31.5)
1.8
(35.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)41.2
(1.62)
44.2
(1.74)
44.7
(1.76)
61.7
(2.43)
100.7
(3.96)
360.0
(14.17)
422.2
(16.62)
397.6
(15.65)
426.9
(16.81)
200.0
(7.87)
69.0
(2.72)
54.1
(2.13)
2,222.3
(87.48)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)22.122.429.327.127.928.928.630.429.329.120.121.2316.4
Average snowy days19.24.33.82.50.50.40.40.30.60.91.62.637.1
[ citation needed ]

See also

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References

  1. INEGI. Anuario Estadístico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos 2010. Consultado el 16 de Septiembre de 2014. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2014-09-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)