Coins of the United States dollar

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Coins of the United States dollar (aside from those of the earlier Continental currency) were first minted in 1792. New coins have been produced annually and they make up a valuable aspect of the United States currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 1¢ (i.e. 1 cent or $0.01), 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, and $1.00. Also minted are bullion (including gold, silver and platinum) and commemorative coins. All of these are produced by the United States Mint. The coins are then sold to Federal Reserve Banks which in turn are responsible for putting coins into circulation and withdrawing them as demanded by the country's economy.

Contents

Current coinage

Today, four mints operate in the United States producing billions of coins each year. The main mint is the Philadelphia Mint, [1] which produces circulating coinage, mint sets and some commemorative coins. The Denver Mint [2] also produces circulating coinage, mint sets and commemoratives. The San Francisco Mint [3] produces regular and silver proof coinage, and produced circulating coinage until the 1970s. The West Point Mint [4] produces bullion coinage (including proofs). Philadelphia and Denver produce the dies used at all of the mints. The proof and mint sets are manufactured each year and contain examples of all of the year's circulating coins.

The producing mint of each coin may be easily identified, as most coins bear a mint mark. The identifying letter of the mint can be found on the front side of most coins, and is often placed near the year. Unmarked coins are issued by the Philadelphia mint. Among marked coins, Philadelphia coins bear a letter P. Denver coins bear a letter D, San Francisco coins bear a letter S, and West Point coins bear a letter W. S and W coins are rarely, found in general circulation, although S coins bearing dates prior to the mid-1970s are in circulation. The CC, O, C, and D mint marks were used on gold and silver coins for various periods from the mid-19th century until the early 20th century by temporary mints in Carson City, Nevada; New Orleans, Louisiana; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Dahlonega, Georgia. Most such coins that still exist are now in the hands of collectors and museums.

Coins in circulation

ValueImageSpecifications [5] [6] DescriptionMintedUsageCommon Reference
ObverseReverseDiameterThicknessMassCompositionEdgeObverseReverse
US One Cent Obv.png Wheatback2014.jpg 19.05 mm (0.750 in)1.52 mm (0.060 in)1909–1942
3.11 g (48.0 gr)
copper 95%
tin/zinc 5%
plain Abraham Lincoln Wheat 1909–1958wide 2 wheat cent, wheat penny, wheatie
1943: ? steel/zinc 1 rare 2
1944–1946: ?salvaged brass composition 1 wide 2
1947-1982
3.11 g (48.0 gr)
copper 95%
tin/zinc 5%
wide 2
2005 Penny Rev Unc D.png Lincoln Memorial 1959–2008widecent, penny
1982–present
2.50 g (38 gr)
Core:
zinc 97.5%
Plating:
copper 2.5% 1
see article: 2009 redesign Lincoln bicentennial designs 2009
US One Cent Rev.png Union shield 2010–present
Jefferson-Nickel-Unc-Obv.jpg US Nickel Reverse.jpg 21.21 mm (0.835 in)1.95 mm (0.077 in)5.000 g (77.16 gr) copper 75%
nickel 25% 3
plain Thomas Jefferson (profile) Monticello 1938–2003widenickel
NickelObverses.jpg see article: Westward Journey nickel Lewis & Clark bicentennial designs 2004–2005
US Nickel 2013 Obv.png US Nickel 2013 Rev.png Thomas Jefferson (portrait) Monticello 2006–present
10¢ Dime Obverse 13.png Dime Reverse 13.png 17.91 mm (0.705 in)1.35 mm (0.053 in)2.268 g (35.00 gr) copper  91.67%
nickel 8.33% 4
118 reeds Franklin D. Roosevelt torch, oak branch, olive branch 1946–presentwidedime
25¢ 98 quarter obverse.png 98 quarter reverse.png 24.26 mm (0.955 in)1.75 mm (0.069 in)5.670 g (87.50 gr)119 reeds George Washington Bald eagle 1932–1974, 1977–1998 5 widequarter, quarter dollar
1976 Bicentennial Quarter Rev.png Bicentennial colonial military drummer(1975) 1976 5
2021 GW crossing Delaware quarter reverse.jpeg Washington crossing the Delaware2021
2006 Quarter Proof.png see article: 50 State quarters State Quarter Series 1999–2008
see article: D.C. and U.S. Territories quarters D.C. and U. S. Territories Quarters 2009
2014 ATB Quarter Obv.png see article: America the Beautiful quarters America the Beautiful Quarters 2010–2021
2022-american-women-quarters-coin-uncirculated-obverse-denver.jpg see article: American Women quarters American Women quarters 2022–2025
50¢
US Half Dollar Obverse 2015.png US 50 Cent Rev.png 30.61 mm (1.205 in)2.15 mm (0.085 in)11.34 g (175.0 gr)150 reeds John F. Kennedy Seal of the President of the United States surrounded by 50 stars1964–1974, 1977–present 5 limited 6 half, half dollar, 50-cent piece
Bicentennial 50c.png Independence Hall (1975) 1976 5
$1
1978 dollar obv.jpg 1978 dollar rev.jpg 38.1 mm (1.500 in)2.58 mm (0.102 in)22.68 g
(0.8 oz)
(350  gr)
reeded Dwight D. Eisenhower Apollo 11 mission insignia1971–1974, 1977-1978limited 6 large dollar, Ike dollar
1976D Type2 Eisenhower Reverse.jpg Liberty Bell superimposed over the Moon 1975-1976
1999 SBA Obv P.png 1999 SBA Rev P.png 26.50 mm (1.043 in)2.00 mm (0.079 in)8.10 g
(125 gr)
reeded Susan B. Anthony Apollo 11 mission insignia1979–1981, 1999 8 limited 6 SBA, Suzie B., Anthony
$1
Sacagawea dollar obverse.png 2003 Sacagawea Rev.png 26.49 mm (1.043 in)2.00 mm (0.079 in)8.10 g
(125 gr)
Core:
 100%  Cu
Cladding:  77% Cu,
 12%  Zn,
  7%  Mn,
  4%  Ni
Overall:  88.5% Cu,
     6% Zn,
  3.5% Mn,
    2% Ni
plain Sacagawea Bald eagle in flight2000–2008limited 7 dollar coin, gold(en) dollar, Sacagawea
see article: Native American $1 Coin Act incused inscriptionsNative American Themes2009–present [7]
see article: Presidential dollar coins 7 LineartPresRev.png Each deceased president Statue of Liberty 2007–2016, 2020 (after 2012 not for circulation)dollar coin, gold(en) dollar
see article: American Innovation dollars 9 Statue of Liberty 10 Various designs, honoring an innovation or innovator from each state2018–2032 (not currently circulated)
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.

Remarks

US One Cent Obv.png
US Nickel 2013 Obv.png
Dime Obverse 13.png
2014 ATB Quarter Obv.png
US Half Dollar Obverse 2015.png
Sacagawea dollar obverse.png
  1. The mass and composition of the cent changed to the current copper-plated zinc core in 1982. Both types were minted in 1982 with no distinguishing mark. Cents minted in 1943 were struck on planchets punched from zinc-coated steel which left the resulting edges uncoated. This caused many of these coins to rust. These "steel pennies" are not likely to be found in circulation today, as they were later intentionally removed from circulation for recycling the metal and by collectors. However, cents minted from 1944 to 1946 were made from a special salvaged WWII brass composition to replace the steel cents, but still save material for the war effort, and are more common in circulation than their 1943 counterparts.
  2. The wheat cent was mainstream and common during its time. Some dates are rare, but many can still be found in circulation. This is partially due to the fact that unlike the formerly silver denominations (dollar, half dollar, quarter, and dime), the composition of the pre-1982 cent, nearly pure copper, is not so much more valuable over face value for it to be hoarded to the extreme extent of the silver denominations.
  3. Nickels produced from mid-1942 through 1945 were manufactured from 56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese. This allowed the saved nickel metal to be shifted to industrial production of military supplies during World War II. Few of these are still found in circulation.
  4. Prior to 1965 and passage of the Coinage Act of 1965 the composition of the dime, quarter, half-dollar and dollar coins was 90% silver and 10% copper. The half-dollar continued to be minted in a 40% silver-clad composition between 1965 and 1970. Dimes and quarters from before 1965 and half-dollars from before 1971 are generally not in circulation due to being removed for their silver content.
  5. In 1975 and 1976 U.S. Bicentennial coinage was minted. Regardless of date of coining, each coin bears the dual date "1776-1976". The Quarter-Dollar, Half-Dollar and Dollar coins were issued in the copper 91.67% nickel 8.33% composition for general circulation and the Government issued six-coin Proof Set. A special three-coin set of 40% silver coins were also issued by the U.S. Mint in both Uncirculated and Proof.
  6. Use of the half-dollar is not as widespread as that of other coins in general circulation; most Americans use dollar coins, quarters, dimes, nickels and cents only, as these are the only coins most often found in general circulation. When found, many 50¢ coins are quickly hoarded, spent, or brought to banks. As large numbers of half dollars are typically held by banks or available to order, they are often sought after by coin roll hunters for the purpose of searching for silver coins, proofs, and coins not intended for circulation.
  7. The Presidential Dollar series features portraits of all deceased U.S. Presidents with four coin designs issued each year in the order of the president's inauguration date. These coins began circulating on February 15, 2007. Starting 2012, these coins have been minted only for collectible sets because of a large stockpile.
  8. The Susan B. Anthony dollar coin was minted from 1979 to 1981 and 1999. The 1999 minting was in response to Treasury supplies of the dollar becoming depleted and the inability to accelerate the minting of the Sacagawea dollars by a year. 1981 Anthony dollars can sometimes be found in circulation from proof sets that were broken open, but these dollars were not minted with the intent that they circulate.
  9. Although dollar coins have not been struck for circulation since 2011, the American Innovation dollar is considered a circulation coin by the US Mint. [8]
  10. Since 2019, each American Innovation dollar coin features a different privy mark, changed annually, located just below "IN GOD WE TRUST".

Bullion coins

Non-circulating bullion coins have been produced each year since 1986. They can be found in gold, silver, platinum (since 1997), and palladium (since 2017). The face value of these coins is legal as tender, but does not actually reflect the value of the precious metal contained therein. On May 11, 2011, Utah became the first state to accept these coins as the value of the precious metal in common transactions. The Utah State Treasurer assigns a numerical precious metal value to these coins each week based on the spot metal prices. The bullion coin types include "S" (San Francisco, 1986-1992), "P" (Philadelphia, 1993 - 2000), and "W" (West Point, New York, 2001–present). [9]

MetalTypeFace ValueImagesSpecifications
ObverseReverseDiameterFinenessContentDates
Silver America the Beautiful silver bullion coins 25¢ see article: America the Beautiful quarters 76.2 mm999 fine5.00 ozt (155.52 g)2010 – 2021
American Silver Eagle $1 Liberty $1 Obverse.png Liberty $1 Reverse.png 40.6 mm1.00 ozt (31.10 g)1986 – 2021
$1 Silver Eagle Type 2 Reverse.png 2021 – present
Gold American Gold Eagle $5 Liberty $50 Obverse.png 16.5 mm916 fine (22 karat)0.10 ozt (3.11 g)1986 – 2021
2021 $5 Tenth oz. Gold Eagle Type 2 Reverse.png 2021 – present
$10 Liberty $50 Obverse.png 22.0 mm0.25 ozt (7.78 g)1986 – 2021
2021 $10 Quarter oz. Gold Eagle Type 2 Reverse.png 2021 – present
$25 Liberty $50 Obverse.png 27.0 mm0.50 ozt (15.55 g)1986 – 2021
2021 $25 Half oz. Gold Eagle Type 2 Reverse.png 2021 – present
$50 Liberty $50 Obverse.png Liberty $50 Reverse.png 32.7 mm1.00 ozt (31.10 g)1986 – 2021
2021 $50 1 oz. Gold Eagle Type 2 Reverse.png 2021 – present
American Buffalo $5 2008 American Buffalo $5 tenth ounce proof coin (obverse).jpg 2008 American Buffalo $5 tenth ounce proof coin (reverse).jpg 16.5 mm999.9 fine (24 karat)0.10 ozt (3.11 g)2008
$10 2008 American Buffalo $10 quarter ounce proof coin (obverse).jpg 2008 American Buffalo $10 quarter ounce proof coin (reverse).jpg 22.0 mm0.25 ozt (7.78 g)2008
$25 2008 American Buffalo $25 half ounce proof coin (obverse).jpg 2008 American Buffalo $25 half ounce proof coin (reverse).jpg 27.0 mm0.50 ozt (15.55 g)2008
$50 Buffalo $50 Obverse.png Buffalo $50 Reverse.png 32.7 mm1.00 ozt (31.10 g)2006 – present
American Liberty high relief gold coin $100 see article: American Liberty high relief gold coin 30.61 mm1.00 ozt (31.10 g)2015 – present
Platinum American Platinum Eagle $10 1998 Tenth Ounce American Platinum Eagle (obverse).jpg 1998 Tenth Ounce American Platinum Eagle (reverse).jpg 16.5 mm999.5 fine0.10 ozt (3.11 g)1997 – 2008
$25 American Platinum Eagle 2007 Obv.jpg American Platinum Eagle $25 quarter ounce reverse.jpg 22.0 mm0.25 ozt (7.78 g)1997 – 2008
$50 American Platinum Eagle 2007 Obv.jpg American Platinum Eagle $50 half ounce reverse.jpg 27.0 mm0.50 ozt (15.55 g)1997 – 2008
$100 American Platinum Eagle 2007 Obv.jpg American Platinum Eagle 2007 Rev.jpg 32.7 mm1.00 ozt (31.10 g)1997 – present
Palladium American Palladium Eagle $25 2017 $25 Palladium obverse.jpg 2017 $25 Palladium reverse.jpg 32.7 mm999.5 fine1.00 ozt (31.10 g)2017 – present
These images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the coin specification table.

Commemorative coins

Modern commemoratives have been minted since 1982. A list is available here.

Composition of US Modern Commemorative Coins
TypeTotal WeightDiameterCompositionFace ValuePrecious Metal Content
Half Dollar11.34 g30.61 mm (1.205 in) Cu 92%, Ni 8%50¢none
12.50 g Ag 90%, Cu 10%silver 10.25374 g (~0.36169 ozt)
Dollar26.73 g38.1 mm (1.500 in)Ag 90%, Cu 10%$1silver 24.057 g (~0.773 ozt)
Ag 99.9%silver
Half Eagle8.539 g21.59 mm (0.850 in) Au 90%, Ag 6%, Cu 4%$5gold 7.523 g (~0.2418 ozt)
Eagle16.718 g26.92 mm (1.060 in)Au 90%, Ag 6%, Cu 4%$10gold 15.05 g (~0.484 ozt)
Bi-metallic Eagle16.259 g26.92 mm (1.060 in)Au 48%, Pt 48%, alloy 4%gold, platinum
First Spouse Gold Bullion 14.175 g26.49 mm (1.043 in)Au 99.99%gold 14.175 g (~0.456 ozt)

Mint marks

List of current and past United States Mint branches and mint marks found on their coins:

MintMint markMetal mintedYear establishedCurrent status
Denver DAll metals1906Facility open
Philadelphia P ornone [lower-alpha 1] All metals1792Facility open
San Francisco SAll metals1854Facility open (mainly produces proof)
West Point W ornone [lower-alpha 2] Gold, Silver, Platinum and Palladium1973Facility open (mainly produces bullion)
Carson City CCGold and Silver1870Facility closed, 1893 [lower-alpha 3]
Charlotte CGold only1838Facility closed, 1861
Dahlonega D [lower-alpha 4] Gold only1838Facility closed, 1861
Manila [lower-alpha 5] M ornone [lower-alpha 6] All metals1920Facility closed, 1922; re-opened 1925–1941
New Orleans OGold and Silver1838Facility closed, 1861; re-opened 1879–1909 [lower-alpha 7]

Obsolete and canceled coins

Note: It is a common misconception that "eagle"-based nomenclature for gold U.S. coinage was merely slang. The "eagle," "half-eagle" and "quarter-eagle" were specifically given these names in the Coinage Act of 1792. Likewise, the double eagle was specifically created as such by name ("An Act to authorize the Coinage of Gold Dollars and Double Eagles", title and section 1, March 3, 1849).

Some modern commemorative coins have been minted in the silver dollar, half-eagle and eagle denominations.

See also US coin sizes, showing all major U.S. coin series and scaled images in a single chart.

The law governing obsolete, mutilated, and worn coins and currency, including types which are no longer in production (e.g. Indian cents), can be found in 31 U.S.C.   § 5120.

Mill coins

Although the term mill (also mil or mille) was defined in the eighteenth century as 11,000 of a dollar or 0.1¢, no coin smaller than 0.5¢ has ever been officially minted in the U.S. However, unofficial mill coins, also called "tenth cent" or "tax-help coins", made of diverse materials—plastic, wood, tin, and others—were produced as late as the 1960s by some states, localities, and private businesses for tax payments and to render change for small purchases.

See also

Notes

  1. The letter "P" is used for the Philadelphia mint mark on all coins (except cents) released from 1980 onward. Before this it had only been used on silver Jefferson nickels from 1942 to 1945.
  2. Between 1973 and 1986 there was no mint mark (these coins are indistinguishable from coins produced at the Philadelphia Mint from 1973 to 1980); after 1988 the letter "W" was used for coinage, except for the 2009 Ultra High Relief Double Eagle.
  3. It is now the home of the Nevada State Museum, which still strikes commemorative medallions with the "CC" mint mark (most recently in 2014 commemorating the Nevada Sesquicentennial), using the former mint's original coin press.
  4. Although the mint mark "D" has been used by two separate mints, it is easy to distinguish between the two, as any 19th-century coinage is Dahlonega, and any 20th- or 21st-century coins are Denver.
  5. During the period in which this mint branch was operational, The Philippines was an insular territory and then commonwealth of the U.S.; it was the first (and to date only) U.S. branch mint located outside the Continental United States.
  6. The letter "M" was used for the Manila mint mark on all coins released from 1925 onward; before this, it had produced its coins with no mintmark.
  7. During the Civil War, this mint operated under the control of the State of Louisiana (February 1861) and the Confederate States of America (March 1861) until it ran out of bullion later in that year; some Half Dollars have been identified as being the issue of the State of Louisiana and the Confederacy.

Related Research Articles

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Nickel (United States coin) Current denomination of United States currency

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Dime (United States coin) Current denomination of United States currency

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The dollar coin is a United States coin with a face value of one United States dollar. Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in gold, silver, and base metal versions. Dollar coins were first minted in the United States in 1794.

Proof coinage

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References

  1. "United States Philadelphia Mint Facility". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  2. "Denver Mint Facility". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  3. "United States Mint at San Francisco". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  4. "West Point Mint Facility". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  5. 31 U.S.C.   § 5112
  6. "Coin Specifications". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  7. "Native American $1 Coin".
  8. "Circulating Coins | News Image Library | U.S. Mint". www.usmint.gov. Retrieved 2019-07-27.
  9. "American Silver Coin".