Collared peccary

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Collared peccary
Collared peccary02 - melbourne zoo.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Tayassuidae
Genus: Dicotyles
Cuvier, 1816
Species:
D. tajacu
Binomial name
Dicotyles tajacu
Dicotyles tajacu range.png
Synonyms

Pecari tajacu
Sus tajacuLinnaeus, 1758
Muknalia minimaStinnesbeck et al, 2017

Contents

The collared peccary (Dicotyles tajacu) is a species of artiodactyl (even-toed) mammal in the family Tayassuidae found in North, Central, and South America. It is the only member of the genus Dicotyles. They are commonly referred to as javelina, saíno, or báquiro, although these terms are also used to describe other species in the family. The species is also known as the musk hog. In Trinidad, it is colloquially known as quenk.

Taxonomy

Although somewhat related to true Old World pigs and frequently referred to as a pig, this species and the other peccaries are no longer classified in the pig family, Suidae. Although formerly classified in the genus Pecari, studies in 2020 placed in the genus Dicotyles, based on an unequivocal type-species selection; these studies have been accepted by the American Society of Mammalogists. [2] [3] However, the IUCN still places it in the genus Pecari.

Description

Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History Animaldentition pecaritajacu.png
Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History

The collared peccary stands around 510–610 mm (20–24 in) tall at the shoulder and is about 1.0–1.5 m (3 ft 3 in–4 ft 11 in) long. It weighs between 16 and 27 kg (35 and 60 lb). [4] The dental formula is: 2/3,1/1,3/3,3/3. [5] The collared peccary has small tusks that point toward the ground when the animal is upright. It has slender legs with a robust or stocky body. The tail is often hidden in the coarse fur of the peccary. [6]

Range and habitat

The collared peccary is widespread throughout much of the tropical and subtropical Americas, ranging from the Southwestern United States to northern Argentina. They have been reintroduced to Uruguay in 2017, after 100 years of extirpation there. [7] The only Caribbean island where it is native, however, is Trinidad. Until fairly recently, it was also present on the nearby island of Tobago, but is now exceedingly rare (if not extirpated) due to overhunting by humans. An adaptable species, it inhabits deserts, xeric shrublands, tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, shrublands, flooded grasslands and savannas, tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, and several other habitats; it is also present in habitats shared by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover. Peccaries can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range, where they consume garden plants. Notable populations are known to exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona. [8] [9]

Due to the lack of fossil material or even specimens from archeological sites, it was assumed that javelinas only recently crossed into the US by way of Mexico. However, a fossil jaw of this species was discovered in Florida ("Collared peccary (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae, Pecari) from the late Pleistocene of Florida", Richard C. Hulbert, Gary S. Morgan & Andreas Kerner), proving that at some point in the late Pleistocene the species had already inhabited part of the Southern US.

Diet

Collared peccaries are often classified as herbivores. They normally feed on cactus, mesquite beans, fruits, roots, tubers, palm nuts, other green vegetation. However, they will also eat lizards, dead birds, and rodents if the opportunity presents itself. [10] In areas inhabited by humans, they also consume cultivated crops and ornamental plants, such as tulip bulbs. [8] [9]

Predators

The main predators of the collared peccary are cougars (Puma concolor), Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi), coyotes (Canis latrans), jaguars (Panthera onca), and bobcats (Lynx rufus). [11]

Behavior

Collared peccaries are diurnal creatures that live in groups of up to 50 individuals, averaging between six and 9 members. They sleep in burrows, often under the roots of trees, but sometimes can be found in caves or under logs. [6] However, collared peccaries are not completely diurnal. In central Arizona, they are often active at night, but less so in daytime.

Although they usually ignore humans, they will react if they feel threatened. They defend themselves with their tusks. A collared peccary can release a strong musk or give a sharp bark if it is alarmed. [6]

They will also rub their scent on rocks and tree stumps to mark their territory, and rubbing the scent on each other to help with identification. [10]

The "giant peccary"

The giant peccary (described as Pecari maximus) was a purported fourth species of peccary, first reported to have been seen in Brazil in 2000 by Dutch naturalist Marc van Roosmalen. In 2003 German natural history filmmaker Lothar Frenz filmed a group and gathered a skull which later served as the type (INPA4272). It had been known locally as caitetú-mundè, which Roosmalen et al. state the locals claimed was Tupí and meant "the collared peccary that is bigger and goes in pairs", as opposed to caitetú-de-bando, "the collared peccary that goes in herds". It was formally described in 2007, [12] but the scientific evidence for its species status was quickly questioned, [13] [14] which also was one of the reasons for its initial evaluation as data deficient by IUCN in 2008. [15] A review in 2011 moved the giant peccary into synonymy with the collared peccary (P. tajacu), [16] which was followed by the IUCN the same year. [17]

The reported range of the giant peccary encompass the south-central Amazon between the Madeira and the Tapajós Rivers and northern Bolivia. [18] It is restricted to terra firme forest, which is forest which does not flood annually. Unlike other peccaries in its range, the giant peccary was reported to mainly occur in pairs or small family groups. [19]

According to its original description, the giant peccary is larger, longer-legged, and proportionally smaller-headed than the only other member of the genus, the collared peccary. [20] Compared to most individuals of the sympatric populations of the collared peccary, the giant peccary also had thinner fur that is grizzled in brown and white, blacker legs, and a relatively faint collar. Five skins of the giant peccary had a total length of 120–137 cm (47–54 in), while local hunters have estimated a weight of 40–50 kg (88–110 lb). Based on a mtDNA study, the collared and the giant peccaries were estimated to have diverged 1.0–1.2 million years ago, [20] but these results were later questioned due to the small sample size, low bootstrap support, and the absence of nDNA and cytogenetic results. [21] [22]

In 2011, a review noted that the measurements provided in the initial description were within those generally recognized for the collared peccary, and the behaviors supposedly unique to the giant peccary are also known from the collared peccary. [23] They also provided new genetic evidence showing that collared peccaries from South America form a monophyletic clade that includes the giant peccary (without it the clade is paraphyletic). The major genetic split within the collared peccary is between a clade comprising North and Central American specimens, and a clade comprising South American specimens (the presumed contact zone is in Colombia, which has both clades). [23] Furthermore, extensive infraspecific variations (both individual and locality-based) are known in the morphology of the collared peccary. [21] [22]

Related Research Articles

Peccary Family of mammals belonging to even-toed ungulates

A peccary is a medium-sized pig-like hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae. They are found throughout Central and South America, Trinidad in the Caribbean, and in the southwestern area of North America. They usually measure between 90 and 130 cm in length, and a full-grown adult usually weighs about 20 to 40 kg.

Suina Lineage of omnivorous, non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries

Suina is a suborder of omnivorous, non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries. A member of this clade is known as a suine. Suina includes the family Suidae, termed suids, known in English as pigs or swine, as well as the family Tayassuidae, termed tayassuids or peccaries. Suines are largely native to Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, with the exception of the wild boar, which is additionally native to Europe and Asia and introduced to North America and Australasia, including widespread use in farming of the domestic pig subspecies. Suines range in size from the 55 cm (22 in) long pygmy hog to the 210 cm (83 in) long giant forest hog, and are primarily found in forest, shrubland, and grassland biomes, though some can be found in deserts, wetlands, or coastal regions. Most species do not have population estimates, though approximately two billion domestic pigs are used in farming, while several species are considered endangered or critically endangered with populations as low as 100. One species, Heude's pig, is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to have gone extinct in the 20th century.

<i>Hydrochoerus</i> Genus of rodents

The genus Hydrochoerus contains two living and two extinct species of rodents from South America, the Caribbean island of Grenada, and Panama. Capybaras are the largest living rodents in the world. The genus name is derived from the Greek ὕδωρ plus χοίρος.

Chacoan peccary Species of mammals belonging to the peccary family of even-toed ungulates

The Chacoan peccary or tagua is the last extant species of the genus Catagonus; it is a peccary found in the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. Approximately 3,000 remain in the world. It is believed to be the closest living relative to the extinct genus Platygonus.

White-lipped peccary Species of mammals belonging to the peccary family of even-toed ungulates

The white-lipped peccary is a peccary found in Central and South America. Most of its range is in rainforests, but it is also known from a wide range of other habitats such as dry forests, grasslands, mangrove, Cerrado, and dry xerophytic areas. It lives in herds of 20–300 individuals that typically take up about 120 km2 (46 sq mi) to fully function. Members of this species are omnivorous, feeding mostly on fruit, and are usually found traveling great distances to obtain it. If this resource is in demand and difficult to find, peccaries eat leaves, stems, or animal parts. White-lipped peccaries have several unique attributes that allow them to stay with and identify their herd, which is essential for their survival in the wild.

Sistema Ox Bel Ha Flooded cave system in Quintana Roo, Mexico

Sistema Ox Bel Ha is a cave system in Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is the longest explored underwater cave in the world and ranks fourth including dry caves. As of May 2017 the surveyed length is 270.2 kilometers (167.9 mi) of underwater passages. There are more than 140 cenotes in the system.

Serra da Cutia National Park

Serra da Cutia National Park is a national park in the state of Rondônia, Brazil.

P. maximus may refer to:

União Biological Reserve

União Biological Reserve is a strictly protected biological reserve in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is home to a population of endangered golden lion tamarin.

Campinarana

Campinarana, also called Rio Negro Campinarana, is a neotropical ecoregion in the Amazon biome of the north west of Brazil and the east of Colombia that contains vegetation adapted to extremely poor soil. It includes savanna, scrub and forest, and contains many endemic species of fauna and flora.

Flora and fauna of Honduras

The flora and fauna of Honduras reflects the country's geographical location inside the tropics. This has allowed for diverse species of plants and animals to be adapted, but some of them are now in danger of extinction. This has posed the Honduran government, offices and nature organizations to look after the protection of the local environment, like the creation of nature reserves.

Madeira–Tapajós moist forests

The Madeira-Tapajós moist forests (NT0135) is an ecoregion in the Amazon basin. It is part of the Amazon biome. The ecoregion extends southwest from the Amazon River between its large Madeira and Tapajós tributaries, and crosses the border into Bolivia. In the south it transitions into the cerrado biome of Mato Grosso. In the state of Rondônia it contains some of the most degraded land of the Amazon basin.

Catagonus stenocephalus is an extinct species of peccary that lived in South America during the Late Pleistocene. Fossils have been found in Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia. It is commonly known as the narrow-headed peccary due to its long and markedly convex rostrum.

References

  1. Gongora, J.; Reyna-Hurtado, R.; Beck, H.; Taber, A.; Altrichter, M. & Keuroghlian, A. (2011). "Pecari tajacu". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2011: e.T41777A10562361. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T41777A10562361.en . Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  2. Acosta, Luis E.; Garbino, Guilherme S. T.; Gasparini, Germán M.; Dutra, Rodrigo Parisi (9 September 2020). "Unraveling the nomenclatural puzzle of the collared and white-lipped peccaries (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla, Tayassuidae)". Zootaxa. 4851 (1): 60–80. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4851.1.2. PMID   33056737.
  3. "Explore the Database". www.mammaldiversity.org. Retrieved 2021-10-13.
  4. "Collared Peccary: Javelina ~ Tayaussa ~ Musk Hog". Digital West Media Inc. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  5. Reid, Fiona (2006). Peterson Field Guide: Mammals of North America (4th ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 158. ISBN   978-0-395-93596-5.
  6. 1 2 3 Reid, Fiona (2006). Peterson Field Guide: Mammals of North America (4th ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 488. ISBN   978-0-395-93596-5.
  7. "A un año de su liberación, los pecaríes ya se adaptaron y tienen cría". ecos.la (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2020-04-22. Retrieved 2019-04-04.
  8. 1 2 Friederici, Peter (August–September 1998). "Winners and Losers". National Wildlife Magazine. National Wildlife Federation. 36 (5).
  9. 1 2 Sowls, Lyle K. (1997). Javelinas and Other Peccaries: Their Biology, Management, and Use (2nd ed.). Texas A&M University Press. pp. 61–68. ISBN   978-0-89096-717-1.
  10. 1 2 "Animal Fact Sheet: Collared Peccary or Javelina". Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  11. Ingmarsson, Lisa. "Pecari tajacu (collared peccary)". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2020-10-28.
  12. Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, W.F. van; Iongh, H.H. de; Leirs, H. 2007. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 55(2): 105–112.
  13. Gongora, J., Taber, A., Keuroghlian, A., Altrichter, M., Bodmer, R.E., Mayor, P., Moran, C., Damayanti, C.S., González S. (2007). Re-examining the evidence for a ‘new’ peccary species, Pecari maximus, from the Brazilian Amazon. Newsletter of the Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group of the IUCN/SSC. 7(2): 19–26.
  14. Trials of a Primatologist. – smithsonianmag.com. Accessed March 15, 2008
  15. Gongora, J. (2008). "Pecari maximus" . Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  16. Gongora, J., Biondo, C., Cooper, J.D., Taber, A., Keuroghlian, A., Altrichter, M., Ferreira do Nascimento, F., Chong, A.Y., Miyaki, C.Y., Bodmer, R., Mayor, P. and González, S. (2011). Revisiting the species status of Pecari maximus van Roosmalen et al., 2007 (Mammalia) from the Brazilian Amazon. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 60(1): 95-101.
  17. Gongora, J.; Reyna-Hurtado, R.; Beck, H.; Taber, A.; Altrichter, M. & Keuroghlian, A. (2011). "Pecari tajacu". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2011: e.T41777A10562361. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T41777A10562361.en .
  18. Moravec, J., & Böhme, W. (2009). Second Find of the Recently Discovered Amazonian Giant Peccary, Pecari maximus (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) van Roosmalen et al., 2007: First Record from Bolivia Archived 2014-11-29 at the Wayback Machine . Bonner zoologische Beiträge 56(1-2): 49-54.
  19. Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, W.F. van; Iongh, H.H. de; Leirs, H. 2007. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 55(2): 105–112.
  20. 1 2 Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, W.F. van; Iongh, H.H. de; Leirs, H. 2007. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 55(2): 105–112.
  21. 1 2 Gongora, J., Taber, A., Keuroghlian, A., Altrichter, M., Bodmer, R.E., Mayor, P., Moran, C., Damayanti, C.S., González S. (2007). Re-examining the evidence for a ‘new’ peccary species, Pecari maximus, from the Brazilian Amazon. Newsletter of the Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group of the IUCN/SSC. 7(2): 19–26.
  22. 1 2 Gongora, J.; Reyna-Hurtado, R.; Beck, H.; Taber, A.; Altrichter, M. & Keuroghlian, A. (2011). "Pecari tajacu". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2011: e.T41777A10562361. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T41777A10562361.en .
  23. 1 2 Gongora, J., Biondo, C., Cooper, J.D., Taber, A., Keuroghlian, A., Altrichter, M., Ferreira do Nascimento, F., Chong, A.Y., Miyaki, C.Y., Bodmer, R., Mayor, P. and González, S. (2011). Revisiting the species status of Pecari maximus van Roosmalen et al., 2007 (Mammalia) from the Brazilian Amazon. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 60(1): 95-101.