Collier's Encyclopedia (full title: Collier's Encyclopedia with Bibliography and Index) was a United States-based general encyclopedia published by Crowell, Collier and Macmillan. Self-described in its preface as "a scholarly, systematic, continuously revised summary of the knowledge that is most significant to mankind", it was long considered one of the three major contemporary English-language general encyclopedias, together with Encyclopedia Americana and Encyclopædia Britannica : the three were sometimes collectively called "the ABCs".
An encyclopedia or encyclopædia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge from either all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries that are often arranged alphabetically by article name and sometimes by thematic categories. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Generally speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, meaning, pronunciation, use, and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title.
Collier Books was a publisher established by the Collier family. It later become part of Crowell-Collier Publishing, which merged with Macmillan Publishing in 1961 to become the paperback imprint of Macmillan, Inc. The ISBNs of Collier's books are of the format 0-02-######-n.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language. Following the acquisition of Grolier in 2000, the encyclopedia has been produced by Scholastic.
P.F. Collier & Son Company first published Chandler's Encyclopedia: An Epitome of Human Knowledge with chemist William Henry Chandler as editor-in-chief as early as 1898.The edition of this Encyclopedia was published in only three volumes. Chandler notes in the preface that the purpose of this encyclopedia was to be manageable in size and sold for an affordable price. The goal for the encyclopedia was to be brief and provide one paragraph per subject. An example given by the author was if one was looking for an English or Italian poet, you would find them under their name and not a large article on English or Italian literature.
Peter Fenelon Collier was an Irish publisher, the founder of the publishing company P.F. Collier & Son, and in 1888 founded Collier's Weekly.
William Henry Chandler was a United States chemist.
An editor-in-chief, also known as lead editor or chief editor, is a publication's editorial leader who has final responsibility for its operations and policies. The highest ranking editor of a publication may also be titled editor, managing editor, or executive editor, but where these titles are held while someone else is editor-in-chief, the editor-in-chief outranks the others.
P.F. Collier & Son Company published Collier's New Encyclopedia from 1902–1929, initially in 16 volumes and later in 10 volumes.
Collier's 11 volume National Encyclopedia (1932–1950) replaced Collier's New Encyclopedia.
In 1949 the entirely new 20 volume Collier's Encyclopedia replaced the National Encyclopedia.
After Robert Collier's death in 1918, P.F. Collier & Son Company was bought by Crowell Publishing Company (later the Crowell-Collier Publishing Company). In 1950 Collier Books published the 20-volume Collier's Encyclopedia (full title Collier's Encyclopedia with Bibliography and Index). It was expanded to 24 volumes in 1962. Until its print edition ceased in 1998, Collier's Encyclopedia was sold almost exclusively door-to-door, one of the last big-ticket items of that nature in the United States.In fact in the 1930-50's one of the qualifiers for the door to door salesman to determine if one could afford the books, was if there was a telephone present in the household..To make 24 volumes more affordable, they were purchased one or two volume's each month over one or two years. For many families they became a status symbol.
The 1997 edition has 23,000 entries with few short entries, as related subjects are usually consolidated into longer articles. A high percentage of the illustrations are in color, and more full-color illustrations had been added in recent years resulting in pictorial matter accounting for about two-fifths of the pages. Bibliographies are found in the last volume which also contains the 450,000 entry essential index. An annual Collier's Year Book was also published.
In 1998 Microsoft bought the rights to Collier's electronic version and incorporated it into its Encarta electronic encyclopedia. Atlas Editions (formerly Collier Newfield) retained the rights to publish the encyclopedia in book form, though since then, Collier's has ceased to be in print.
Microsoft Corporation (MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. As of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009. Originally sold on CD-ROM or DVD, it was also later available on the World Wide Web via an annual subscription – although later many articles could also be viewed free online with advertisements. By 2008, the complete English version, Encarta Premium, consisted of more than 62,000 articles, numerous photos and illustrations, music clips, videos, interactive content, timelines, maps, atlases and homework tools.
A well-known comparison is that of Kenneth Kister, who gave a qualitative and quantitative comparison of Collier's Encyclopedia with the Encyclopædia Britannica and the Encyclopedia Americana. 's 95% and Britannica's 92%. In the timeliness category, Collier's averaged an 85% to Americana's 90% and Britannica's 86%. After a more thorough qualitative comparison of all three encyclopedias, Kister recommended Collier's Encyclopedia primarily on the strength of its writing, presentation and navigation.For the quantitative analysis, ten articles were selected at random (circumcision, Charles Drew, Galileo, Philip Glass, heart disease, IQ, panda bear, sexual harassment, Shroud of Turin and Uzbekistan) and letter grades (A–D, F) were awarded in four categories: coverage, accuracy, clarity, and recency. In all four categories and for all three encyclopaedias, the four average grades fell between B− and B+, chiefly because not one encyclopaedia had an article on sexual harassment in 1994. In the accuracy category, Collier's received one D and seven As. Encyclopedia Americana received eight As, and the Britannica received one D and eight As; thus, Collier's received an average score of 92% for accuracy to Americana
Kenneth F. Kister is an academic, professor of library science and authority in the field of reference and information sources.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis. In the most common procedure, the foreskin is opened, adhesions are removed, and the foreskin is separated from the glans. After that, a circumcision device may be placed and then the foreskin is cut off. Topical or locally injected anesthesia is sometimes used to reduce pain and physiologic stress. For adults and children, general anesthesia is an option, and the procedure may be performed without a specialized circumcision device. The procedure is most often an elective surgery performed on babies and children for religious or cultural reasons. In other cases it may be done as a treatment for certain medical conditions or for preventative reasons. Medically it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). It is contraindicated in cases of certain genital structure abnormalities or poor general health.
Charles Richard Drew was an American surgeon and medical researcher. He researched in the field of blood transfusions, developing improved techniques for blood storage, and applied his expert knowledge to developing large-scale blood banks early in World War II. This allowed medics to save thousands of lives of the Allied forces. As the most prominent African American in the field, Drew protested against the practice of racial segregation in the donation of blood, as it lacked scientific foundation, and resigned his position with the American Red Cross, which maintained the policy until 1950.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia. The GSE claimed to be "the first Marxist-Leninist general-purpose encyclopedia".
Chambers's Encyclopaedia was founded in 1859 by William and Robert Chambers of Edinburgh and became one of the most important English language encyclopaedias of the 19th and 20th centuries, developing a reputation for accuracy and scholarliness that was reflected in other works produced by the Chambers publishing company. The encyclopaedia is no longer produced. A selection of illustrations and woodblocks used to produce the first two editions of the encyclopaedia can be seen on a digital resource hosted on the National Museums Scotland website.
The Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana is a Spanish encyclopedia comprising 72 volumes published from 1908 to 1930 plus a ten-volume appendix published 1930–33. Between 1935 and 2003, 33 supplemental volumes were published plus an index, another A–Z appendix, and an atlas, for a total of 118 volumes. Each of the volumes vary in length. It is currently the longest printed encyclopedia with 105,000 pages and 165,200,000 words as of 1986.
The Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, best known as Treccani for its developer Giovanni Treccani or Enciclopedia Italiana, is an Italian-language encyclopaedia. The publication Encyclopaedias: Their History Throughout The Ages regards it as one of the greatest encyclopaedias, along with the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition and the Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Compton's Encyclopedia and Fact-Index is a home and school encyclopedia first published in 1922 as Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia. The word "Pictured" was removed from the title with the 1968 edition. The encyclopedia is now advertised as Compton's by Britannica.
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd, Mead and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia (1884) and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926.
The New Book of Knowledge is an encyclopedia intended primarily for children from 3rd to 8th grades.
The Encyclopædia Britannica has been published continuously since 1768, appearing in fifteen official editions. Several editions have been amended with multi-volume "supplements", consisted of previous editions with added supplements or undergone drastic re-organizations (15th). In recent years, digital versions of the Britannica have been developed, both online and on optical media. Since the early 1930s, the Britannica has developed several "spin-off" products to leverage its reputation as a reliable reference work and educational tool.
Dobson's Encyclopædia was the first encyclopedia issued in the newly independent United States of America, published by Thomas Dobson from 1789–1798. Encyclopædia was the full title of the work, with Dobson's name at the bottom of the title page.
Everyman's Encyclopaedia is an encyclopedia published by Joseph Dent from 1913 as part of the Everyman's Library.
The New Standard Encyclopedia was the most common name for an encyclopedia that ran from 1910 to the mid-1960s.
The Volume Library was a one volume general reference work that was published from 1911 to 1985. It remained as a two or three volume reference work until at least 2004.
Chandler, William Henry, ed. (1898). Chandler's Encyclopedia: An Epitome of Universal Knowledge ... New York: Collier.
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