Comarca

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A comarca (Spanish:  [koˈmaɾka] , Portuguese:  [kuˈmaɾkɐ] or [koˈmaʁkɐ] ) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain and some of their former colonies, like Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil. The term is derived from the term marca, meaning a "march, mark", plus the prefix co-, meaning "together, jointly".

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The comarca is known in Aragonese as redolada (IPA:  [reðoˈlaða] ) and in Basque as eskualde (IPA:  [es̺kualde] ). In addition, in Galician, comarcas are also called bisbarras (IPA:  [bizˈβarɐs] ).

Although the English word "county" and its near synonym "shire" have similar meanings, they are usually translated into Spanish and Portuguese as condado, a term[ clarification needed ] which in the Iberian peninsula only refers to regions historically ruled by a conde (count or earl). However, "comarca" is occasionally used, with examples including the Spanish Wikipedia entry for "comarca" and some translations of The Lord of the Rings (see below).

Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries

Historical

From the Middle Ages until the 16th century, the comarcas corresponded to the large administrative divisions of Portugal. There were six such traditional divisions: Entre-Douro-e-Minho, Trás-os-Montes, Beira, Estremadura, Alentejo and Algarve, of which the last had the honorary title of "kingdom". In the 16th century, the comarcas started gradually to be referred to as "provinces".

The name "comarca" was then applied to the new administrative and judicial subdivisions of the provinces, created in the 17th century. Each comarca corresponded to the territorial area of jurisdiction of a corregedor , a high-ranking administrative and judicial officer who represented the Crown in the district.

In the 19th century, the comarcas were replaced by separate administrative and judicial divisions, reflecting the implementation of the separation of executive and judicial powers. The new administrative divisions became the administrative districts and the new judicial divisions kept the name comarca.

Present

Nowadays, in Brazil, Portugal, and some other countries of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the comarca is the basic territorial division in the judicial system. It corresponds to the territorial area of jurisdiction of a court of first instance.

The comarca may correspond to a municipality or group several small municipalities together. Presently, in Brazil, there are 2,680 comarcas. A judiciary organization reform implemented in Portugal in 2014 reduced the number of comarcas from 231 to 23.

According to the new judicial division of 2015, Angola will be again subdivided into 60 comarcas, each with a court of first instance. The courts of comarca will replace the previous provincial and municipal courts.

Comarca is also the name of a suburb of Luanda, the capital of Angola.

Spain

The term comarca is used in several regions in Spain.

In other places, such as Extremadura, the comarca may simply refer to a loosely defined region.

Because of the comarca's long-standing use, it is sometimes used as the basis for the promotion of tourism, with emphasis on local cultural tradition and history.

Mexico

The ninth-largest metropolitan area in Mexico is known as the Comarca Lagunera. The region is made up of 15 municipalities, including the cities of Torreón, Coahuila and Gómez Palacio, Durango.

Panama

In Panama, the comarca indígena is an administrative region for an area with a substantial Amerindian population. Four comarcas (Emberá-Wounaan, Guna Yala, Ngöbe-Buglé, Naso Tjër Di) exist as equivalent to provinces. Two smaller comarcas (Kuna de Madugandí and Kuna de Wargandí) are subordinate to a province and considered equivalent to a corregimiento .

Fiction

Some Spanish-language editions of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's works use the term La Comarca as a translation for the English "The Shire".

See also

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