Combat of Stockerau

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Combat of Stockerau
Part of the War of the Fifth Coalition
Date8 July 1809
Location Stockerau, present-day Austria, then Austrian Empire
Result Austrian victory
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg French Empire
Flagge Grossherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg Grand Duchy of Hesse
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Austrian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Flag of France.svg Jacob Marulaz Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Ludwig Wallmoden
Strength
150 cavalrymen around 1,200 men
Casualties and losses
most troops engaged light

The Combat of Stockerau was a minor rearguard cavalry skirmish fought by elements of the cavalry of Austrian VI Korps of the Kaiserlich-königliche Hauptarmee under Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn against a single Hessian Guard Chevauleger regiment, under the command of French General Jacob François Marulaz. The combat ended in favour of the Austrians. [1]

A rearguard is that part of a military force that protects it from attack from the rear, either during an advance or withdrawal. The term can also be used to describe forces protecting lines, such as communication lines, behind an army. Even more generally, a rearguard action may refer idiomatically to an attempt at preventing something though it is likely too late to be prevented; this idiomatic meaning may apply in either a military or non-military context.

Austrian Empire monarchy in Central Europe between 1804 and 1867

The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it partially overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806.

Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars

The Imperial and Royal or Imperial Austrian Army was strictly speaking, the armed force of the Holy Roman Empire under its last monarch, the Habsburg Emperor Francis II, although in reality, it was nearly all composed of the Habsburg army. When the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, it assumed its title of the Army of the Austrian Empire under the same monarch, now known as Emperor Francis I of Austria.

Contents

Context and battle

Following the French victory at the battle of Wagram two days before, the French IV Corps of the Grande Armée d'Allemagne, under Marshal André Masséna was pursuing Johann von Klenau's VI Korps of the Kaiserlich-königliche Hauptarmee Hauptarmee. After a successful skirmish at Korneuburg on 7 July, Masséna was aware that the enemy was retreating towards Bohemia and continued his pursuit in that direction. Leading Masséna's Corps cavalry was General Marulaz, who led the way, at the head of the Hessian Garde-Chevauleger regiment, [1] a total of three squadrons, with a complement of 150 men. [2]

Battle of Wagram battle

The Battle of Wagram was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France.

The Grande Armée was the army commanded by Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars. From 1805 to 1809, the Grande Armée scored a series of historic victories that gave the French Empire an unprecedented grip on power over the European continent. Widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest fighting forces ever assembled, it suffered terrible losses during the French invasion of Russia in 1812 and never recovered its tactical superiority after that campaign.

Marshal of the Empire military rank

Marshal of the Empire was a civil dignity during the First French Empire. It was created by Sénatus-consulte on 18 May 1804 and to a large extent resurrected the formerly abolished title of Marshal of France. According to the Sénatus-consulte, a Marshal was a grand officer of the Empire, entitled to a high-standing position at the Court and to the presidency of an electoral college.

Arriving with these men at Stockerau, around 43 kilometers from Vienna, on 8 July, Marulaz was attacked by the Austrian hussars of Austrian VI Korps. [1] At the battle of Wagram, Wallmoden's command included around 1,365 cavalrymen from the 7th Liechtenstein (8 squadrons, 712 men) and 8th Kienmayer Hussars (8 squadrons 563 men), [3] but it is unclear how many of these men Wallmoden actually engaged at Stockerau. It is certain, however, that, following a brief series of cavalry engagements, the troops of Marulaz were broken, dispersed and the regiment was almost destroyed. [1]

Stockerau Place in Lower Austria, Austria

Stockerau is a town in the district of Korneuburg in Lower Austria, Austria.

Vienna Capital city and state in Austria

Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

Hussar light cavalry originally from Hungary

A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The title and distinctive dress of these horsemen were subsequently widely adopted by light cavalry regiments in European armies in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

French military historian Alain Pigeard qualifies the cavalry combat at Stockerau as a "bloody setback" for the French under Marulaz. [1]

Bibliography

David Geoffrey Chandler was a British historian whose study focused on the Napoleonic era.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Pigeard, 818
  2. Castle, 17.
  3. Castle, 21.