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|Founded||October 5, 1947|
|Dissolved||April 17, 1956|
|Headquarters|| Belgrade, Yugoslavia (1947–1948)|
Bucharest, Romania (1948–1956)
|Newspaper||For Lasting Peace, for People's Democracy!|
Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.It was the first official forum of the International Communist Movement since the dissolution of the Comintern and confirmed the new realities after World War II, including the creation of an Eastern Bloc.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia and Southeast Asia under the hegemony of the Soviet Union (USSR) during the Cold War (1947–1991) in opposition to the non-Communist Western Bloc. Generally, in Western Europe the term Eastern Bloc comprised the USSR and its East European satellite-states in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon); in Asia, the Socialist bloc comprised the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of Kampuchea; the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China ; and in the Americas, the Communist Bloc included the Caribbean Republic of Cuba, since 1961.
The intended purpose of Cominform was to coordinate actions between Communist parties under Soviet direction. It was not intended to be a replacement or successor to the Comintern. The Cominform was not a world Communist party, it did not have subordinates or power, other than its publication. It had its own newspaper, For Lasting Peace, for People's Democracy! It limited itself to one goal: "to organize an exchange of experience, and where necessary to coordinate the activity of the Communist parties, on the basis of mutual agreement."In other aspects, Cominform was also used to repel anti-communist expansion. The French and Italian parties were tasked specifically with the obstruction of the implementation of the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine. Cominform divided the world into imperialist and anti-imperialist.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state". The Comintern had been preceded by the 1916 dissolution of the Second International.
The Marshall Plan was an American initiative passed in 1948 to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing the previous Morgenthau Plan, it operated for four years beginning on April 3, 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-torn regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, improve European prosperity, and prevent the spread of Communism. The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, and encouraged an increase in productivity, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.
The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, and further developed on July 12, 1948, when he pledged to contain threats in Greece and Turkey. Direct American military force was usually not involved, but Congress appropriated financial aid to support the economies and militaries of Greece and Turkey. More generally, the Truman Doctrine implied American support for other nations allegedly threatened by Soviet communism. The Truman Doctrine became the foundation of American foreign policy, and led, in 1949, to the formation of NATO, a military alliance that is still in effect. Historians often use Truman's speech to date the start of the Cold War.
Cominform was a Soviet-dominated organization of Communist parties founded in September 1947 at a conference of Communist party leaders in Szklarska Poręba, Poland. It was founded with nine members, the Communist parties of the U.S.S.R., Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, France, and Italy. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin called the conference in response to divergences among communist governments on whether or not to attend the Paris Conference on the Marshall Plan in July 1947.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism through both revolutionary means and state policy. The name was popularized in the title of the 1848 tract of Manifesto of the Communist Party by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. A communist party is the Vanguard party of the working class (proletariat), whether ruling or non-ruling. As a ruling party, the communist party exercises power in the name of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The idea of communist party dictatorship was heavily influenced by Vladimir Lenin's writings during the first two decades of the twentieth century when Russian social democracy divided into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions. Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, argued that a revolutionary party should be a small vanguard party with a centralized political command and a strict cadre policy emphasizing subservience to the party's decisions. In contrast, the Menshevik faction, including members like Trotsky, argued that the party should not neglect the important role to be played by the masses in a communist revolution. The Bolshevik party, which eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), took power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917. With the creation of the Communist International (Comintern) in 1919, the concept of communist party leadership was adopted by many revolutionary parties worldwide. In an effort to standardize this movement and maintain centralized control over its affiliated parties, the Comintern required its members to call themselves communist. They were subsequently known as Leninist or, later, Marxist-Leninist parties. The doctrine of Leninism was standardized and popularized by Joseph Stalin in 1924 in the party handbook, Foundations of Leninism.
Szklarska Poręba is a town in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. The town has a population of around 7,000. It is a popular ski resort.
Cominform was initially located in Belgrade (then the capital of the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia). After the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the group in June 1948, the seat was moved to Bucharest, Romania. The expulsion of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia from Cominform for Titoism initiated the Informbiro period in that country's history. One of the most decisive factors that led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia was their commitment to the insurgency in Greece, and their decision to station troops in Albania.
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border.
Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union.
The newspaper was published in several languages. It was originally printed in Belgrade; it was moved to Bucharest after the expulsion of the Yugoslavian party.A vast array of articles was published, including some from the Canadian Communist Party.
The Cominform was dissolved on April 17, 1956, after the Soviet rapprochement with Yugoslavia and the process of De-Stalinization.
In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher, is a re-establishment of cordial relations between two countries. This may be done due to a mutual enemy, as was the case with Germany for France and the United Kingdom and their signing of the Entente Cordiale. It has also been done, particularly in the cold war between the Soviet Union and the United States, in an effort to reduce tensions and the likelihood of war.
There are four recorded meetings of the Cominform, before 1956. The first was the founding meeting. This occurred in Poland, 1947. Members present at the first meeting were Kardelj and Djilas for Yugoslavia, Chervenkov and Poptomov for Bulgaria, Gheorghiu-Dej and Anna Pauker for Romania, Farkas and Revai for Hungary, Gomulka and Minc for Poland, Zhdanov and Malenkov for the U.S.S.R., Duclos and Frajon for France, Slánský and Bastovanski for Czechoslovakia, and Longo and Reala [ disambiguation needed ] for Italy. Zhdanov was chairman, Gomulka was appointed vice-chairman.
The second meeting occurred in Yugoslavia in January 1948. During this meeting, a permanent editorial board was chosen for the newspaper. This editorial board was under the leadership of Yugoslav national, P. Yudin. He was succeeded by U.S.S.R. national, M. Mitin, after the Yugoslavian expulsion. A third meeting occurred in Romania in June 1948. This resulted in the expulsion of the Yugoslav Communist party. Lastly, the fourth meeting was held in Hungary in November 1949.
Informbiro was a period in the history of Yugoslavia which spanned from 1948 to 1955, characterised by conflict and schism with the Soviet Union. The word Informbiro is the Yugoslav name for the Cominform, an abbreviation for "Information Bureau," from "Communist Information Bureau".
Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov was a Soviet Communist Party leader and cultural ideologist. After World War II, Zhdanov was thought to be the successor-in-waiting to Joseph Stalin, but he died before Stalin. He has been described as the ‘propagandist-in-chief’ of the Soviet Union in the period 1945 to 1948.
The Bulgarian Communist Party was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a socialist state. The Bulgarian Communist Party had dominated the Fatherland Front coalition that took power in 1944, late in World War II, after it led a coup against Bulgaria's tsarist regime in conjunction with the Red Army's crossing the border. It controlled its armed forces, the Bulgarian People's Army.
The International Lenin School (ILS) was an official training school operated in Moscow by the Communist International from May 1926 to 1938. The ILS taught both academic courses and practical underground political techniques with a view to developing a core disciplined and reliable communist political cadres for assignment in Communist Parties around the world.
The Balkan Federation project was a left-wing political movement to create a "Balkan federation".
The Tito–Stalin Split, or Yugoslav–Soviet Split, was a conflict between the leaders of SFR Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, which resulted in Yugoslavia's expulsion from the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) in 1948. This was the beginning of the Informbiro period, marked by poor relations with the USSR, that came to an end in 1955.
Polish October, also known as October 1956, Polish thaw, or Gomułka's thaw, marked a change in the politics of Poland in the second half of 1956. Some social scientists term it the Polish October Revolution, which, while less dramatic than the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, may have had an even deeper impact on the Eastern Bloc and on the Soviet Union's relationship to its satellite states in Central Europe.
In November 1960 an International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties was held in Moscow. It was preceded by a similar conference held in Moscow November 1957 and the Bucharest Conference of the World Communist and Workers’ Parties in June 1960. Issues discussed at these meetings are associated with the Sino-Soviet split. Only Albania have openly took China's side, although Vietnam and the DPRK stayed closely allied to China, but were cautious about antagonizing the Soviets.
Problems of Peace and Socialism, also commonly known as World Marxist Review (WMR), the name of its English-language edition, was a theoretical journal containing jointly-produced content by Communist and workers parties from around the world. The monthly magazine was launched in September 1958 and ceased publication in June 1990.
The Conference of Communist and Workers Parties of Europe was an international meeting of communist parties, held in the city of East Berlin, capital of the communist-governed East Germany, on 29–30 June 1976. In all, 29 parties from all Europe participated in the conference.
Nova borba was a Serbo-Croatian weekly newspaper published in Prague, by exiled Yugoslav Cominformists. It was printed in Roman alphabet. The publication was intended for clandestine distribution inside Yugoslavia.
The International Communist Seminar (ICS) was an annual communist conference held in Brussels, Belgium in May. It was organized by the Workers' Party of Belgium (WPB).
On 5–17 June 1969, an International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties was held in Moscow. The meeting occurred in the aftermath of the Sino-Soviet split and the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia. The preceding international meeting, held in Moscow in 1960, had been dominated by disputes between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on one hand and the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania on the other. By this time the split between the two poles had been finalized. Pro-Chinese elements were absent from this event. However the phenomenon of Eurocommunism had begun to emerge, which was notable amongst some of the delegations present.
The Eastern Bloc is a collective term for the former Communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. This generally encompasses the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Executive Committee of the Communist International, commonly known by its acronym, ECCI (Russian acronym ИККИ), was the governing authority of the Comintern between the World Congresses of that body. The ECCI was established by the Founding Congress of the Comintern in 1919 and was dissolved with the rest of the Comintern in May 1943.
An International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties was held in Moscow, Soviet Union, November 16–19, 1957. The meeting was attended by 64 political parties from all over the world. The meeting was the first of its kind, marking a new form of forum for the world communist movement following the disbanding of the Communist International and Cominform.