Committee of Public Safety

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Emblem of the Committee CSPemblem.png
Emblem of the Committee

The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto , interim, and executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a stage of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence (established in January 1793) and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine and later of twelve members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial and legislative efforts. It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention and of the government ministers appointed by the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, it became more and more powerful.

National Convention Single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

In law and government, de facto describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure, which refers to things that happen according to law.

A provisional government, also called an interim government or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration. Provisional governments are generally appointed, and frequently arise, either during or after civil or foreign wars.

Contents

Following the defeat at the Convention of the Girondins in June 1793, a prominent Jacobin identified as a radical, Maximilien Robespierre, was added to the Committee. The power of the Committee peaked between August 1793 and July 1794. In December 1793, the Convention formally conferred executive power upon the Committee.

Jacobin The more radical constitutional reform group in the French Revolution

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality, commonly known as the Jacobin Club or simply the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following. The period of their political ascendency includes the Reign of Terror, during which time well over ten thousand people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.

Maximilien Robespierre French revolutionary lawyer and politician

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he campaigned for universal manhood suffrage, and the abolition of both celibacy for the clergy and of slavery. Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the citizens without a voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for the right to carry arms in self-defence. Robespierre played an important part in the agitation which brought about the fall of the French monarchy in August 1792 and the summoning of a National Convention.

The execution of Robespierre in July 1794 represented a reactionary period against the Committee of Public Safety. This became known as the Thermidorian Reaction, as Robespierre's fall from power occurred during the month of Thermidor in the French Republican calendar. The Committee's influence diminished [1] and it was abolished in 1795.

Thermidorian Reaction Counter-revolution in France against Robespierre, July 1794

The Thermidorian Reaction was a counter-revolution which took place in France on 9 Thermidor of the Year II. On this day, the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to his arrest and the arrests of twenty-one associates that night, including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, and his beheading on the following day.

French Republican calendar Calendar used in France from 1793 to 1805

The French Republican calendar, also commonly called the French Revolutionary calendar, was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France. It was used in government records in France and other areas under French rule, including Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Malta, and Italy.

Origins and evolution

Committee of discussion

Lettre anglaise (English Letter) dated 29 June 1793 as published by the National Convention during the French Revolution (1793) to prove English spying and conspiracy Lettre anglaise.jpg
Lettre anglaise (English Letter) dated 29 June 1793 as published by the National Convention during the French Revolution (1793) to prove English spying and conspiracy

On 5 April 1793, the French military commander and former minister of war General Charles François Dumouriez defected to Austria following the publication of an incendiary letter in which he threatened to march his army on the city of Paris if the National Convention did not accede to his leadership. News of his defection caused alarm in Paris, where imminent defeat by the Austrians and their allies was feared. A widespread belief held that revolutionary France was in immediate peril, threatened not only by foreign armies and by recent anti-revolutionary revolts in the Vendée, but also by foreign agents who plotted the destruction of the nation from within. [2]

Charles François Dumouriez French general

Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French general during the French Revolutionary Wars. He shared the victory at Valmy with General François Christophe Kellermann, but later deserted the Revolutionary Army, and became a royalist intriguer during the reign of Napoleon as well as an adviser to the British government. Dumouriez is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3.

War in the Vendée part of the War of the First Coalition

The War in the Vendée was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution. The Vendée is a coastal region, located immediately south of the Loire River in western France. Initially, the war was similar to the 14th-century Jacquerie peasant uprising, but quickly acquired themes considered by the Jacobin government in Paris to be counter-revolutionary, and Royalist. The uprising headed by the newly formed Catholic and Royal Army was comparable to the Chouannerie, which took place in the area north of the Loire.

The betrayal of the revolutionary government by Dumouriez lent greater credence to this belief. In light of this threat, the Girondin leader Maximin Isnard proposed the creation of a nine-member Committee of Public Safety. Isnard was supported in this effort by Georges Danton, who declared: "This Committee is precisely what we want, a hand to grasp the weapon of the Revolutionary Tribunal". [2]

Maximin Isnard French politician

Maximin Isnard, French revolutionary, was a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan when he was elected deputy for the département of the Var to the Legislative Assembly, where he joined the Girondists.

Georges Danton French revolutionary

Georges Jacques Danton was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution, in particular as the first president of the Committee of Public Safety. Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the French monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic".

Revolutionary Tribunal Tribunal during the French revolution

The Revolutionary Tribunal was a court instituted by the National Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders. It eventually became one of the most powerful engines of the Reign of Terror.

The Committee was formally created on 6 April 1793. Closely associated with the leadership of Danton, it was initially known as the Danton Committee. [3] Danton steered the Committee through the 31 May and 2 June 1793 journées that resulted in the fall of the Girondins and through the intensifying war in the Vendée. When the Committee was recomposed on 10 July 1793, Danton was not included. Nevertheless, he continued to support the centralization of power by the Committee. [4]

On 27 July 1793, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee. At this time, the Committee was entering a more powerful and active phase, which would see it become a de facto dictatorship alongside its powerful partner, the Committee of General Security. The role of the Committee of Public Safety included the governance of the war (including the appointment of generals), the appointing of judges and juries for the Revolutionary Tribunal, [5] the provisioning of the armies and the public, the maintenance of public order and oversight of the state bureaucracy. [6]

The Committee was also responsible for interpreting and applying the decrees of the National Convention and thus for implementing some of the most stringent policies of the Terror—for instance, the levée en masse passed on 23 August 1793, the Law of Suspects passed on 17 September 1793 and the Law of the Maximum passed on 29 September 1793. The broad and centralized powers of the Committee were codified by the Law of 14 Frimaire (also known as the Law of Revolutionary Government) on 4 December 1793.[ citation needed ]

Execution of the Hébertists and Dantonists

On 5 December 1793, journalist Camille Desmoulins began publishing Le Vieux Cordelier , a newspaper initially aimed (with the approval of Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety) [7] at the ultrarevolutionary Hébertist faction, whose extremist demands, anti-religious fervor and propensity for sudden insurrections were problematic for the Committee. However, Desmoulins quickly turned his pen against the Committee of Public Safety and the Committee of General Security, comparing their reign to that of the Roman tyrants chronicled by Tacitus and expounding the indulgent views of the Dantonist faction.[ citation needed ]

Consequently, though the Hébertists were arrested and executed in March 1794, the Committee of Public Safety and the Committee of General Security ensured that Desmoulins and Danton were also arrested. Hérault de Séchelles—a friend and ally of Danton—was expelled from the Committee of Public Safety, arrested and tried alongside them. On 5 April 1794, the Dantonists went to the guillotine. [8]

Committee of rule

Maximilien Robespierre, member of the Committee of Public Safety Louis Boilly Robespierre.jpg
Maximilien Robespierre, member of the Committee of Public Safety

The elimination of the Hébertists and the Dantonists made evident the strength of the committees as had their ability to control and silence opposition. The creation in March 1794 of a General Police Bureau—reporting nominally to the Committee of Public Safety, but more often directly to Robespierre and his closest ally, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just—served to increase the power of the Committee of Public Safety and of Robespierre himself.

The Law of 22 Prairial, proposed by the Committee of Public Safety and enacted on 10 June 1794, went further in establishing the iron control of the Revolutionary Tribunal and above it the Committees of Public Safety and General Security. The law enumerated various forms of public enemies, made mandatory their denunciation and severely limited the legal recourse available to those accused. The punishment for all crimes under the Law of 22 Prairal was death. From the initiation of this law to the fall of Robespierre on 27 July 1794, more people were condemned to death than in the entire previous history of the Revolutionary Tribunal. [9]

However, even as the Terror reached its height and with it the Committee's political power, discord was growing within the revolutionary government. Members of the Committee of General Security resented the autocratic behavior of the Committee of Public Safety and particularly the encroachment of the General Police Bureau upon their own brief. [10] Arguments within the Committee of Public Safety itself had grown so violent that it relocated its meetings to a more private room to preserve the illusion of agreement. [11] Robespierre, a fervent supporter of the theistic Cult of the Supreme Being, found himself frequently in conflict with anti-religious Committee members Collot d'Herbois and Billaud-Varenne. Moreover, Robespierre's increasingly extensive absences from the Committee due to illness (he all but ceased to attend meetings in June 1794) created the impression that he was isolated and out of touch.

Fall of the Committee and aftermath

Comite de Salut public, An II Comite de Salut public.png
Comité de Salut public, An II

When it became evident in mid-July 1794 that Robespierre and Saint-Just were planning to strike against their political opponents Joseph Fouché, Jean-Lambert Tallien and Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier (the latter two of whom were members of the Committee of General Security), the fragile truce within the government was dissolved. Saint-Just and his fellow Committee of Public Safety member Bertrand Barère attempted to keep the peace between the Committees of Public Safety and General Security. However, Robespierre delivered a speech to the National Convention on 26 July 1794 in which he emphasized the need to "purify" the Committees and "crush all factions". [12] In a speech to the Jacobin Club that night, he attacked Collot d'Herbois and Billaud-Varenne, who had refused to allow the printing and distribution of his speech to the Convention.

On the following day, 27 July 1794 (or 9 Thermidor according to the Revolutionary calendar), Saint-Just began to deliver a speech to the Convention in which he had planned to denounce Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varenne and other members of the Committee of Public Safety. However, he was almost immediately interrupted by Tallien and by Billaud-Varenne, who accused Saint-Just of intending to "murder the Convention". [13] Barère, Vadier and Stanislas Fréron joined the accusations against Saint-Just and Robespierre. The arrest of Robespierre, his brother Augustin and Saint-Just was ordered, along with that of their supporters, Philippe Le Bas and Georges Couthon.

A period of intense civil unrest ensued, during which the members of the Committees of Public Safety and General Security were forced to seek refuge in the Convention. The Robespierre brothers, Saint-Just, Le Bas and Couthon ensconced themselves in the Hôtel de Ville, attempting to incite an insurrection. Ultimately, faced with defeat and arrest, Le Bas committed suicide. Saint-Just, Couthon and Maximilien and Augustin Robespierre were arrested and guillotined on 28 July 1794. [14]

The ensuing period of upheaval, dubbed the Thermidorian Reaction, saw the repeal of many of the Terror's most unpopular laws and the reduction in power of the Committees of General Security and Public Safety. The Committees ceased to exist under the Constitution of the Year III (1795), which marked the beginning of the Directory.[ citation needed ]

Composition

1st Committee (25 March 6 April 1793)

Party breakdown
13
9
3
MemberDepartmentAffiliation
Barbaroux par Danloux.jpg Charles Barbaroux Bouches-du-Rhône Gironde
Barere de Vieuzac.JPG Bertrand Barère Hautes-Pyrénées Plain
Jean-Jacques BREARD.jpg Jean-Jacques Bréard Charente-Inférieure Mountain
AduC 166 Buzot (F.N.L., 1760-1794).JPG François Buzot Eure Gironde
AduC 277 Cambaceres (J.J.R., 1753-1824).JPG Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Hérault Plain
AduC 032 Camus (A.G., 1740-1804).JPG Armand-Gaston Camus Haute-Loire Mountain
Nicolas de Condorcet.PNG Nicolas de Condorcet Aisne Gironde
Georges Danton.jpg Georges Danton Seine Mountain
Jean de Bry, by Jean Louis Laneuville.jpg Jean Debry Aisne Mountain
Jean-François-Bertrand Delmas Haute-Garonne Mountain
Rouillard - Camille Desmoulins.jpg Camille Desmoulins Seine Mountain
Edmond Louis Dubois-Crance - Francois Bonneville.jpg Edmond Dubois-Crancé Ardennes Mountain
Fabre d'Eglantine 01.gif Fabre d'Églantine Seine Mountain
AduC 049 Gensonne (A., 1758-1793).JPG Armand Gensonné Gironde Gironde
AduC 051 Guadet (M.E., 1758-1794).JPG Élie Guadet Gironde Gironde
AduC 182 Guyton de Morveau (L.B., baron, 1737-1816).JPG Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau Côte-d'Or Mountain
AduC 048 Isnard (M., 1761-1830).JPG Maximin Isnard Var Gironde
Marc-David Lasource Tarn Gironde
AduC 043 Petion (Jerome, 1753-1794).JPG Jérôme Pétion Jr. Eure-et-Loir Gironde
Prieur de la Marne IMG 2320.JPG Pierre Louis Prieur Marne Mountain
Nicolas Marie Quinette Aisne Mountain
Robespierre - physionotrace.jpg Maximilien Robespierre Seine Mountain
AduC 150 Ruhl (P.J., 1737-1795).JPG Philippe Rühl Bas-Rhin Mountain
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, by Jacques Louis David.jpg Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès Sarthe Plain
AduC 132 Vergniaud (P.V., 1758-1793).JPG Pierre Vergniaud Gironde Gironde

2nd Committee (6 April 10 July 1793)

Party breakdown
7
2
MemberDepartmentAffiliation
Barere de Vieuzac.JPG Bertrand Barère Hautes-Pyrénées Plain
Jean-Jacques BREARD.jpg Jean-Jacques Bréard Charente-Inférieure Mountain
AduC 058 Cambon (J., 1754-1820).JPG Pierre-Joseph Cambon Hérault Mountain
Georges Danton.jpg Georges Danton Seine Mountain
Jean de Bry, by Jean Louis Laneuville.jpg Jean Debry Aisne Mountain
AduC 139 Lacroix (J.F. de, 1754-1794).JPG Jean-François Delacroix Eure-et-Loir Mountain
Jean-François-Bertrand Delmas Haute-Garonne Mountain
AduC 182 Guyton de Morveau (L.B., baron, 1737-1816).JPG Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau Côte-d'Or Mountain
AduC 289 Treilhard (J.B., 1742-1810).jpg Jean-Baptiste Treilhard Seine-et-Oise Plain

3rd Committee (10 July 5 September 1793)

Party breakdown
6
3
MemberDepartmentAffiliation
Barere de Vieuzac.JPG Bertrand Barère Hautes-Pyrénées Plain
Georges Couthon.png Georges Couthon Puy-de-Dôme Mountain
Thomas-Augustin de Gasparin.jpg Thomas-Augustin de Gasparin Bouches-du-Rhône Plain
AduC 161 Jean Bon Saint-Andre (1749-1813).JPG André Jeanbon Lot Mountain
Robert Lindet.jpg Robert Lindet Eure Plain
Prieur de la Marne IMG 2320.JPG Pierre Louis Prieur Marne Mountain
Louis-Antoine-de-Saint-Just.jpg Louis de Saint-Just Aisne Mountain
Marie-Jean Herault de Sechelles, conventionnel by Jean-Louis Laneuville (Carnavalet P 2539) 02.jpg Jean Hérault de Séchelles Seine Mountain
Jacques-Alexis Thuriot, dit Thuriot de la Rosiere.jpg Jacques-Alexis Thuriot Marne Mountain
Changes

4th Committee (5 September 1793 31 July 1794)

Party breakdown
10
2
MemberDepartmentAffiliation
Barere de Vieuzac.JPG Bertrand Barère Hautes-Pyrénées Plain
Billaud-Varenne.jpg Jacques-Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Seine Mountain
Portrait Lazare Carnot.jpg Lazare Carnot Pas-de-Calais Mountain
AduC 143 Collot d'Herbois (J.M., 1750-1796).JPG Jean-Marie Collot Seine Mountain
Georges Couthon.png Georges Couthon
(Before 27 July 1794)
Puy-de-Dôme Mountain
AduC 161 Jean Bon Saint-Andre (1749-1813).JPG André Jeanbon Lot Mountain
Robert Lindet.jpg Robert Lindet Eure Plain
Prieur de la Marne IMG 2320.JPG Pierre Louis Prieur Marne Mountain
Claude-Antoine Prieur-Duvernois.png Claude-Antoine Prieur-Duvernois Côte-d'Or Mountain
Robespierre Ducreux.jpeg Maximilien Robespierre
(Before 27 July 1794)
Seine Mountain
Louis-Antoine-de-Saint-Just.jpg Louis de Saint-Just
(Before 27 July 1794)
Aisne Mountain
Marie-Jean Herault de Sechelles, conventionnel by Jean-Louis Laneuville (Carnavalet P 2539) 02.jpg Jean Hérault de Séchelles
(Before 17 March 1794)
Seine Mountain
Changes

5th-6th Committees (1 September 7 November 1794)

Party breakdown
11
1
5th Committee
(September–October)
6th Committee
(October–November)
MemberDepartmentAffiliationMemberDepartmentAffiliation
Jean-Jacques BREARD.jpg Jean-Jacques Bréard Charente-Inférieure Thermidorian Renewed
Portrait Lazare Carnot.jpg Lazare Carnot Pas-de-Calais Thermidorian Prieur de la Marne IMG 2320.JPG Pierre Louis Prieur Marne Thermidorian
Jean-François-Bertrand Delmas Haute-Garonne Thermidorian Renewed
Joseph Eschasseriaux.jpg Joseph Eschassériaux Charente-Inférieure Thermidorian Renewed
Lemonnier - Antoine-Francois de Fourcroy.jpg Antoine François de Fourcroy Seine Thermidorian Renewed
Pierre-Antoine Laloy Haute-Marne Thermidorian Renewed
Cochon Lapparent Charles.png Charles Cochon de Lapparent Deux-Sèvres Thermidorian Renewed
Jean-Baptiste Matthieu Oise Thermidorian Renewed
Merlin de Douai.png Philippe-Antoine Merlin Nord Thermidorian Renewed
Claude-Antoine Prieur-Duvernois.png Claude-Antoine Prieur-Duvernois Côte-d'Or Thermidorian AduC 182 Guyton de Morveau (L.B., baron, 1737-1816).JPG Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau Côte-d'Or Thermidorian
AduC 289 Treilhard (J.B., 1742-1810).jpg Jean-Baptiste Treilhard Seine-et-Oise Thermidorian Renewed
Jacques-Alexis Thuriot, dit Thuriot de la Rosiere.jpg Jacques-Alexis Thuriot Marne Crest Renewed

7th-8th Committees (7 November 1794 7 January 1795)

Party breakdown
10
1
1
7th Committee
(November–December)
8th Committee
(December–January)
MemberDepartmentAffiliationMemberDepartmentAffiliation
Jean-Jacques BREARD.jpg Jean-Jacques Bréard Charente-Inférieure Thermidorian Vacant
Jean-François-Bertrand Delmas Haute-Garonne Thermidorian Renewed
AduC 277 Cambaceres (J.J.R., 1753-1824).JPG Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Hérault Thermidorian Renewed
Portrait Lazare Carnot.jpg Lazare Carnot Pas-de-Calais Thermidorian Renewed
Lemonnier - Antoine-Francois de Fourcroy.jpg Antoine François de Fourcroy Seine Thermidorian Renewed
Cochon Lapparent Charles.png Charles Cochon de Lapparent Deux-Sèvres Thermidorian Vacant
Jean-Baptiste Matthieu Oise Thermidorian Renewed
Merlin de Douai.png Philippe-Antoine Merlin Nord Thermidorian Renewed
AduC 182 Guyton de Morveau (L.B., baron, 1737-1816).JPG Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau Côte-d'Or Thermidorian Renewed
Jean Pelet Lozère Conservative Renewed
Prieur de la Marne IMG 2320.JPG Pierre Louis Prieur Marne Thermidorian Renewed
Jacques-Alexis Thuriot, dit Thuriot de la Rosiere.jpg Jacques-Alexis Thuriot Marne Crest André Dumont Somme Thermidorian

9th-10th Committees (7 January 5 March 1795)

Party breakdown
7
1
9th Committee
(January–February)
10th Committee
(February–March)
MemberDepartmentAffiliationMemberDepartmentAffiliation
Jean-Jacques BREARD.jpg Jean-Jacques Bréard Charente-Inférieure Thermidorian Renewed
André Dumont Somme Thermidorian Renewed
AduC 277 Cambaceres (J.J.R., 1753-1824).JPG Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Hérault Thermidorian Renewed
Portrait Lazare Carnot.jpg Lazare Carnot Pas-de-Calais Thermidorian Renewed
Vacant Lemonnier - Antoine-Francois de Fourcroy.jpg Antoine François de Fourcroy Seine Thermidorian
AduC 182 Guyton de Morveau (L.B., baron, 1737-1816).JPG Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau Côte-d'Or Thermidorian Jean-Baptiste Matthieu Oise Thermidorian
Jean Pelet Lozère Conservative Renewed
Prieur de la Marne IMG 2320.JPG Pierre Louis Prieur Marne Thermidorian Merlin de Douai.png Philippe-Antoine Merlin Nord Thermidorian

11th-12th Committees (5 March 5 May 1795)

Party breakdown
5
1
11th Committee
(March–April)
12th Committee
(April–May)
MemberDepartmentAffiliationMemberDepartmentAffiliation
Jean-Jacques BREARD.jpg Jean-Jacques Bréard Charente-Inférieure Thermidorian Renewed
André Dumont Somme Thermidorian Denis Toussaint Lesage Eure-et-Loir Thermidorian
AduC 277 Cambaceres (J.J.R., 1753-1824).JPG Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Hérault Thermidorian Renewed
Lemonnier - Antoine-Francois de Fourcroy.jpg Antoine François de Fourcroy Seine Thermidorian Renewed
Jean-Baptiste Matthieu Oise Thermidorian Renewed
Merlin de Douai.png Philippe-Antoine Merlin Nord Thermidorian Renewed
Vacant Jacques Antoine Creuzé-Latouche Vienne Conservative


13th Committee (3 June 27 October 1795)

Party breakdown
3
2
MemberDepartmentAffiliation
AduC 277 Cambaceres (J.J.R., 1753-1824).JPG Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Hérault Thermidorian
Pierre Henry-Larivière Calvados Conservative
AduC 204 La Reveillere-Lepaux (L.M., 1753-1824).JPG Louis-Marie de La Révellière Maine-et-Loire Conservative
Denis Toussaint Lesage Eure-et-Loir Thermidorian
Merlin de Douai.png Philippe-Antoine Merlin Nord Thermidorian

Use of the term during the Algerian War

During the May 1958 crisis in France, an army junta under General Jacques Massu seized power in Algiers on the night of 13 May 1958 and General Salan assumed leadership of a body calling itself the Committee of Public Safety.

See also

Notes

  1. "Committee of Public Safety". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  2. 1 2 Belloc (1899) , p. 210.
  3. Mantel (2009).
  4. Belloc (1899) , p. 235.
  5. Scurr (2006) , p. 284.
  6. Furet (1992) , p. 134.
  7. Furet (1992) , p. 141.
  8. "Danton Versus Robespierre: The Quest for Revolutionary Power". ucumberlands.edu. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  9. Scurr (2006) , p. 328.
  10. Scurr (2006) , p. 331.
  11. Scurr (2006) , p. 340.
  12. Madelin (1916) , p. 418.
  13. Madelin (1916) , p. 422.
  14. "Maximilien Robespierre, Master of the Terror". loyno.edu. Retrieved 20 September 2017.

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Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier was a French politician of the French Revolution.

<i>Le Vieux Cordelier</i>

Le Vieux Cordelier was a journal published in France between 5 December 1793 and 3 February 1794. Its radical criticism of ultra-revolutionary fervor and repression in France during the Reign of Terror contributed significantly to the downfall and execution of the Dantonists, among whom its author, the journalist Camille Desmoulins, numbered. It comprised seven numbers, of which six appeared; the seventh remained unpublished for some forty years.

Fall of Maximilien Robespierre

The fall of Maximilien Robespierre refers to the series of events beginning with Maximilien Robespierre's address to the National Convention on 8 Thermidor Year II, his arrest the next day, and his execution on 10 Thermidor Year II. In the speech of 8 Thermidor, Robespierre spoke of the existence of internal enemies, conspirators, and calumniators, within the Convention and the governing Committees. He refused to name them, which alarmed the deputies who feared Robespierre was preparing another purge of the Convention.

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