Communes of Luxembourg

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The 102 communes of Luxembourg as of 2018. Groothertogdom LuxemburgGemeenten2.png
The 102 communes of Luxembourg as of 2018.

Luxembourg's 102 communes (Luxembourgish : Gemengen [ɡəˈmæŋən] ; French: communes; German : Gemeinden) conform to LAU Level 2 [1] and are the country's lowest administrative divisions.

Contents

Communes rank below cantons in Luxembourg's hierarchy of administrative subdivisions. Communes are often re-arranged, being merged or divided as demanded by demographic change over time. Unlike the cantons, which have remained unchanged since their creation, the identity of the communes has not become ingrained within the geographical sensations of the average Luxembourger.[ citation needed ] The cantons are responsible for the ceremonial, administrative, and statistical aspects of government, while the communes provide local government services. [2]

The municipal system was adopted when Luxembourg was annexed into the French département of Forêts in 1795. Despite ownership passing to the Netherlands, this system was maintained until it was introduced upon independence in 1843. The province of Luxembourg, which now constitutes part of Belgium, was part of Luxembourg prior to 1839 when it possessed a low degree of sovereignty. Due to Luxembourg's incorporation into the main country by its occupying powers, the modern municipal system in Luxembourg is less than two centuries old.

Terminology

Luxembourg has three official languages: French, German, and the national language Luxembourgish. Some government websites also offer English versions [3] [4]

LanguageType name (sg./pl.)
Luxembourgish Gemeng/Gemengen [5] [6]
French commune/communes [7] [8] [9]
German Gemeinde/Gemeinden [10] [11] [12]

Authority

The communes have no legislative control over matters relating to the national interest, which reside solely with the Chamber of Deputies. Below this level, however, they have wide-ranging powers. The communes provide public education, maintain the local road network and other infrastructure, ensure basic public health, and provide most social security. [2] Communes also have discretionary powers for comprehensive health care (including maintenance of hospitals and clinics) within their borders, land-use planning, funds for cultural activities, provision of care to the elderly, and providing a sufficient supply of water, gas, and electricity. [2]

Communes and cities

The cities of Luxembourg, colored in orange. Cities of Luxembourg.PNG
The cities of Luxembourg, colored in orange.

There are currently 102 communes in the 12 cantons. The 12 communes with city status are Diekirch, Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Ettelbruck, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Remich, Rumelange, Vianden, and Wiltz. [13]

Creation of communes after independence

Former communes

Since the country's creation in 1839, eight communes have changed their name and thirty-nine communes have been merged, resulting in the 102 communes that exist today. These defunct communes are listed in the table below.

NameYear dissolvedReason
Arsdorf 1979merged to form Rambrouch
Asselborn 1978merged to form Wincrange
Bascharage 2011merged to form Käerjeng
Bastendorf 2006merged to form Tandel
Bigonville 1979merged to form Rambrouch
Boevange 1978merged to form Wincrange
Boevange-sur-Attert 2018merged to form Helperknapp
Burmerange 2011merged into Schengen
Clemency 2011merged to form Käerjeng
Consthum 2011merged to form Parc Hosingen
Eich 1920merged into Luxembourg City
Ermsdorf 2011merged to form Vallée de l'Ernz
Eschweiler 2015merged into Wiltz
Folschette 1979merged to form Rambrouch
Fouhren 2006merged to form Tandel
Hachiville 1978merged to form Wincrange
Hamm 1920merged into Luxembourg City
Harlange 1979merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre
Heiderscheid 2011merged into Esch-sur-Sûre
Heinerscheid 2011merged into Clervaux
Hobscheid 2018merged to form Habscht
Hollerich 1920merged into Luxembourg City
Hoscheid 2011merged to form Parc Hosingen
Hosingen 2011merged to form Parc Hosingen
Kautenbach 2006merged to form Kiischpelt
Mompach 2018merged to form Rosport-Mompach
Mecher 1979merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre
Medernach 2011merged to form Vallée de l'Ernz
Munshausen 2011merged into Clervaux
Neunhausen 2011merged into Esch-sur-Sûre
Oberpallen 1846merged into Beckerich
Oberwampach 1978merged to form Wincrange
Perlé 1979merged to form Rambrouch
Rodenbourg 1979merged into Junglinster
Rollingergrund 1920merged into Luxembourg City
Rosport 2018merged to form Rosport-Mompach
Septfontaines 2018merged to form Habscht
Tuntange 2018merged to form Helperknapp
Wellenstein 2011merged into Schengen
Wilwerwiltz 2006merged to form Kiischpelt [14]

Evolution of communes

This chart shows the gradual expansion and contraction among the communes over time. Number of Communes of Luxembourg.PNG
This chart shows the gradual expansion and contraction among the communes over time.

The municipal system was created during the French occupation to mirror the systems employed in the rest of the French Republic. These were overhauled in 1823, but the system itself was retained until independence, which was granted under the 1839 Treaty of London. [1] The law regulating their creation and organisation dates to 24 February 1843, [15] which was later enshrined in the Luxembourgian constitution promulgated on 17 October 1868. [2]

Upon independence, there were 120 communes. A series of mergers and partitions between 1849 and 1891 increased this number to 130. Most of these were brought about by asymmetrical population growth, as population growth in the south caused the balance of population in the country to shift. For instance, some of the communes born in that era include Rumelange, Schifflange, and Walferdange. In the pattern of Nordstad, Erpeldange and Schieren were also separated from Ettelbruck.

Since the end of the First World War, during which Luxembourg was occupied by Germany, the number of communes has dropped steadily. In 1920, Luxembourg City was expanded, annexing four surrounding communes. Another wave of mergers took place in the 1970s when sparsely-populated areas in the north and west of the country were merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Rambrouch, and Wincrange. [14] 2006 saw the creation of Kiischpelt and Tandel from four smaller communes, further reducing them to just 116. [14] 2012 saw the creation of Käerjeng, Vallée de l'Ernz and Parc Hosingen from smaller communes, and the merger of Clervaux, Esch-sur-Sûre and Schengen into adjacent ones. Eschweiler was merged into Wiltz in 2015. [14] Following the mergers of Boevange-sur-Attert and Tuntange into the new commune of Helperknapp, the merger of Septfontaines and Hobschied into the new commune of Habscht, and the merger of Rosport and Mompach into Rosport-Mompach in 2018, there are now only 102 communes. [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Diekirch District

The District of Diekirch was one of three districts of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Immediately prior to its abolition on 3 October 2015, it contained five cantons divided into 43 communes:

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Wiltz is a canton in northwestern Luxembourg. Its capital is the city of Wiltz. It covers an area of 264.55 km², and as of 2018 it has a population of 16,735.

Diekirch (canton) Canton in Nord, Luxembourg

Diekirch is a canton in the north of Luxembourg. Its capital is Diekirch. Neither the canton, town, nor commune of Diekirch should be confused with the former district of Diekirch, one of three administrative units in Luxembourg abolished in October 2015.

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Echternach (canton) Canton in Luxembourg

Echternach is a canton in the east of Luxembourg. Its capital is Echternach.

Esch-sur-Alzette (canton) Canton in Sud, Luxembourg

Esch-sur-Alzette is a canton in southwestern Luxembourg. Its capital is Esch-sur-Alzette.

Luxembourg (canton) Canton in Centre, Luxembourg

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Erpeldange Commune in Diekirch, Luxembourg

Erpeldange-sur-Sûre is a commune and small town in north-eastern Luxembourg. It lies along the river Sûre, between Ettelbruck and Diekirch. It is part of the canton of Diekirch.

Schieren Commune in Diekirch, Luxembourg

Schieren is a commune and town in central Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Diekirch.

Schifflange Commune in Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg

Schifflange is a commune and town in south-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette.

Walferdange Commune in Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Walferdange is a commune and small town in central Luxembourg.

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Nordstad

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References

  1. 1 2 Statec (2003), p. 9&10
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Devolution in Luxembourg" (PDF). Committee of the Regions. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
  3. "Luxembourg". www.luxembourg.public.lu. Archived from the original on 2014-11-03. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  4. "Statistics Portal // Luxembourg". statistiques.public.lu.
  5. "Accueil | Une commune qui change".
  6. "Gemengen". map.geoportail.lu.
  7. "Résultat(s) de votre recherche". statistiques.public.lu.
  8. "Évolution du nombre des communes 1839 - 2017". www.statistiques.public.lu. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  9. "Communes". map.geoportail.lu.
  10. "Gemeinden". www.luxembourg.public.lu. Archived from the original on 2019-09-15. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  11. "Leben - Wiltz". www.wiltz.lu.
  12. "Gemeinden". map.geoportail.lu.
  13. Carte des communes. luxembourg.public.lu
  14. 1 2 3 4 "Evolution of the number of municipalities 1839 - 2015". STATEC. Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  15. (in French and German) "Mémorial A, 1843, No. 17" (PDF). Service central de législation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-04-14. Retrieved 2006-07-21.
  16. "Statec 2018" . Retrieved 1 July 2018.