Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia

Last updated

Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia
Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy
Leader Kateřina Konečná
1st Deputy LeaderPetr Šimůnek
Deputy LeadersMarie Pěnčíková
Leo Luzar
Milan Krajča
MEP Leader Kateřina Konečná
Founded31 March 1990
Preceded by Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
HeadquartersPolitických vězňů 9, Prague
Newspaper Haló noviny
Think tank Institute of the Czech Left
Youth wing Young Communists
Membership (2021)28,715
Ideology Communism
Political position Left-wing to far-left
European affiliation PEL
International affiliation IMCWP
European Parliament group GUE/NGL
Colours  Red
Slogan"S lidmi pro lidi!"
("With the people for the people!")
Chamber of Deputies
0 / 200
0 / 81
European Parliament
1 / 21
Regional councils
13 / 675
Local councils
1,426 / 62,300
Party flag
Flag of KSCM.svg

The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (Czech : Komunistická strana Čech a Moravy, KSČM) is a communist party [1] in the Czech Republic. [2] As of 2021, KSČM has a membership of 28,715, [3] and is a member party of the The Left in the European Parliament – GUE/NGL in the European Parliament, [4] and an observer member of the European Left Party. [5] Sources variously describe the party as either left wing [6] [7] or far left [8] [9] on the political spectrum. It is one of the few former ruling parties in post-Communist Central Eastern Europe to have not dropped the Communist title from its name, although it has changed its party program to adhere to laws adopted after 1989. [10] [11]


For most of the first two decades after the Velvet Revolution, the party was politically isolated and accused of extremism, but it has moved closer to the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD). [11] After the 2012 Czech regional elections, KSČM began governing in coalition with the ČSSD in 10 regions. [12] It has never been part of a governing coalition in the executive branch but provided parliamentary support to Andrej Babiš' Second Cabinet until April 2021. The party's youth organisation was banned from 2006 to 2010, [11] [13] and there have been calls from other parties to outlaw the main party. [14] Until 2013, it was the only political party in the Czech Republic printing its own newspaper, called Haló noviny . [15] The party's two cherry logo comes from the song Le Temps des cerises , a revolutionary song associated with the Paris Commune. [16]


The party was formed in 1989 by a congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), which decided to create a party for the territories of Bohemia and Moravia (including Czech Silesia), the areas that were to become the Czech Republic. The new party's organization was significantly more democratic and decentralized than the previous party, and gave local district branches of the party significant autonomy. [17]

In 1990, KSČ was reorganized as a federation of KSČM and the Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS). Later, KSS changed its name to the Party of the Democratic Left, and the federation dissolved in 1992. During the party's first congress, held in Olomouc in October 1990, party leader Jiří Svoboda attempted to reform the party into a democratic socialist one, proposing a democratic socialist program and changing the name to the transitional Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia: Party of Democratic Socialism. [18] Svoboda had to balance the criticisms of older, conservative communists, who made up a majority of the party's members, with the demands of an increasingly large and moderate bloc of members, led primarily by a group of young KSČM parliamentarians called the Democratic Left, who demanded the immediate social democratization of the party. Delegates approved the new program but rejected the name change. [10]

During 1991 and 1992, factional tensions increased, with the party's conservative, anti-revisionist wing increasingly vocal in criticizing Svoboda. There was an increase in popularity of the anti-revisionist Marxist–Leninist clubs amongst rank-and-file party members. On the party's other wing, the Democratic Left became increasingly critical of the slow pace of the reforms and began demanding a referendum of members to change the name. In December 1991, the Democratic Left split off and formed the short-lived Party of Democratic Labour. The referendum on changing the name was held in 1992, with 75.94% voting not to change the name. [10]

The party's second congress, held in Kladno in December 1992, showed the increasing popularity of the party's anti-revisionist wing. It passed resolutions reinterpreting the 1990 program as a "starting point" for KSČM, rather than a definitive statement of a post-communist program. Svoboda, who was hospitalized due to an attack by an anti-communist, could not attend the congress but was nevertheless overwhelmingly re-elected. [10] After the party's second congress in 1992, several groups split away. A group of post-communist delegates split off and merged with the Party of Democratic Labour to form the Party of the Democratic Left (SDL). Several independent left-wing members who had participated with KSČM in the 1992 electoral pact, which was called the Left Bloc, left the party to form the Left Bloc Party. [17] Both groups eventually merged into the Party of Democratic Socialism, [19] which does some joint work, and co-operates with KSČM.[ citation needed ]

In 1993, Svoboda attempted to expel the members of the "For Socialism" platform, a group in the party that wanted a restoration of the pre-1989 Communist regime; [20] however, with only the lukewarm support of KSČM's central committee, he briefly resigned. He withdrew his resignation after the central committee agreed to move the party's next congress forward to June 1993 to resolve the issues of its name and ideology. [17] At the 1993 congress, held in Prostějov, Svoboda's proposals were overwhelmingly rejected by two-thirds majorities. Svoboda did not seek re-election as chairman, and neocommunist Miroslav Grebeníček was elected chairman. Grebeníček and his supporters were critical of what they termed the inadequacies of the pre-1989 regime but supported the retention of the party's communist character and program. The members of the "For Socialism" platform were expelled at the congress, with the existence of platforms in the party being banned altogether, on the grounds that they gave too much influence to minority groups. Svoboda left the party. [17]

The expelled members of "For Socialism" formed the Party of Czechoslovak Communists, later renamed the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, which was led by Miroslav Štěpán. [19] KSČM refuses to work with this group. The party was left on the sidelines for most of the first decade of the Czech Republic's existence. Václav Havel suspected KSČM was still an unreconstructed neo-Stalinist party and prevented it from having any influence during his presidency; however, the party provided the one-vote margin that elected Havel's successor Václav Klaus as president. [21] After a long-running battle with the Ministry of the Interior, the Communist Youth Union led by Milan Krajča, was dissolved in 2006 for allegedly endorsing in its program the replacement of private with collective ownership of the means of production. [13] The decision met with international protests. [22]

In November 2008, the Czech Senate asked the Supreme Administrative Court to dissolve KSČM because of its political program, which the Senate argued contradicted the Constitution of the Czech Republic. 30 out of the 38 senators who were present agreed to this request, and expressed the view that the party's program did not reject violence as a means of attaining power and adopted The Communist Manifesto of Karl Marx; [23] however, this was only a symbolic gesture, as according to the constitution only the cabinet may file a petition to the Supreme Administrative Court to dissolve a political party. For the first two decades after the end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia, the party was politically isolated. After the 2012 Czech regional elections, it started participating in coalitions with the Czech Social Democratic Party, forming part of the ruling coalition in 10 out of 13 regions. [12] From 2018 to 2021, KSČM provided parliamentary support to Andrej Babiš' Second Cabinet. [24] [25]

After the party's poor performance in the 2021 Czech legislative election, in which KSČM failed to reach the 5% voting threshold and was excluded from representation in parliament for the first time in its history, Filip resigned as leader of the party. [26] On 23 October 2021, Member of European Parliament Kateřina Konečná was elected as leader. [27]


As a communist party and the successor of the former ruling Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, [1] its party platform promotes anti-capitalism [28] and socialism [29] through a Marxist lens. [30] It holds Eurosceptic views in regards to the European Union. [31] [32] [33]


PortraitTerm of Office
1 Jiří Machalík
Jiri Machalik.jpg 31 March 199013 October 1990
2 Jiří Svoboda
(b. 1945)
Jiri Svoboda directing Jan Hus (34).jpg 13 October 199025 June 1993
3 Miroslav Grebeníček
(b. 1947)
Miroslav Grebenicek (Portrait).jpg 25 June 19931 October 2005
4 Vojtěch Filip
(b. 1955)
Vojtech Filip 2013 (cropped).JPG 1 October 20059 October 2021
5 Kateřina Konečná
(b. 1981)
Portret - Katerina Konecna.jpg 23 October 2021present

Electoral results

KSČM's strongest bases of support are in the regions hit by deindustrialization, particularly in the Karlovy Vary and Ústí nad Labem regions. In 2012, the party won a regional election for the first time in Ústí nad Labem. Its regional leader Oldřich Bubeníček subsequently became the first communist regional governor in the history of Czech Republic. [34] The party is stronger among older than younger voters, with the majority of its membership over 60. [35] The party is also stronger in small and medium-sized towns than in big cities, [36] with Prague consistently being the party's weakest region.[ citation needed ]


A protest against the election of Zdenek Ondracek Demonstrace proti Ondrackovi, Praha, Vaclavske namesti 01.jpg
A protest against the election of Zdeněk Ondráček
A May Day meeting in Brno organized by the party May Day Rally in Brno 01.JPG
A May Day meeting in Brno organized by the party
Former party leader Vojtech Filip Vojtech Filip.jpg
Former party leader Vojtěch Filip

Chamber of Deputies

Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic
YearLeaderNo. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
1990 Jiří Machalík 954,69013.2
33 / 200
1992 Jiří Svoboda 909,49014.0 [lower-alpha 1]
35 / 200
Increase2.svg 22ndOpposition
1996 Miroslav Grebeníček 626,13610.3
22 / 200
Decrease2.svg 133rdOpposition
1998 Miroslav Grebeníček 658,55011.0
24 / 200
Increase2.svg 23rdOpposition
2002 Miroslav Grebeníček 882,65318.5
41 / 200
Increase2.svg 173rdOpposition
2006 Vojtěch Filip 685,32812.8
26 / 200
Decrease2.svg 153rdOpposition
2010 Vojtěch Filip 589,76511.3
26 / 200
Steady2.svg 04thOpposition
2013 Vojtěch Filip 741,04414.9
33 / 200
Increase2.svg 73rdOpposition
2017 Vojtěch Filip 393,1007.8
15 / 200
Decrease2.svg 185thConfidence and supply
2021 Vojtěch Filip 193,8173.6
0 / 200
Decrease2.svg 157thNo seats
  1. In 1992, KSČM participated in the Left Bloc, an electoral alliance with smaller left-wing groups and independents. [lower-alpha 2]
  2. Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, p. 146.


Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic
YearFirst roundSecond roundNo. of seats wonNo. of
overall seats won
No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
1996 393,49414.345,3042.0
2 / 81
2 / 81
1998 159,12316.531,0975.8
2 / 27
4 / 81
Increase2.svg 2
2000 152,93417.873,37213.0
0 / 27
3 / 81
Decrease2.svg 1
2002 110,17116.557,4347.0
1 / 27
3 / 81
Steady2.svg 0
2004 125,89217.465,13613.6
1 / 27
2 / 81
Decrease2.svg 1
2006 134,86312.726,0014.5
0 / 27
2 / 81
Steady2.svg 0
2008 147,18614.1Did not make itDid not make it
1 / 27
3 / 81
Increase2.svg 1
2010 117,37410.2Did not make itDid not make it
0 / 27
2 / 81
Decrease2.svg 1
2012 153,33517.479,66315.5
1 / 27
2 / 81
Steady2.svg 0
2014 99,9739.74Did not make itDid not make it
0 / 27
1 / 81
Decrease2.svg 1
2016 83,7419.505,7371.35
0 / 27
1 / 81
Steady2.svg 0
2018 80,3717.383,5780.86
0 / 27
0 / 81
Decrease2.svg 1
2020 40,9944.11Did not make itDid not make it
0 / 27
0 / 81
Steady2.svg 0

European Parliament

European Parliament
YearNo. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
2004 472,86220.3
6 / 24
2009 334,57714.2
4 / 22
Decrease2.svg 2
2014 166,47811.0
3 / 21
Decrease2.svg 1
2019 164,6246.9
1 / 21
Decrease2.svg 2

Local councils

1994 17,413,54513.6
5,837 / 62,160
1998 10,703,97513.7
5,748 / 62,920
2002 11 696 97614.5
5,702 / 62,494
2006 11,730,24310.8
4,268 / 62,426
2010 8,628,6859.6
3,189 / 62,178
2014 7,730,5037.8
2,510 / 62,300
2018 5,416,9074.9
1,426 / 62,300

Regional councils

2000 496,68821.1
161 / 675
2004 416,807 Decrease2.svg19.7 Decrease2.svg
157 / 675
2008 438,024 Increase2.svg15.0 Decrease2.svg
114 / 675
2012 538,953 Increase2.svg20.4 Increase2.svg
182 / 675
2016 267,047 Decrease2.svg10.6 Decrease2.svg
86 / 675
2020 131,770 Decrease2.svg4.8 Decrease2.svg
13 / 675

Related Research Articles

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Political party in Czechoslovakia

The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. It was a member of the Comintern. Between 1929 and 1953, it was led by Klement Gottwald. The KSČ was the sole governing party in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic though it was a leading party alongside with the Slovak branch and four other legally permitted non-communist parties. After its election victory in 1946, it seized power in the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and established a one-party state allied with the Soviet Union. Nationalization of virtually all private enterprises followed.

Czech Social Democratic Party Centre-left Czech political party

The Czech Social Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in the Czech Republic. Sitting on the centre-left of the political spectrum and holding pro-European views, it is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International, and the Progressive Alliance. Masaryk Democratic Academy is the party-affiliated's think tank.

KDU-ČSL Czech political party

KDU-ČSL, often shortened to lidovci is a Christian-democratic political party in the Czech Republic. The party has taken part in almost every Czech government since 1990. In the June 2006 legislative election, the party won 7.2% of the vote and 13 out of 200 seats; but in the 2010 election, its vote share dropped to 4.4% and they lost all of its seats. The party regained its parliamentary standing in the 2013 legislative election, winning 14 seats in the new parliament, thereby becoming the first party ever to return to the Chamber of Deputies after previously dropping out.

2004 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic

The European Parliament election of 2004 in the Czech Republic was the election of members of the European Parliament (MEPs) representing the Czech Republic for the 2004–2009 term of the European Parliament. It was part of the wider 2004 European election.

2009 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic

The European Parliament election of 2009 in Czech Republic was the election of the delegation from Czech Republic to the European Parliament in 2009. The Civic Democratic Party has won the election with a surprisingly strong lead against the Czech Social Democratic Party. Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia came third and the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party became the last party to enter the Parliament.

Vojtěch Filip

Vojtěch Filip is a Czech politician and leader of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM).

2013 Czech legislative election

Early legislative elections were held in the Czech Republic on 25 and 26 October 2013, seven months before the constitutional expiry of the elected parliament's four-year legislative term.

2012 Czech regional elections

Elections to regional councils in the Czech Republic were held in 13 regions on 12–13 October 2012. The Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) won in nine regions, though with a considerable loss of vote share. The Communist Party won in two regions and increased its vote share, finishing second overall. The election results were widely seen as a defeat for the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), which finished third overall and won only in the Plzeň Region. The regional grouping Mayors for Liberec Region won unexpectedly in Liberec Region.

2017 Czech legislative election Election in the Czech Republic

Legislative elections were held in the Czech Republic on 20 and 21 October 2017. All 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected and Andrej Babiš of ANO 2011, also the leader of the resultant government, became the Prime Minister. The coalition government following the 2013 legislative election consisted of the two largest parties: the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) of Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka, and ANO 2011 (ANO), led by former Finance Minister and businessman Andrej Babiš, alongside the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party (KDU–ČSL). The largest opposition party was the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM), followed by centre-right parties TOP 09 and the Civic Democratic Party (ODS).

ANO 2011 Czech political party

ANO 2011, often shortened to simply ANO, is a populist political party in the Czech Republic. The party was founded by Andrej Babiš.

2016 Czech regional elections

Elections to regional councils in the Czech Republic in 13 regions were held on 7 and 8 October 2016.

2021 Czech legislative election Czech Republic election

Legislative elections were held in the Czech Republic on 8 and 9 October 2021. All 200 members of the Chamber of Deputies were elected, with the leader of the resulting government to become the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic. Following the 2017 Czech legislative election, the country has been ruled by a minority government consisting of ANO 2011 (ANO), led by prime minister Andrej Babiš, and the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD), led by interior minister Jan Hamáček, with confidence and supply support from the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) until April 2021. The largest opposition party was the Civic Democratic Party (ODS), followed by the Czech Pirate Party. Other parties in the Chamber of Deputies included SPD, TOP 09, STAN, and KDU-ČSL.

1993 Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia leadership election

The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) held a leadership election on 26 June 1993. Miroslav Grebeníček was elected new leader of the party. The incumbent leader Jiří Svoboda did not run. Grebeníček was a candidate of Conservative wing who was against reforms. His main rival was Tomáš Bleier.

This is a list of notable individuals and organizations who voiced their endorsement for the office of the Czech president, including those who subsequently retracted or withheld their endorsement, of any candidate during 2018 Czech presidential election.

2019 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic 2019 election of members of the European parliament for the Czech Republic

The 2019 European Parliament election in the Czech Republic was held on 24 and 25 May 2019, electing the 21 members of the Czech delegation to the European Parliament as part of the European elections held across the European Union.

From 21 May 2018 to 14 June 2018 the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) held a referendum to determine whether it should join the minority government of Andrej Babiš with potential confidence and supply from the Communist Party.

Andrej Babiš Second Cabinet

Andrej Babiš' second Cabinet was a centre-left to centre-right minority coalition government in the Czech Republic, consisting of ANO 2011, a centre-right populist political movement, and the centre-left Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD), with external support from the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM). The head of government was Andrej Babiš, leader of ANO.

The Czech political crisis in 2018 started, when Seznam News published an interview with the Andrej Babiš Jr., son of Czech Prime Minister Andrej Babiš. Babiš Jr. stated that his father's people kidnapped him in Crimea and kept him there.

The Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) held a leadership election on 23 October 2021. MEP Kateřina Konečná was elected the new leader.


  1. 1 2 Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, pp. 150–153.
  2. Nordsieck, Wolfram (October 2021). "Czechia". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  3. "Politické strany na vymření. Mizí jim straníci, nejvíce těm z levice". 27 July 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  4. "European United Left & Nordic Green Left European Parliamentary Group delegations". Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  5. "Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia". Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  6. Seelinger, Lani (11 July 2014). "Why the Czech Communists are here to stay". Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  7. Pink, Michal. "The Electoral Base of Left-Wing Post-Communist Political Parties in the Former Czechoslovakia". Central European Political Studies Review. Retrieved 12 August 2019..
  8. Kapsas, André (6 April 2018). "Andrej Babiš et les sociaux-démocrates tchèques négocient leur alliance". Courrier d'Europe centrale (in French). Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  9. Lopatka, Jan (30 April 2018). "New dawn or swan song? Czech communists eye slice of power after decades". Reuters. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 4 Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, p. 146.
  11. 1 2 3 "Elections: What's on the menu (in English)". Prague Daily Monitor. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  12. 1 2 "ČSSD to rule along with Communists in 10 of 13 Czech regions | Prague Monitor". Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  13. 1 2 "Communists denounce ban on far-left youth movement". Radio Praha. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  14. "Czech Activists Seek to Outlaw Communist Party". The New York Times. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  15. " - české levicové zprávy" . Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  16. "Kdo jsme". Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, p. 147.
  18. Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, pp. 145–146.
  19. 1 2 Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, p. 157.
  20. Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, pp. 146–147.
  21. Thompson, Wayne C. (2008). The World Today Series: Nordic, Central and Southeastern Europe 2008. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN   978-1-887985-95-6.
  22. "Czech Communist Youth Union outlawed". The Guardian. Communist Party of Australia. 25 October 2006. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  23., ČTK (Česká tisková kancelář). "Komunisté ve světě nás nedají, říká o hrozbě rozpuštění šéf KSČM". iDnes, the online portal of Mladá fronta DNES . Retrieved 8 November 2008.
  24. "ČSSD v referendu schválila vládu s ANO. Babiš však ještě nemá vyhráno". 15 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  25. "Babiš je podruhé premiérem. Hájil, že vláda bude opřená o komunisty". 6 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  26. "Vedení KSČM rezignovalo. Vstanou noví bojovníci, vzkázal Filip". (in Czech). 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  27. "Novou šéfkou KSČM se stala Konečná. Vyhrála s velkou převahou". (in Czech). 23 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  28. "Musíme vést třídní boj a zničit kapitalismus, řekla v Rozstřelu Konečná z KSČM". 24 April 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  29. "Kdo jsme". Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  30. "Naděje pro Českou republiku (2006)" (PDF). (in Czech). 29 March 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  31. "How Europe will break on Brexit". 22 June 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  32. "O Brexitu neboli proč by EU měla jít". 19 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  33. "Krachující Evropská unie a Česká republika". 9 September 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
  34. "Oldřich Bubeníček". Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  35. Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, p. 155.
  36. Bozóki & Ishiyama 2002, p. 156.


Further reading