|Leader|| Kim Jae-bong |
|Founded||17 April 1925|
|Dissolved||23 November 1946|
|Ideology|| Communism |
The Communist Party of Korea (Korean : 조선공산당) was a communist party in Korea. It was founded during a secret meeting in Seoul in 1925. The Governor-General of Korea had banned communist parties under the Peace Preservation Law (see History of Korea), so the party had to operate in a clandestine manner. The leaders of the party were Kim Yong-bom and Pak Hon-yong.
After several failed attempts to establish a communist party, the Communist Party of Korea was formed on 17 April 1925.It was established by members of the Tuesday Society, and it's Founding Congress was attended by 15 individuals. The congress established a Central Executive Committee with seven members and a three member Central Inspection Committee. The following day, on 18 April, it convened the first meeting of the Central Executive Committee (CEC) in Kim Chan's home. The meeting delegated work responsibilities among the CEC members; Kim Chae-bong was assigned secretarial work, organizational affairs to Cho Tong-ho, propaganda work to Kim Chan, personnel affairs to Kim Yak-su, labour and agricultural affairs to Chong Un-hae, politics and economics to Yi Chin-hi and security to Chu Chong-gon. A decision on establishing a Communist Youth League was made at the meeting, and elected Pak Hon-yong as head of secretarial work, organisational work to Kwon O-sol, propaganda to Shin Chol-su, education and training to Kim Tan-ya, security to Hong Chung.sik, and the liaison brief to Cho Pong-am. Cho Tong-ho was put in charge of making a draft constitution and bylaws for the party, and was sent to the Soviet Union in May 1925 to get official recognition from the Communist International (Comintern), which it received in May 1926.
However, several communists ended up being imprisoned at a wedding celebration in November 1925.Several communists attended the wedding, including Tokko Chon and Kim Kyong-so, and became involved in a brawl with Japanese police in which they made their political views clear. On further investigation, the Japanese police managed to find several party documents and communist materials in the suspects home. Ultimately, the Japanese police arrested an estimated 100 individuals and convicted 83 for illegally establishing a communist organisation. This effectively dissolved the Communist Party. Korea scholars Robert A. Scalapino and Chong-Sik Lee note that "The period immediately after 1925 was one of unending frustration and failure for the Korean Communists. Within three years, there no less than four attempts to establish a Korean Communist Party. Each rapidly ended in failure."
The party became the Korean section of the Communist International at the 6th congress of the international in August–September 1928. But after only a few months as the Korean Comintern section, the perpetual feuds between rival factions that had plagued the party from its foundation led the Comintern to disband the Communist Party of Korea in December of the same year. However, the party continued to exist through various party cells. Some communists, like Kim Il-sung went into exile in China, where they joined the Communist Party of China. In the early 1930s Korean and Chinese communists began guerrilla activity against the Japanese forces.
After liberation from the Japanese occupation in 1945, the situation for the Korean communists changed considerably. The country was divided into United States and Soviet occupation zones, and the working conditions for the party were very different in the two zones.
In the South, the party leader Pak Hon-yong, who had been a resistance fighter, and became active in Seoul upon his release in 1945. He reorganized a Central Committee, of which he became the Secretary. Being based in Seoul, he had limited contact with the Soviet occupation forces in the north.
The Soviet Red Army liberated northern Korea in August 1945. Most members of the Communist Party of Korea were in southern Korea and there were very few Communist cadres in the north. The Soviets began to rely largely on exiled communists who returned to Korea at the end of World War II as well as ethnic Koreans who were part of the large Korean community in the USSR and therefore Soviet citizens.
Kim Il-sung became a prominent figure of the party in the northern areas. After his years as a guerilla leader, Kim Il-sung had moved to the Soviet Union (where historians believe his son Kim Jong-il was born in 1941) and had become a Captain in the Red Army. His battalion arrived in Pyongyang just as the Soviets were looking for a suitable person who could assume a leading role in North Korea.
On October 13, 1945 the North Korea Bureau of the Communist Party of Koreawas established. Though technically under the control of the Seoul-based party leadership, the North Korean Bureau had little contact with Seoul and worked closely with the Soviet Civilian Authority. The first chairman of the Bureau was Kim Yong-bom who had been sent to Korea by the Comintern in the 1930s to conduct underground activity. Kim Il-sung was a member of the Bureau at its founding and replaced Kim Yong-bom as chairman in December 1945. Official North Korean historians later disputed this, claiming that Kim Il-sung had become its chairman from the onset of the Bureau. Moreover, official North Korean sources claim that the meeting was held on October 10. October 10 is regarded as the 'Party Foundation Day' in North Korea, on which Kim Il-sung formed the first genuine Marxist–Leninist party in the country. Official North Korean historians seek to downplay the role of early communist leaders like Pak Hon-yong. Official North Korean sources claim that the name of the Bureau was changed to 'Organizational Committee of the Communist Party of North Korea' (often simply referred to as the 'Communist Party of North Korea').
On July 22, 1946, the North Korea Bureau joined with the New People's Party of Korea, the Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party (supporters of an influential religious movement) to form the North Korean Fatherland United Democratic Front.
On July 29, 1946 the New People's Party and the North Korea Bureau held a joint plenum of the Central Committees of both parties and agreed to merge into a single entity. A founding conference of the Workers' Party of North Korea was held on August 28–30.
In September 1946 the Communist Party of Korea led a nationwide General strike. At its peak more than 250,000 workers had joined the strike, which evolved into the first of October Daegu Uprising (Autumn Uprising).
The remainder of the party, still functioning in the southern areas, worked under the name of Communist Party of South Korea. The party merged with the southern remainder of the New People's Party and a faction of the People's Party of Korea (the so-called forty-eighters), founding the Workers' Party of South Korea on November 23, 1946.
Pak Hon-yong was a Korean independence activist, politician, philosopher and communist activist and one of the main leaders of the Korean communist movement during Japan's colonial rule (1910–45). His nickname was Ijong (이정) and Ichun (이춘), his courtesy name being Togyong (덕영).
Jo Myong-rok was a North Korean military officer who held the military rank Chasu. In 1998, he was appointed First Vice-Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, Director of the Korean People's Army General Political Bureau. Previously, he was the commander of the air defence forces.
Cho Man-sik was a nationalist activist in Korea's independence movement. He became involved in the power struggle that enveloped North Korea in the months following the Japanese surrender after World War II. Originally Cho was supported by the Soviet Union for the eventual rule of North Korea. However, due to his opposition to trusteeship, Cho lost Soviet support and was forced from power by the Soviet-backed communists in the north. Placed under house arrest in January 1946, he later disappeared, and is generally believed to have been executed in the North Korean prison system soon after the start of the Korean War.
The Workers' Party of South Korea was a communist party in South Korea from 1946 to 1949. It was founded on November 23, 1946 through the merger of the South Korean Branch Bureau of the Communist Party of Korea, New People's Party of Korea and a faction of the People's Party of Korea. It was led by Ho Hon.
The Workers' Party of North Korea was a communist party in North Korea from 1946 to 1949 and was a predecessor of the current Workers' Party of Korea. It was founded at a congress on 28–30 August 1946, by the merger of the northern branch of the Communist Party of Korea and the New People's Party of Korea. Kim Tu-bong, the leader of the New People's Party, was elected Chairman of the party. Vice Chairmen of the party were Chu Yong-ha and Kim Il-sung. At the time of establishment, the party is believed to have had about 366 000 members organized in around 12,000 party cells.
The Communist movement in Korea emerged as a political movement in the early 20th century. Although the movement had a minor role in pre-war politics, the division between the communist North Korea and the anti-communist South Korea came to dominate Korean political life in the post-World War II era. North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, continues to be a Juchesocialist state under the rule of the Workers' Party of Korea. In South Korea, the National Security Law has been used to criminalize advocacy of communism and groups suspected of alignment with North Korea. Due to end of economic aid from Soviet Union after its dissolution in 1991 and impractical ideological application of Stalinist policies in North Korea over years of economic slowdown in the 1980s and receding during the 1990s, North Korea replaced Communism with the Juche ideology in its 1992 and 1998 constitutional revisions for the personality cult of Kim's family dictatorship and opening of North Korean market economy reform, though it still retains a command economy with complete state control of industry and agriculture. North Korea maintains collectivized farms and state-funded education and healthcare.
Parliamentary elections were held in North Korea on 2 November 1986. 655 Deputies were elected to the parliament.
Parliamentary elections were held for the first Supreme People's Assembly of the soon-to-be established Democratic People's Republic of Korea on 25 August 1948. Organised by the People's Committee of North Korea, the elections saw 572 deputies elected, of which 212 were from North Korea and 360 from South Korea.
Parliamentary elections were held for the second Supreme People's Assembly in North Korea on 27 August 1957. Voters were presented with a single list from the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, dominated by the Workers' Party of Korea.
Parliamentary elections were held in North Korea on 8 October 1962. Only one candidate was presented in each constituency, all of which were selected by the Workers' Party of Korea, although some ran under the banner of other parties or state organisations to give an appearance of democracy. Voter turnout was reported to be 100%, with 100% voting in favour of the candidates presented.
The Workers' Party of Korea is the founding and ruling political party of North Korea. It is the largest party represented in the Supreme People's Assembly and coexists de jure with two other legal parties making up the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland. However, these minor parties are completely subservient to the WPK, and must accept the WPK's "leading role" as a condition of their existence.
Parliamentary election in North Korea, creating the 13th Supreme People's Assembly, were held on 9 March 2014.
The 1st Central Committee of the Workers' Party of North Korea was elected by the 1st Congress on 30 August 1946 through the merger of the Communist Party of North Korea and the New People's Party of Korea, and remained in session until the election of the 2nd Central Committee on 30 March 1948. In between party congresses and specially convened conferences the Central Committee is the highest decision-making institution in the party and North Korea. The Central Committee is not a permanent institution and delegates day-to-day work to elected bodies, such as the Political Committee, the Standing Committee and the Organisation Committee in the case of the 1st Central Committee. It convenes meetings, known as "Plenary Session of the [term] Central Committee", to discuss major policies. A plenary session can be attended by non-members. These meetings are known as "Enlarged Plenary Session". The party rules approved at the 1st Congress stipulated that the Central Committee needed to convene for a plenary session every third month. In total the 1st Central Committee convened for twelve plenary sessions. Of those twelve, eighth plenary sessions were convened in 1947.
The 2nd Congress of the Workers' Party of North Korea (WPNK) was held in Pyongyang, North Korea, from 27–30 March 1948. The congress is the highest organ of the party, and is stipulated to be held every four years. 999 delegates represented the party's 750,000 members. The 2nd Central Committee, elected by the congress, reelected Kim Tu-bong as WPNK Chairman, and Kim Il-sung and Chu Yong-ha as deputy chairmen.
The 3rd Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) was held in Pyongyang, North Korea, from 23–29 April 1956. The congress is the highest organ of the party, and is stipulated to be held every four years. 916 delegates represented the party's 1,164,945 members. The 3rd Central Committee, elected by the congress, reelected Kim Il-sung as WPK Chairman, and a number of deputy chairmen.
The 5th Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea took place from 2–13 November 1970.
Pak Chong-ae, also known as Pak Den-ai, was a North Korean politician.
Choe Hyon, also known as Sai Ken, was a North Korean general and politician.
Hwang Sun-hui was a North Korean politician who served in several high-ranking positions in the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK), including in the Supreme People's Assembly and the Central Committee of the WPK. She was affiliated with the Korean Revolution Museum since 1965, and was its director since 1990.
The North Korean Branch Bureau (NKBB) of the Communist Party of Korea (CPK) was established by a CPK conference on 13 October 1945, and was through the merger with New People's Party of Korea replaced by the 1st Central Committee of the Workers' Party of North Korea on 30 August 1946. It changed its name to the Communist Party of North Korea on 10 April 1946 and became independent of the CPK.