Communist Party of Pakistan

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Communist Party of Pakistan

کمیونسٹ پارٹی آف پاکستان
ChairmanJameel Ahmad Malik
Founder Sajjad Zaheer
Founded6 March 1948(70 years ago) (1948-03-06)
Split from Communist Party of India
HeadquartersCentral Secretariat, 1426-Fateh Jang Chowk, Attock Cantt, Pakistan
Ideology Communism
Political position Left-wing
International affiliation IMCWP [1]
Election symbol

The Communist Party of Pakistan (abbreviated CPP; Urdu : کمیونسٹ پارٹی آف پاکستان) is a communist party in Pakistan.

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev.

Communism socialist political movement and ideology

In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.



The CPP was founded in Calcutta, Union of India on March 6, 1948. A decision was taken at the Second All-India Conference of the Communist Party of India, which was held in Calcutta at that time, that a separate communist party ought to be created in the new state of Pakistan. It was thought that Pakistan, being a relatively small country (in comparison to India) and suffering from instability, was ripe for revolution. The delegates from Pakistan separated themselves and held a separate session where they constituted the CPP. Sajjad Zaheer (founder of the All-India Progressive Writers Association), from West Pakistan, was elected General-Secretary. The delegates from East Pakistan elected an East Pakistan Provincial Committee. Many Muslim leaders of the CPI were sent to Pakistan to help with the formation of the party.

Communist Party of India Indian political party, established 1925

The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest communist party in India. There are different views on exactly when it was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925. The Communist Party of India (Marxist), which separated from the CPI in 1964 following an ideological rift between China and the Soviet Union, continues to claim having been founded in 1925.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Syed Sajjad Zaheer was an Urdu writer, Marxist ideologue and radical revolutionary who worked in both India and Pakistan. In the pre-independence era, he was a member of the Communist Party of India. Upon independence and partition, he moved to the newly created Pakistan and became a founding member of the Communist Party of Pakistan.


The attempt to start a revolution in Pakistan failed and the CPP leaders were jailed. In the 1951 Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case, many leading members were convicted and the party was forcibly repressed by successive governments.


Diplomatic intervention by Jawaharlal Nehru led to the most prominent CPP leaders being freed and sent back to India. At this stage the CPP was in poor shape in West Pakistan, while in East Pakistan the party had a limited foundation. However, it was difficult to have a unified underground political organization spanning such a vast geographical territory and the East Pakistan branch was able to operate with autonomy.

Jawaharlal Nehru first Prime Minister of India

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. He was also known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru.


In the provincial elections in East Pakistan in 1954, the CPP supported the United Front launched by the Awami League, Krishak Praja Party and the Nizam-e-Islam party. Four out of ten CPP candidates were elected, and 23 CPP members were elected as candidates of other parties.

The United Front was a coalition of political parties in East Bengal which contested and won Pakistan's first provincial general election to the East Bengal Legislative Assembly. The coalition consisted of the Awami Muslim League, the Krishak Praja Party, the Ganatantri Dal and Nizam-e-Islam. The coalition was led by three major Bengali populist leaders- A K Fazlul Huq, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Maulana Bhashani. The election resulted in a crushing defeat for the Muslim League. Veteran student leader of East Pakistan Khaleque Nawaz Khan defeated sitting Prime Minister of East Pakistan Mr. Nurul Amin in Nandail Constituency of Mymensingh district and created history in political arena. Nurul Amin's crushing defeat to a 27 years old young Turk of Jukto Front effectively eliminated the Muslim League from political landscape of the then East Pakistan. United Front parties securing a landslide victory and gaining 223 seats in the 309-member assembly. The Awami League emerged as the majority party, with 143 seats.

Awami League Bangladeshi political party

The Bangladesh Awami League, often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.

In 1954 the party and its front organizations such as the National Students Federation, Progressive Writers' Movement and Railway Worker’s Union were banned. As a result, the CPP launched the Azad Pakistan Party (APP) in West Pakistan with Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din as leader. In 1957, the CPP and other leftists created the National Awami Party as a legal party. The APP merged into the NAP.

A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations. Front organizations can act for the parent group without the actions being attributed to the parent group thereby allowing them to hide from public view.

The National Students Federation Pakistan (NSF) is a left-wing student federation in Pakistan. In the late 1960s, NSF adopted the political ideologies of Marxism–Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought.

The Anjuman Tarraqi Pasand Mussanafin-e-Hind or Progressive Writers' Movement of India was a progressive literary movement in pre-partition British India. Some branches of this writers' group existed around the world besides in India and Pakistan.

In East Pakistan, the CPP worked within the Awami League and then in Ganatantri Dal. In 1958 the Kull Pakistan Kissan Association (All Pakistan Peasants Association) was launched.


In the mid-1960s the US State Department estimated the party membership to be approximately 3000. [2] The CPP also began to organize themselves abroad. In Europe, the CPP branch published the Urdu magazine Baghawat, which translates as "rebellion".

In 1966 the Sino-Soviet split reached the CPP. In East Pakistan a pro-Chinese group broke away from the CPP. At the fourth party congress in Dhaka in 1968, a decision was taken that a separate communist party should be formed for East Pakistan. Thus the Communist Party of East Pakistan (CPEP) was founded. The CPEP later became the Communist Party of Bangladesh.

The CPP organized a militant and armed peasants struggle in Patfeeder, Baluchistan. The CPP resisted the autocratic regimes of the times, and built up militant trade union movements.


In December 1990 Jam Saqi became general secretary of the party. In April 1991, he resigned from the party. [3] In 1995 the CPP merged with the Major Ishaque faction of the Mazdoor Kissan Party to form the Communist Mazdoor Kissan Party (CMKP). The CPP accepted the criticism that they had been too uncritical towards the Soviet Union. However, in 1999 a group broke away from the CMKP and reconstituted the CPP. In 2002, the CPP split, leading to the existence of two separate CPPs, one led by Maula Bux Khaskheli and a splinter group led by Khadim Thaheem.


The Communist Party of Pakistan (CPP) was registered under the Article 17 of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 since decades after when the CPP was banned in July 1954 on charges of plotting to overthrow then government and crackdown against its leadership throughout the country, now once again the Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP) has registered the party, led by its Central Chairman Engineer Jameel Ahmad Malik as reported vide [4]

Participation in Electoral Process

A socialist political change by the Communist Parties in any part of world is not possible through elections. Accordingly, the Communist have their own way of coming into power under the well known principles of Marxism. In this context, the 'History of the Communist Party of Pakistan and its Future Political Strategy in Current Scenario' has outlined and mentioned in detail all the relevant facts vide <>

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  1. IMCWP. "Participants List". IMCWP. Retrieved 16 February 2019.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. Benjamin, Roger W.; Kautsky, John H. (March 1968). "Communism and Economic Development". 62 (1). American Political Science Association: 122. JSTOR   1953329.
  3. "Jam Saqi interview". Pakistan Christian Post.
  4. "ECP registers 216 political parties for upcoming polls". Pakistan Today. January 14, 2013.